Use apt-get with Proxy howto – Set Proxy system-wide in Linux shell and Gnome

linux-apt-get-configure-proxy-howto-set-proxy-systemwide-in-linux

I juset setup a VMWare Virtual Machine on my HP notebook and installed Debian 7.0 stable Wheezy. Though VMWare identified my Office Internet and configured automatically NAT, I couldn't access the internet from a browser until I remembered all HP traffic is going through a default set browser proxy.
After setting a proxy to Iceweasel, Internet pages started opening normally, however as every kind of traffic was also accessible via HP's proxy, package management with apt-get (apt-get update, apt-get install etc. were failing with errors):


# apt-get update

Ign cdrom://[Debian GNU/Linux 7.2.0 _Wheezy_ – Official i386 CD Binary-1 20131012-12:56] wheezy Release.gpg
Ign cdrom://[Debian GNU/Linux 7.2.0 _Wheezy_ – Official i386 CD Binary-1 20131012-12:56] wheezy Release
Ign cdrom://[Debian GNU/Linux 7.2.0 _Wheezy_ – Official i386 CD Binary-1 20131012-12:56] wheezy/main i386 Packages/DiffIndex
Ign cdrom://[Debian GNU/Linux 7.2.0 _Wheezy_ – Official i386 CD Binary-1 20131012-12:56] wheezy/main Translation-en_US
Err http://ftp.by.debian.org wheezy Release.gpg
  Could not connect to ftp.by.debian.org:80 (86.57.151.3). – connect (111: Connection refused)
Err http://ftp.by.debian.org wheezy-updates Release.gpg
  Unable to connect to ftp.by.debian.org:http:
Err http://security.debian.org wheezy/updates Release.gpg
  Cannot initiate the connection to security.debian.org:80 (2607:ea00:101:3c0b:207:e9ff:fe00:e595). – connect (101: Network is unreachable) [IP: 2607:ea00:101:3c0b:207:e9ff:fe00:e595 80]
Reading package lists…

 

This error is caused because apt-get is trying to directly access above http URLs and because port 80 is filtered out from HP Office, it fails in order to make it working I had to configure apt-get to use Proxy host – here is how:

a) Create /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/02proxy file (if not already existing)
and place inside:
 

Acquire::http::proxy::Proxy "https://web-proxy.cce.hp.com";
Acquire::ftp::proxy::Proxy "ftp://web-proxy.cce.hp.com";


To do it from console / gnome-terminal issue:
echo ''Acquire::http::Proxy "https://web-proxy.cce.hp.com:8088";' >> /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/02proxy
echo ''Acquire::ftp::Proxy "https://web-proxy.cce.hp.com:8088";' >> /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/02proxy

That's all now apt-get will tunnel all traffic via HTTP and FTP proxy host web-proxy.cce.hp.com and apt-get works again.

Talking about Proxyfing Linux's apt-get, its possible to also set proxy shell variables, which are red and understood by many console programs like Console browsers lynx, links, elinks  as well as wget and curl commands, e.g.:

 

export http_proxy=http://192.168.1.5:5187/
export https_proxy=$http_proxy
export ftp_proxy=$http_proxy
export rsync_proxy=$http_proxy
export no_proxy="localhost,127.0.0.1,localaddress,.localdomain.com"

For proxies protected with username and password export variables should look like so: echo -n "username:"
read -e username
echo -n "password:"
read -es password
export http_proxy="http://$username:$password@proxyserver:8080/"
export https_proxy=$http_proxy
export ftp_proxy=$http_proxy
export rsync_proxy=$http_proxy
export no_proxy="localhost,127.0.0.1,localaddress,.localdomain.com"

To make this Linux proxy settings system wide on Debian / Ubuntu there is the /etc/environment file add to it:
 

http_proxy=http://proxy.server.com:8080/
https_proxy=http://proxy.server.com:8080/
ftp_proxy=http://proxy.server.com:8080/
no_proxy="localhost,127.0.0.1,localaddress,.localdomain.com"
HTTP_PROXY=http://proxy.server.com:8080/
HTTPS_PROXY=http://proxy.server.com:8080/
FTP_PROXY=http://proxy.server.com:8080/
NO_PROXY="localhost,127.0.0.1,localaddress,.localdomain.com"


To make proxy global (systemwide) for most (non-Debian specific) Linux distributions shell environments create new file /etc/profile.d/proxy.sh and place something like:

function proxy(){
echo -n "username:"
read -e username
echo -n "password:"
read -es password
export http_proxy="http://$username:$password@proxyserver:8080/"
export https_proxy=$http_proxy
export ftp_proxy=$http_proxy
export rsync_proxy=$http_proxy
export no_proxy="localhost,127.0.0.1,localaddress,.localdomain.com"
echo -e "nProxy environment variable set."
}
function proxyoff(){
unset HTTP_PROXY
unset http_proxy
unset HTTPS_PROXY
unset https_proxy
unset FTP_PROXY
unset ftp_proxy
unset RSYNC_PROXY
unset rsync_proxy
echo -e "nProxy environment variable removed."
}

To set Global Proxy (make Proxy Systemwide) for a user in GNOME Desktop environment launch gnome-control-center

And go to Network -> Network Proxy

/images/gnome-configure-systemwide-proxy-howto-picture1

/images/gnome-configure-systemwide-proxy-howto-picture2

To make proxy settings also system wide for some GUI Gnome GTK3 applications

gsettings set org.gnome.system.proxy mode 'manual'
gsettings set org.gnome.system.proxy.http host 'your-proxy.server.com'
gsettings set org.gnome.system.proxy.http port 8080

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