Archive for March, 2013

Install Sendmail mail server on Debian GNU / Linux

Sunday, March 31st, 2013

Installing sendmail on Debian Linux is something not so common these days. As sendmail has been overshadowed by his competitors Exim and Postfix. By default Debian Linux comes with Exim (light) installed as Exim is tiny and perfectly suitable for dealing with small and mid-sized SMTP needs. The reason why sendmail has been moved out by its competitors over the last 15 years is sendmail configuration is one big hell and besides that sendmail has been well known for its many security remote exploit holes – making it a famous target for crackers. Well anyways in some cases sendmail is necessary to install especially if you have a client which wants to have it set up. In this short article I will show how very basic sendmail installation on Debian host is done.

 blackstar:~# apt-get install sendmail-bin sensible-mda

Reading package lists… Done
Building dependency tree      
Reading state information… Done

The following extra packages will be installed:
  sendmail-base sendmail-cf sensible-mda
Suggested packages:
  sendmail-doc logcheck resolvconf sasl2-bin
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  exim4 exim4-base exim4-config exim4-daemon-light sa-exim task-mail-server
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  sendmail-base sendmail-bin sendmail-cf
0 upgraded, 3 newly installed, 6 to remove and 26 not upgraded.
Need to get 1,626 kB of archives.
After this operation, 592 kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y
Get:1 http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main sendmail-base all 8.14.4-2.1 [362 kB]
Get:2 http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main sendmail-cf all 8.14.4-2.1 [300 kB]
Get:3 http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy/main sendmail-bin i386 8.14.4-2.1 [964 kB]
Fetched 1,626 kB in 0s (3,057 kB/s)  
(Reading database … 199577 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing task-mail-server …
Selecting previously unselected package sendmail-base.
(Reading database … 199577 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking sendmail-base (from …/sendmail-base_8.14.4-2.1_all.deb) …
Selecting previously unselected package sendmail-cf.
Unpacking sendmail-cf (from …/sendmail-cf_8.14.4-2.1_all.deb) …
Processing triggers for man-db …
(Reading database … 199939 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing sa-exim …
[….] Reloading exim4 configuration files:invoke-rc.d: initscript exim4, action "reload" failed.
dpkg: exim4-config: dependency problems, but removing anyway as you requested:
 exim4-base depends on exim4-config (>= 4.30) | exim4-config-2; however:
  Package exim4-config is to be removed.
  Package exim4-config-2 is not installed.
  Package exim4-config which provides exim4-config-2 is to be removed.
 exim4-base depends on exim4-config (>= 4.30) | exim4-config-2; however:
  Package exim4-config is to be removed.
  Package exim4-config-2 is not installed.
  Package exim4-config which provides exim4-config-2 is to be removed.

Removing exim4-config …
dpkg: exim4-daemon-light: dependency problems, but removing anyway as you requested:
 exim4 depends on exim4-daemon-light | exim4-daemon-heavy | exim4-daemon-custom; however:
  Package exim4-daemon-light is to be removed.
  Package exim4-daemon-heavy is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-custom is not installed.
 bsd-mailx depends on default-mta | mail-transport-agent; however:
  Package default-mta is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides default-mta is to be removed.
  Package mail-transport-agent is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides mail-transport-agent is to be removed.
 bsd-mailx depends on default-mta | mail-transport-agent; however:
  Package default-mta is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides default-mta is to be removed.
  Package mail-transport-agent is not installed.
  Package exim4-daemon-light which provides mail-transport-agent is to be removed.

Removing exim4-daemon-light …
[ ok ] Stopping MTA:.
ALERT: exim paniclog /var/log/exim4/paniclog has non-zero size, mail system possibly broken
dpkg: exim4-base: dependency problems, but removing anyway as you requested:
 exim4 depends on exim4-base (>= 4.80).

Removing exim4-base …
Processing triggers for man-db …
Selecting previously unselected package sendmail-bin.
(Reading database … 199786 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking sendmail-bin (from …/sendmail-bin_8.14.4-2.1_i386.deb) …
Processing triggers for man-db …
Setting up sendmail-base (8.14.4-2.1) …
adduser: Warning: The home directory `/var/lib/sendmail' does not belong to the user you are currently creating.
Setting up sendmail-cf (8.14.4-2.1) …
Setting up sendmail-bin (8.14.4-2.1) …
update-rc.d: warning: default stop runlevel arguments (0 1 6) do not match sendmail Default-Stop values (1)
update-alternatives: using /usr/lib/sm.bin/sendmail to provide /usr/sbin/sendmail-mta (sendmail-mta) in auto mode
update-alternatives: using /usr/lib/sm.bin/sendmail to provide /usr/sbin/sendmail-msp (sendmail-msp) in auto mode
update-alternatives: warning: not replacing /usr/share/man/man8/sendmail.8.gz with a link

You are doing a new install, or have erased /etc/mail/sendmail.mc.
If you've accidentaly erased /etc/mail/sendmail.mc, check /var/backups.

I am creating a safe, default sendmail.mc for you and you can
run sendmailconfig later if you need to change the defaults.

[ ok ] Stopping Mail Transport Agent (MTA): sendmail.
Updating sendmail environment …
Validating configuration.
Writing configuration to /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Writing /etc/cron.d/sendmail.
Could not open /etc/mail/databases(No such file or directory), creating it.
Could not open /etc/mail/sendmail.mc(No such file or directory)
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Writing configuration to /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Writing /etc/cron.d/sendmail.
Turning off Host Status collection
Could not open /etc/mail/databases(No such file or directory), creating it.
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/databases…

Checking filesystem, this may take some time – it will not hang!
  …   Done.
 
Checking for installed MDAs…
Adding link for newly extant program (mail.local)
Adding link for newly extant program (procmail)
sasl2-bin not installed, not configuring sendmail support.

To enable sendmail SASL2 support at a later date, invoke "/usr/share/sendmail/update_auth"

 
Creating/Updating SSL(for TLS) information
Creating /etc/mail/tls/starttls.m4…
Creating SSL certificates for sendmail.
Generating DSA parameters, 2048 bit long prime
This could take some time
…+………………..+.+..+..+++
..+.+………….+.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++*
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
………………..+++
…………………+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)

*** *** *** WARNING *** WARNING *** WARNING *** WARNING *** *** ***

Everything you need to support STARTTLS (encrypted mail transmission
and user authentication via certificates) is installed and configured
but is *NOT* being used.

To enable sendmail to use STARTTLS, you need to:
1) Add this line to /etc/mail/sendmail.mc and optionally
   to /etc/mail/submit.mc:
  include(`/etc/mail/tls/starttls.m4')dnl
2) Run sendmailconfig
3) Restart sendmail

 
Updating /etc/hosts.allow, adding "sendmail: all".

Please edit /etc/hosts.allow and check the rules location to
make sure your security measures have not been overridden –
it is common to move the sendmail:all line to the *end* of
the file, so your more selective rules take precedence.
Checking {sendmail,submit}.mc and related databases…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/databases…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/databases…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Creating /etc/mail/Makefile…
Reading configuration from /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Validating configuration.
Writing configuration to /etc/mail/sendmail.conf.
Writing /etc/cron.d/sendmail.
Disabling HOST statistics file(/var/lib/sendmail/host_status).
Creating /etc/mail/sendmail.cf…
*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`always_add_domain')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`allmasquerade')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
 
Creating /etc/mail/submit.cf…
Informational: confCR_FILE file empty: /etc/mail/relay-domains
Warning: confCT_FILE source file not found: /etc/mail/trusted-users
 it was created
Informational: confCT_FILE file empty: /etc/mail/trusted-users
Warning: confCW_FILE source file not found: /etc/mail/local-host-names
 it was created
Warning: access_db source file not found: /etc/mail/access
 it was created
Updating /etc/mail/access…
Linking /etc/aliases to /etc/mail/aliases
Updating /etc/mail/aliases…

WARNING: local host name (blackstar) is not qualified; see cf/README: WHO AM I?
/etc/mail/aliases: 13 aliases, longest 10 bytes, 145 bytes total
 
Warning: 3 database(s) sources
    were not found, (but were created)
    please investigate.
 
Warning: These messages were issued while creating sendmail.cf
    make sure they are benign before starting sendmail!
 
Errors in generating sendmail.cf
*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`always_add_domain')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`allmasquerade')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
 
[ ok ] Starting Mail Transport Agent (MTA): sendmail.
(Reading database … 199837 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing exim4 …
 

Right after packages gets installed it is good idea to get rid of any remains of previous exim SMTP install, run;

blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4-base
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4-config
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge exim4-daemon-light
blackstar:~# dpkg --purge sa-exim

blackstar:~# grep -i sendmail /etc/passwd
smmta:x:121:128:Mail Transfer Agent,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false
smmsp:x:124:129:Mail Submission Program,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false
blackstar:~# grep -i -E "smmta|smmsp" /etc/passwd
smmta:x:121:128:Mail Transfer Agent,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false
smmsp:x:124:129:Mail Submission Program,,,:/var/lib/sendmail:/bin/false

Sendmail install does create two new users smmta and smmsp in /etc/passwd and /etc/group

As you see from earlier apt-get output sendmail is provided on Debian via 4 packs:

root@blackstar:~# dpkg -l |grep -i sendmail
ii  libmail-sendmail-perl                0.79.16-1                          all          Send email from a perl script
ii  sendmail-base                        8.14.4-2.1                         all          powerful, efficient, and scalable Mail Transport Agent
ii  sendmail-bin                         8.14.4-2.1                         i386         powerful, efficient, and scalable Mail Transport Agent
ii  sendmail-cf                          8.14.4-2.1                         all          powerful, efficient, and scalable Mail Transport Agent

libmail-sendmail-perl installs a perl module (class)  /usr/share/perl5/Mail/Sendmail.pm.

sendmail-bin contains main sendmail components binary files, cron bindings related to sendmail, some manual pages and creates structure necessary for sendmail to process email queue. sendmail-cf provides a multitude of sendmail configurations in macroses and few documentation files on the macros configuration. All sendmail configuration macros are stored in /usr/share/sendmail/* – there are pleny of .m4 configs so for people who never installed sendmail it is really confusing.

sendmail-base package contains some bindings on how to to log rotate sendmail log files, few more sendmail binaries who deal with sendmail architecture, few files whether sendmail is run via PPP or DHCP connection, some documentation and example files. Sendmail documentation is installed in /usr/share/doc/sendmail*,  unfortunately documentation there is scarce so for extended documentation it is good to check Sendmail's Official site

To check if sendmail is running you should have it visible  in the list of running processes;

root@blackstar:~# ps xa|grep sendmail|grep -v grep
  468 ?        Ss     0:00 sendmail: MTA: accepting connections        

Further on it should be accepting connections on localhost / 25, i.e.

root@blackstar:~# telnet localhost 25
Trying ::1...
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 blackstar ESMTP Sendmail 8.14.4/8.14.4/Debian-2.1; Sat, 30 Mar 2013 19:09:47 +0200; (No UCE/UBE) logging access from: localhost(OK)-localhost [127.0.0.1] ^]
telnet> quit
 

 

Sendmail's configuration is being generated using a macro file using a macro processor via m4 command. There are few files, used as a basis for generation the final m4 most important of course is /etc/mail/sendmail.mc and sendmail.cf  –  /etc/mail/sendmail.cf, sendmail.mc after processed with the mambo-jambo with m4 generates the complex and about 15 times larger by size sendmail.cf.
All configs related to generating files instructing how sendmail will operate are stored in /etc/mail;

blackstar:~#  ls -1
access
access.db
address.resolve
aliases
aliases.db
databases
helpfile
local-host-names
m4
Makefile
peers
sasl
sendmail.cf
sendmail.cf.errors
sendmail.conf
sendmail.mc
service.switch
service.switch-nodns
smrsh
spamassassin
submit.cf
submit.mc
tls

sendmail.cf.errors
– contains errors during processing of macros config files.

 

root@blackstar:/etc/mail# cat sendmail.cf.errors
*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`always_add_domain')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()
*** MAILER(`local') must appear after FEATURE(`allmasquerade')*** ERROR: FEATURE() should be before MAILER()

This errors, are not fatal as sendmail.cf is there and sendmail is from now on ready to send mails via localhost.

To check if sendmail delivers mails onwards, use mail cmd;
 

hipo@blackstar:~$ mail -s "testing" test@pc-freak.net
this is a simple test email
Do you get it?
.
Cc:

To see all is fine with mail delivery check out /var/log/mail.log

blackstar:~# tail -f /var/log/mail/log
Mar 30 21:23:05 blackstar sm-msp-queue[1495]: unable to qualify my own domain name (blackstar) -- using short name
Mar 30 21:23:09 blackstar sm-mta[1499]: STARTTLS=client, relay=mail.pc-freak.net., version=TLSv1/SSLv3, verify=FAIL, cipher=AES256-SHA, bits=256/256
Mar 30 21:23:11 blackstar sm-mta[1524]: r2UJN8x2001524: localhost [127.0.0.1] did not issue MAIL/EXPN/VRFY/ETRN during connection to MTA-v4
Mar 30 21:23:13 blackstar sm-mta[1499]: r2UJKwqR001412: to=<hipo@pc-freak.net>, ctladdr=<root@blackstar> (0/0), delay=00:02:15, xdelay=00:00:10, mailer=esmtp, pri=210313, relay=mail.pc-freak.net. [83.228.93.76], dsn=2.0.0, stat=Sent (ok 1364671405 qp 7492)
Mar 30 21:24:28 blackstar sendmail[1532]: My unqualified host name (blackstar) unknown; sleeping for retry
Mar 30 21:27:16 blackstar sendmail[1633]: My unqualified host name (blackstar) unknown; sleeping for retry

As you see there is an error in mail.log
 

blackstar sendmail[1532]: My unqualified host name (blackstar) unknown; sleeping for retry


This is because blackstar is not assigned as a a host recognized to 127.0.0.1 in /etc/hosts. To solve it on my host I had to change /etc/hosts which looked like so:

blackstar:~# cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1    localhost
127.0.1.1    blackstar
# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters

to

blackstar:~# vim /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1    localhost localhost.localdomain blackstar
127.0.1.1    blackstar

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
 

 

Then restart sendmail to reread /etc/hosts
 

root@blackstar:/etc/mail# /etc/init.d/sendmail restart
[ ok ] Restarting Mail Transport Agent (MTA): sendmail.

 

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screen -d Fix “Must run suid root for multiuser support.” su user detach error

Thursday, March 28th, 2013

I had to run a shell script to run automatically in detached screen during Linux system boot up via /etc/rc.local. This is needed because the server uses the tiny shell script to fetch data from remote host database and fill information into local MySQL server.

My idea was to su from root to www-data (Apache) user – the script has requirements to run with Apache user, then it has to run detached using GNU screen (multi terminal emulator. The tiny one line script I imagined would do the trick is like so:

# tty=$(tty); su www-data -c 'cd /home/user/www/enetpulse; screen -d /home/user/www/enetpulse/while_true.sh'; chmod 0720 $tty

I run this as root user to test whether it will work or not before I put it in /etc/rc.local but for my surprise got an error:
 

Must run suid root for multiuser support.

After a quick investigation on what is causing it I came across the solution which is to include screen arguments (-m -S shared). The working variant that gets around the error – i.e. successfully changes user privileges to Debian Apache user (www-data) and then detach with screen is:

# tty=$(tty); chmod a+rw $tty; su www-data -c 'cd /home/user/www/enetpulse; screen -d -m -S shared /home/user/www/enetpulse/while_true.sh'; chmod 0720 $tty;

That's all now script works out as planned on next server reboot

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Add line numbering to text file with prefix text on Linux with awk

Monday, March 25th, 2013

 

Recently I blogged a tiny article on how to add line numbering to ASCII text files with nl cmd. Today I needed to do the same line numbering, except I wanted to add a prefix text "R0" to each line number to match requirements of program which will later take use of .txt database file. I looked through nl (number lines) command manual but didn't find option with which I can insert a prefix string to each numbered line. I'm not a regular expression GURU, thus I asked for some help in irc.freenode.net on how to do it. Thanks to the kind guys in #bash I got it.

Here is how to add line numbering starting from 01onwards by adding a text prefix "R0":

$ awk '{ printf "R0%02d %s\n", NR, $0 }' text_file_to_number.txt > numbered_text_file_with_prefix.txt

The file to number in my case included a huge text file containing verses from Holy Bible, here is few lines from it before and after parsing and numbering with string prefix:

 

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
                — Genesis 1:1
%
And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon
the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of
the waters.
                — Genesis 1:2
%
And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
                — Genesis 1:3
 

 

R001 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
R002            — Genesis 1:1
R003 %
R004 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon
R005 the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of
R006 the waters.
R007            — Genesis 1:2
R008 %
R009 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
R010            — Genesis 1:3

 

 

To add any other prefix except R0 for example SAMPLE_PREFIX_STRING, substitute in above awk expression R0 with whatever expression;

 

awk '{ printf "SAMPLE_PREFIX_STRING%02d %s\n", NR, $0 }' text_file_to_number.txt > numbered_text_file_with_prefix.txt

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How to Fix E: Could not perform immediate configuration on ‘exim4-daemon-light’.

Saturday, March 23rd, 2013

If you get an error like:

E: Could not perform immediate configuration on 'exim4-daemon-light'. Please see man 5 apt.conf under APT::Immediate-Configure for details. (2)

,
During installing Exim with aptitude or apt-get, i.e. # apt-get install exim4-daemon-light

or

# aptitude install exim4-daemon-light

This is due to some kind of mess with other mail server packages (sendmail or postfix) previously installed on the host and some mess with mail servers installed on system, to solve it remove all SMTP server packages sendmail / postfix / exim and then after being sure all SMTP packages are purged from system from clean install Exim light SMTP variant: # apt-get update
# apt-get -f install
# apt-get --purge remove sendmail sendmail-bin
# dpkg --force-all -r postfix
# dpkg --purge exim4-base
# dpkg --purge exim4-config
# dpkg --purge exim4-daemon-light
# apt-get update
# apt-get -f install
# apt-get install exim4-base exim4-config exim4-daemon-light

 

 

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Linux: Delete empty lines from text file with sed, awk, grep and vim

Saturday, March 23rd, 2013

As a system administrator, sometimes is necessary to do basic plain text processing for various sysadmin tasks. One very common task I do to remove empty lines in file. There are plenty of ways to do it i.e. – with grep, sed, awk, bash, perl etc.

1. Deleting empty file lines with sed

The most standard way to do it is with sed, as sed was written to do in shell quick regexp. Here is how;

sed '/^\s*$/d' file_with_empty_lines.txt > output_no_empty_lines.txt

2. Deleting empty file lines with awk

It is less of writting with awk, but I always forget the syntax and thus I like more sed, anyways here is how with awk;

cat file_with_empty_lines.txt | awk 'NF' >
output_no_empty_lines.txt

3. Deleting empty lines with grep

Grep  regular expression can be used. Here is grep cmd to cut off empty lines from file;

grep -v '^\s*$' file_with_empty_lines.txt >
output_no_empty_lines.txt

4. Delete empty files with vi / vim text editor

Open vi / vim text editor

$ vim

Press Esc+: and if empty lines doesn't have empty space characters use command

g/^$/d

Whether, empty lines contain " " – space characters (which are not visible in most text editors), use vi cmd:
g/^ $/d

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Linux bash: Add line numbering to text file with NL – number lines command

Friday, March 22nd, 2013

Lets say you have a plainjt text TXT file with sentences and you would like to put quickly line numbering in a Linux bash shell. First thing that might pop up to your mind is to use a loop cat text file and print it line by one together with output of incremental values counted from 0 to the number of lines the file contains. This would work but is useless work. As coreutils package already contains a tool called nl ( /usr/bin/nl ). Here is paste from header of nl manual page;

 

NAME
       nl – number lines of files

SYNOPSIS
       nl [OPTION]… [FILE]…
 

Thus to put line numbering to lets say this fortune's bible quotes plain text file;

$ nl bible > bible_quotes_numbered.txt

Here is a small chunk of bible_quotes_numbered.txt;

 

$ cat bible_quotes_numbered.txt

 1  In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
     2                  — Genesis 1:1
     3  %
     4  And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon
     5  the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of
     6  the waters.
     7                  — Genesis 1:2
     8  %
     9  And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
    10                  — Genesis 1:3
    11  %
    12  And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light
    13  from the darkness.
    14                  — Genesis 1:4
    15  %
    16  And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.
    17  And the evening and the morning were the first day.
    18                  — Genesis 1:5
    19  %
    20  And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters,
    21  and let it divide the waters from the waters.
    22                  — Genesis 1:6
    23  %
    24  And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under
    25  the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and
    26  it was so.
    27                  — Genesis 1:7
    28  %
    29  And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning
    30  were the second day.
    31                  — Genesis 1:8
    32  %
    33  And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together
    34  unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.
    35                  — Genesis 1:9
    36  %
    37  And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of
    38  the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
    39                  — Genesis 1:10
    40  %
    41  And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding
    42  seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed
    43  is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.
    44                  — Genesis 1:11
 

 

It is worthy mentioning the same opeartion can be achieved with good old /bin/cat with cat -n, e.g.;

$ cat -n bible >bible_quotes_numbered.txt

 

On *BSDs nl command is not available, thus cat -n is very good to know of since it works for numbering ASCII plain text files on Free/Net/OpenBSDs

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How to change hostname in Postfix SMTP on Debian Linux

Tuesday, March 19th, 2013

Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf and see for line;

myhostname =

Define;

myhostname = YOUR_SMTP_HOSTNAME.COM
 

Also make sure it YOUR_SMTP_HOSTNAME.COM is defined as first one (in case of multiple ones) to mydestination =

mydestination = YOUR_SMTP_HOSTNAME.COM server1-bla-bla.com

Finally restart Exim;

debian:~# /etc/init.d/postfix restart
Stopping Postfix Mail Transport Agent: postfix.
Starting Postfix Mail Transport Agent: postfix.
 

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How to change Exim mail server hostname on Debian Linux

Tuesday, March 19th, 2013

If you have to configure Exim mail server to act as RELAY Forwarding SMTP through another mail server and nomatter, you set up in dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config command a hostname still connecting to localhost port 25 shows a hostname identical as configured hostname for server. You will have to explicitly instruct exim to desired hostname like so:

debian:~# cp -rpf /etc/exim4/exim4.conf.template /etc/exim4/exim4.conf

Then edit /etc/exim4/exim4.conf

Add somewhere in beginning of config file

primary_hostname = DESIRED_HOSTNAME.COM

To make exim load new settings, restart SMTP:

debian:~# /etc/init.d/exim4 restart

Stopping MTA for restart: exim4_listener.
Restarting MTA: exim4.
 

debian:~# telnet localhost 25
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 DESIRED_HOSTNAME.COM ESMTP Exim 4.72 Tue, 19 Mar 2013 19:02:52 +0000
^]
telnet> quit
Connection closed.

 

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deb Linux: How to add support for Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bosnian language cyrillic localization to Xfce, GNOME, KDE Desktop

Monday, March 18th, 2013

If just installed Ubuntu or Xubuntu and choose as a default language English by mistake and you happen to live in Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus or any other cyrillic speaking / writting country and you want to make the desktop graphical environment to display menus in mother language Cyrillic. Here is how;

To add cyrillic localization, native support in GUI environment for major Dsektop Graphic Environments (XFCE, GNOME, KDE …) run in terminal:

For Bulgarian Cyrillic language Desktop support:

linux:~# apt-get install language-pack-bg

Четене на списъците с пакети… Готово
Изграждане на дървото със зависимости      
Четене на информацията за състоянието… Готово
Следните допълнителни пакети ще бъдат инсталирани:
  firefox-locale-bg language-pack-bg-base
Следните НОВИ пакети ще бъдат инсталирани:
  firefox-locale-bg language-pack-bg language-pack-bg-base
0 актуализирани, 3 нови инсталирани, 0 за премахване и 2 без промяна.
Необходимо е да се изтеглят 0 B/1048 kB архиви.
След тази операция ще бъде използвано 3533 kB допълнително дисково пространство.
Искате ли да продължите [Y/n]? Y
Selecting previously unselected package language-pack-bg-base.
(Reading database … 287291 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking language-pack-bg-base (from …/language-pack-bg-base_1%3a12.04+20130128_all.deb) …
Selecting previously unselected package language-pack-bg.
Unpacking language-pack-bg (from …/language-pack-bg_1%3a12.04+20130128_all.deb) …
Selecting previously unselected package firefox-locale-bg.
Unpacking firefox-locale-bg (from …/firefox-locale-bg_19.0.2+build1-0ubuntu0.12.04.1_i386.deb) …
Processing triggers for software-center …
Updating software catalog…this may take a moment.
INFO:softwarecenter.db.pkginfo_impl.aptcache:aptcache.open()
Software catalog update was successful.
Инсталиране на firefox-locale-bg (19.0.2+build1-0ubuntu0.12.04.1) …
Инсталиране на language-pack-bg (1:12.04+20130128) …
Инсталиране на language-pack-bg-base (1:12.04+20130128) …
Generating locales…
  bg_BG.UTF-8… up-to-date
Generation complete.
 

Two packages language-pack-bg and language-pack-bg-base packages add to system localization files which in Linux are in the format of .mo files. Here is list of 2 packs file content:

 

linux:~# dpkg -L language-pack-bg

/.
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/language-pack-bg
/usr/share/doc/language-pack-bg/copyright
/usr/share/doc/language-pack-bg/changelog.gz
/usr/share/locale-langpack
 

 

linux:~# dpkg -L language-pack-bg-base

/.
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/language-pack-bg-base
/usr/share/doc/language-pack-bg-base/copyright
/usr/share/doc/language-pack-bg-base/changelog.gz
/usr/share/locale-langpack
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/Linux-PAM.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/pidgin.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/findutils.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/mutt.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/help2man.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/pppconfig.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/jade.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/recode.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/wdiff-gnulib.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/software-properties.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/cracklib.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ggzcore.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/libapt-inst1.4.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/system-service.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gwibber-service-sohu.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/mlocate.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/lynx.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/dnsmasq.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/apparmorapplet.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gettext-tools.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/binutils.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/hello.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/quota.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ld.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/libvisual-0.4.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/friendly-recovery.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg2.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/git-gui.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/bash.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/apturl.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/sharutils.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ubuntuone-control-panel.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/pulseaudio.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/hello-debhelper.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/hunspell.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/dctrl-tools.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gwibber-service-sina.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/popt.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/powertop.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/xdiagnose.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ubuntuone-client.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gettext-runtime.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/debian-tasks.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/nano.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/lvm2.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ecryptfs-utils.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/duplicity.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ubuntu-wallpapers.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/dselect.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/debconf.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/mountall.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/JabberBot.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/net-tools.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/apport.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/libidn.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/newt.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/tar.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gnupg.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/coreutils.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/make.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/libapt-pkg4.12.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/kerneloops.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ldm.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ufw.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/pidgin-libnotify.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/pppoeconf.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/acl.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/python-apt.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gutenprint.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/MoinMoin.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/usbcreator.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/launchpad-integration.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/example-content.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/avahi.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/transmission-gtk.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/xkeyboard-config.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/dpkg-dev.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/libgpg-error.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/human-theme.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/grep.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/sane-backends.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/NetworkManager.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/libvirt.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ubuntu-sso-client.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/app-install-data.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/dpkg.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/whois.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/system-config-kickstart.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gprof.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/zeitgeist.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/shared-mime-info.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/virt-manager.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/bison-runtime.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/wget.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/quilt.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/command-not-found.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/jockey.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/attr.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ltsp-login.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/kcm_gtk.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/alsa-utils.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/aspell.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/fetchmail.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/man-db-gnulib.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/devscripts.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/xscreensaver.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/unity-2d.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/compiz.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/apt.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/gODBCConfig.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/libc.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/plasma_applet_menubarapplet.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/update-manager.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/psmisc.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/screen-resolution-extra.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/unattended-upgrades.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/adduser.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/sysstat.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/checkbox.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/apt-listchanges.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/ubuntuone-installer.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/upstart.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/upower.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/tasksel.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/byobu.mo
/usr/share/locale-langpack/bg/LC_MESSAGES/language-selector.mo
/var
/var/lib
/var/lib/locales
/var/lib/locales/supported.d
/var/lib/locales/supported.d/bg
 

 

Above .mo files are  binary files, generated from plain text .po / .pod files. In free software OS .po files are the most common language translation files, where for each different language a set of .po files exist. Translators usually translate from English to respective language using a GUI text editor called poedit. Once translation is made from those .po files .mo binaries are generated and shipped as localizations for program or group of programs. Below is edit of one of Polish translation of lang file belonging to CUPS Printing service.

poedit gnu linux xubuntu screenshot editing cups .po language plain text file

Once .po files are created, generation of .mo files can be done in various way, however usually Linux system uses msgfmt – (compile message catalog to binary format). In order to generate .mo file out of lets say cups_pl.po;

hipo@linux:~$ msgfmt cups_pl.so
hipo@linux:~$ ls -al *.mo
-rw-rw-r-- 1 hipo hipo 31988 Mar 18 12:38 messages.mo

Anyways, here is how to add Cyrillic support for rest of Major cyrillic speaking countries, issue;

For Russian Cyrillic language Linux Desktop env support;

linux:~# apt-get install --yes language-pack-ru
...

For Belarusian Cyrillic Linux Desktop;

linux:~# apt-get install --yes language-pack-be

For Linux Desktop in Ukrainian;

linux:~# apt-get install --yes language-pack-uk

For Linux Desktop in Serbian language;

linux:~# apt-get install --yes language-pack-sr
...

For Graphic Environment in Macedonian;

linux:~# apt-get install --yes llanguage-pack-mk
...

For Linux GUI in Bosnian;

linux:~# apt-get install --yes language-pack-bs
...

For Kyrgyz language Linux localization;

linux:~# apt-get install --yes language-pack-ky

Whether, you are using Linux Desktop internationalization on some other Cyrillic related language, which I'm missing here please feel free to drop me a comment how you install it? I

 

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