Archive for the ‘Everyday Life’ Category

ArchAngels day 8 of November, the day of All Angels and Archangels – Who are the ArchAngels and why we should venerate them?

Wednesday, November 8th, 2017


Today on 8th of November, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church is celebrating the day of Arch Angels (Primary Angels) who stay always near God Almigthy the Creator of this world.

Accroding to Christianity, there are seven main angels called (Arch Angels),  each of the Archangels has its own specific ission, one is a messanger of secrets that has to be revealed to man, other is a healer of infirmities.

The names of the Seven main Arch Angels in Eastern Orthodox Christian faith are:



  •     Michael in the Hebrew language means "Who is like God?" or "Who is equal to God?" Michael has been depicted from earliest Christian times as a commander, who holds in his right hand a spear with which he attacks Lucifer/Satan, and in his left hand a green palm branch. At the top of the spear there is a linen ribbon with a red cross. The Archangel Michael is especially considered to be the Guardian of the Orthodox Faith and a fighter against heresies.




  •     Gabriel means "God is my strength" or "Might of God." He is the herald of the mysteries of God, especially the Incarnation of God and all other mysteries related to it. He is depicted as follows: In his right hand, he holds a lantern with a lighted taper inside, and in his left hand, a mirror of green jasper. The mirror signifies the wisdom of God as a hidden mystery.



  •     Raphael means "It is God who heals" or "God Heals" (Tobit 3:17, 12:15). Raphael is depicted leading Tobit (who is carrying a fish caught in the Tigris) with his right hand, and holding a physician's alabaster jar in his left hand.



  •     Uriel means "God is my light," or "Light of God" (II Esdras 4:1, 5:20). He is depicted holding a sword against the Persians in his right hand, and a flame in his left.



  •     Sealtiel means "Intercessor of God." He is depicted with his face and eyes lowered, holding his hands on his bosom in prayer.

  •     Jegudiel means "Glorifier of God." He is depicted bearing a golden wreath in his right hand and a triple-thonged whip in his left hand.
  •     Barachiel means "Blessed by God." He is depicted holding a white rose in his hand against his breast.



  •     Jerahmeel means "God's exaltation." He is venerated as an inspirer and awakener of exalted thoughts that raise a person toward God (II Esdras 4:36). As an eighth, he is sometimes included as archangel.


The accent of todays feast (Synaxis of the Holy Archangel Michael and the other Budiness Powers) is Archangel Michael, so I find it worthy to say few words more about Archangel Michael.

Archangel Michael is "the keeper of the souls and a fighter against evil in the world".

That is the reason why Archangel Michael is often depicted with a firy spear at hand piercing the devil.
In the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith there is no other God servent guardian angel with so many duties.

Archangel Michael is:

1. Chiefman of the Heavenly (Bodiless) Powers

2. A fighter against the spirits of wickedness (spirits of evil)

3. A Protector of Christians from the devil

4. A Chief Leader of Christ's armies against the pagans and heresies

5. A Keeper of All Christian Souls

6. The Archangel that is present on mens deathbed and divides the soul from the body


The dividing of the soul on a men deadbed is perhaps one of the most important of Archangel Michael's missions it does stop our earthly way and collects the soul. Just before this according to our Orthodox Christian faith, each one of us Christians is given by God during Baptism with a personal guardian angel, who keeps him from perils, troubles and sorrows.


The Guardian Angel each Christian receives during baptism

But man has to be cautious, the guardian angel does cries watching at us when we live careless sinful life, he is not enforced to keep for us eternally if we wish to live a life without faith or God, then he leaves us crying for our fallen state.

The more sinful life a man leads in this life, the more clean his soul is being collected by Archangel Michael.
The food we put on table Archangels day is a feastful one, it is a tradition here in Bulgarian to eat Lamb meat the so called (Kurban) and a special breads are prepared, the so called Rangel's Bread, there are 2 types actually (Bogovica and Rangelovo bludo).
A boiled wheat is also a common meal on the table, beans and of course red wide.

The meaning of 8 of Novembers feast is to celebrate the Congregation Integrity of all Angel ranks (just like in Army we Christians believe that Angels and they all work together for the same goal the salvation of each man's soul)


Because of Archangel Michael being so famous to divide the soul from the body of the dying, perhaps it is not a coincidence why few days before 8th of November on the previous Saturday the Church calendar marks A Memorial day for all those who died (The so called Zadushnica feast), the meaning of which is that people give out food and goods for the remembrance of the souls of their departed beloveds, praying with hope for the deceased people begging God to have mercy over their souls. Because of this unwritten connection between the men deadbed and Archangel michael often in people's tradition ArchAngel Michael is seen to be an Angel of Death and historically has been highly venerated all across the Christiandome.

It used to be an old people believe that if one smiles on his death hour this means ArchAngel Michael has granted him to heaven and as a prize has given him a Golden Apple (in spiritual sense).


Let the Holy Archangels; Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel Selathiel, Jegudiel, Barachiel, Jarahmeel along with all angels and bodily powers pray for us so we find ways to become better people and clean up from our numerous sins by repentance.


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Play Colorful console Tetris for Linux Mac and BSD ( bastet )

Tuesday, November 7th, 2017


Do you remember the bsdgames package which had the good old tetris-bsd – an ASCII tetris for terminal / console along with nethack, hunt and number of other cool ascii games? If you don't you can give a try to install the package if you don't have it yet, install it on Debian Linux / Ubuntu with.

linux:~# apt-get install –yes tetris-bsd

Then launch tetris-bsd like so:

$ /usr/games/tetris-bsd


But wait there is more just recently I found out there is a modern colorful version remake of bsd-tetris called bastet

To give it a try install it with apt-get on Deb based Linuces

linux:~# apt-get install bastet
Четене на списъците с пакети… Готово
Изграждане на дървото със зависимости       
Четене на информацията за състоянието… Готово
Следните допълнителни пакети ще бъдат инсталирани:
Следните НОВИ пакети ще бъдат инсталирани:
  bastet libboost-program-options1.55.0
0 актуализирани, 2 нови инсталирани, 0 за премахване и 1 без промяна.
Необходимо е да се изтеглят 219 kB архиви.
След тази операция ще бъде използвано 858 kB допълнително дисково пространство.
Искате ли да продължите? [Y/n] Y
Изт:1 jessie/main libboost-program-options1.55.0 amd64 1.55.0+dfsg-3 [143 kB]
Изт:2 jessie/main bastet amd64 0.43-3+b1 [75,7 kB]
Изтеглени 219 kB за 0с (220 kB/сек)     
Предварително настройване на пакети …
Selecting previously unselected package libboost-program-options1.55.0:amd64.
(Reading database … 172280 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack …/libboost-program-options1.55.0_1.55.0+dfsg-3_amd64.deb …
Unpacking libboost-program-options1.55.0:amd64 (1.55.0+dfsg-3) …
Selecting previously unselected package bastet.
Preparing to unpack …/bastet_0.43-3+b1_amd64.deb …
Unpacking bastet (0.43-3+b1) …
Processing triggers for hicolor-icon-theme (0.13-1) …
Processing triggers for man-db ( …
Processing triggers for desktop-file-utils (0.22-1) …
Processing triggers for mime-support (3.58) …
Setting up libboost-program-options1.55.0:amd64 (1.55.0+dfsg-3) …
Setting up bastet (0.43-3+b1) …
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-18+deb8u10) …

linux:~$ /usr/games/bastet


FreeBSD users can also install it either via freebsd ports :

freebsd#  cd /usr/ports/games/bastet/ && make install clean

or through binary package with:

freebsd# pkg install bastet


Mac OS X users can also enjoy it but you need to install Mac OS X home brew package manager

Once having brew command install the tiny ASCII tetris game through Mac OS X terminal with:

$ brew install basket

Enjoy bastet 🙂

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How to use zip command to archive directory and files in GNU / Linux

Monday, November 6th, 2017


How to zip directory or files with ZIP command in LInux or any other Unix like OS?

Why would you want to ZIP files in Linux if you have already gzip and bzip archive algorithms? Well for historical reasons .ZIP is much supported across virtually all major operating systems like Unix, Linux, VMS, MSDOS, OS/2, Windows NT, Minix, Atari and Macintosh, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, Amiga and Acorn RISC and many other operating systems.

Assuming that zip command line tool is available across most GNU / Linux and WinZIP is available across almost all Windowses, the reason you might need to create .zip archive might be to just transfer the files from your Linux / FreeBSD desktop system or a friend with M$ Windows.

So below is how to archive recursively files inside a directory using zip command:

 $ zip -r /home/your-directory/your-files-pictures-text/


or you can write it shorter with omitting .zip as by default zip command would create .zip files


$ zip -r whatever-zip-file-name /home/your-directory/your-files-pictures-text/


The -r tells zip to recurse into directories (e.g. archive all files and directories inside your-files-pictures-text/)

If you need to archive just a files recursively with a file extension such as .txt inside current directory


$ zip -R '*.txt'

Above command would archive any .txt found inside your current directory if the zip command is for example issued from /home/hipo all found files such as /home/hipo/directory1, /home/hipo/directory2, /home/hipo/directory2/directory3/directory4 and all the contained subdirs that contain any .txt extension files will be added to the archive.

For the Linux desktop users that are lazy and want to zip files without much typing take a look at PeaZip for Linux 7Z / ZIP GUI interface tool


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FreeBSD post install configuration steps to make on fresh FreeBSD install to make ready for server and Desktop use

Saturday, October 28th, 2017


1. Update binary packages

First thing to do just like on any new operating system install is to update / patch the server

# freebsd-update fetch
# freebsd-update install


2. Update FreeBSD port packages

As a FreeBSD administrator you will need ports every now and then so make sure you have them at their latest release for your FBSD release


# pkg update
# pkg upgrade


3. Install editors and bash


# pkg install nano vim joe bash bash_completion


4. Install sudo

To be able to run commands without becoming superuser root just like on any Linux you will probably want to have sudo package installed

# pkg install sudo


Sudo config file is under /usr/local/etc/sudoers

To edit it with syntax check enabled use visudo


# visudo

# sudo pkg update


If you want a regular account to have root superuser edit / modify and do things permissions


# pw groupmod wheel -M your_user_name


Then to make the wheel permissions work add to sudoers:


%wheel    ALL=(ALL=ALL)    ALL

5. FreeBSD modify personal information for account


# chpass your_user_name

To change your account and others to use bash instead of default freebsd csh


# csh -s /bin/bash your_user_name


7. Set a Static IP address for a FreeBSD server and configure DNS

Edit /etc/rc.local to look something like so


ifconfig_em0="inet netmask"
# default gateway


/etc/rc.conf is also the file where you can easily enable / disable freebsd startup scripts

To restart network interafaces just like Debian Linux's /etc/init.d/networking restart type


# service netif restart
# service routing restart


To set Google DNS in FreeBSD just like in Linux add the IPs with nameserver prefix to /etc/resolv.conf


# echo 'nameserver' >> /etc/resolv.conf
# echo 'nameserver' >> /etc/resolv.conf
# echo 'search your-domain-name' >> /etc/resolv.conf


– If you need to change the hostname of the FreeBSD server change in /etc/rc.conf


– To add multiple IP addresses to a network interface on FBSD add line like below to /etc/rc.conf

ifconfig_em0_alias0=" netmask"
ifconfig_em0_alias1=" netmask"

To apply changes and bring up the newly set multiple IPs

# service netif restart

8. Setting up proper timezone

If for some reason the Time zone is improperly set during FreeBSD install, you can later set that with

# tzsetup

9. Set up ntp time server synchronization daemon

# vim /etc/rc.conf


First command will bring up NTP server at start up and second make it synchroniza with Internet NTP servers, to restart ntp so it set proper time

# service ntpd start

10. Add additional SWAP space to FreeBSD server after install

– First we need to create the swap file with command and then set up proper permissions for it

# truncate -S 3G /swapf
# chmod 0600 /swapf

– Then to make the swapf being used on boot we need to add it to /etc/fstab

# echo "md99 none swap sw,file=/swapf,late 0 0" >> /etc/fstab

To immediately apply the new added swap to be used by the system run:

# swapon -aqL

To check various things on how swap is configured use

# swapinfo -g

11. Configure Firewall in FreeBSD

# vim /etc/rc.conf


A very basic firewall to add to ipfw.rules file would be something like so:

    $IPF 70 allow all from any to any out keep-state
    $IPF 80 allow icmp from any to any
    # open port ftp

    $IPF 110 allow tcp from any to any 21 in
    $IPF 120 allow tcp from any to any 21 out

    # 22 for ssh
    $IPF 130 allow tcp from any to any 22 in
    $IPF 140 allow tcp from any to any 22 out

    # mail port 25

    $IPF 150 allow tcp from any to any 25 in
    $IPF 160 allow tcp from any to any 25 out

    # dns (53) udp and tcp in
    $IPF 170 allow udp from any to any 53 in
    $IPF 175 allow tcp from any to any 53 in

    # dns (53) udp and tcp out
    $IPF 180 allow udp from any to any 53 out
    $IPF 185 allow tcp from any to any 53 out

    # http (80),
    $IPF 200 allow tcp from any to any 80 in
    $IPF 210 allow tcp from any to any 80 out
    # deny and log everything
    $IPF 500 deny log all from any to any

To launch the firewall

# service ipfw start

To list current FreeBSD Firewall rules use

# ipfw list

Finally if you need to check your connections to the server just like Linux's netstat you might consider using sockstat comand

# sockstat -4 -6

– 4 -6 will list you network connections for ipv4 and ipv6 both tcp and udp

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THX 1138 a must see SCI FI-movie every Computer geek or IT professional must watch

Wednesday, October 25th, 2017






THX 1138 is an American science fiction film set in a dystopian future in which the populace is controlled through android police officers and mandatory use of drugs that suppress emotion, including outlawed sexual desire. It was directed by George Lucas in his feature film directorial debut in 1971.

Produced by Francis Ford Coppola and written by Lucas and Walter Murch, it stars Donald Pleasence and Robert Duvall.

THX 1138 was developed from Lucas's student film Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, which he made in 1967 while attending the University of Southern California's film school. The feature film was produced in a joint venture between Warner Bros. and Francis Ford Coppola's production company, American Zoetrope. A novelization by Ben Bova was published in 1971. The film received mixed reviews from critics and failed to find box office success on initial release; however, the film has subsequently received critical acclaim and gained a cult following, particularly in the aftermath of Lucas's success with Star Wars in 1977.

THX1138 Director's cut: The Future Trailer

The movie is one of the most awesome movies on SCi-Fi Topic I've ever seen much better than comercial ones such as Star Wars and perhaps one of the best if not the best movies, George Lucas has done ever.

The THX with its Android police is another inspirational one that perhaps has inspired the naming of the Android Operating System like that.

THX 1138 movie is an example of a kind of communist society in the future which perhaps the global elite has planned for humanity. The only mean of the THX 1138 is to consume and work being programmed (conditioned) by the central authorities with a full control over all aspects of the individual life, its kinda of pretty much what is today western world has been turning into.

I believe we're currently in a transitional stage to this futuristic society in which, the life costs zero.

Well, after all the global programmers of society in our age has a sense of humour to finance a movie like that 🙂

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How to turn keyboard backlight on GNU / Linux, keyboard no backlight solution

Friday, October 20th, 2017


If you're a GNU / Linux user and you happen to buy a backlighted keyboard, some nice new laptop whose keyboard supports the more and more modern keyboard growing or if you happen to install a GNU / Linux for a Gamer friend no matter the Linux distribution, you might encounter sometimes  problem even in major Linux distributions Debian / Ubuntu / Mint / Fedora with keyboard backlight not working.

Lets say you buy a Devastator II backlighted keyboard or any other modern keyboard you plug it into the Linux machine and there is no nice blinking light coming out of the keyboard, all the joy is gone yes I know. The free software coolness would have been even more grandiose if your keyboard was shiny and glowing in color / colors 🙂

But wait, there is hope for your joy to be made complete.

To make the keyboard backlight switch on Just issue commands:


xmodmap -e 'add mod3 = Screen_Lock'


# Turn on the keyboard bright lamps
xset led on

# Turns off the keyboard bright lamps
xset led off

If you want to make the keyboard backlight be enabled permanent the easiest solution is to

– add the 3 command lines to /etc/rc.local

E.g. to do so open /etc/rc.local and before exit 0 command just add the lines:


vim /etc/rc.local


xmodmap -e 'add mod3 = Screen_Lock'

# Turn on the keyboard bright lamps
xset led on

# Turns off the keyboard bright lamps
xset led off

If you prefer to have the keyboard colorful backlight enable and disabled from X environment on lets say GNOME , here is how to make yourself an icon that enabled and disables the colors.

That's handy because at day time it is a kind of meaningless for the keyboard to glow.

Here is the shell script:

sleep 1
xset led 3
xmodmap -e 'add mod3 = Scroll_Lock'

I saved it as /home/hipo/scripts/

(don't forget to make it executable!, to do so run):


chmod +x /home/hipo/scripts/

Then create  the .desktop file at /etc/xdg/autostart/backlight.desktop so that it runs the new shell script, like so:

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Devastator Backlight

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How to Increase virtualbox Linux install machine VM .VDI hard disk size to free space on root partition – Move /usr to a new partition

Tuesday, October 10th, 2017


How to Increse Hard Disk size of VirtualBox Virtual Machine .VDI file to Free Space on root Partition or Howto move /usr large partition to separate new partition?

I just wondered how to increase hard disk size of Virtualbox Virtual Machine image .VDI, because for some stupid reason I've created my initial hard disk size for Linux partition to be the default 10 Gigabytes.

The problem is the packages I need to have installed on the Virtual Machine which will be a testbed for future tests of a production website applications are taking up too much space, once installed so I'm left with no space
in /var/lib/mysql for the database import. So what can I do in that case is to simply free up disk space or Merge ROOT partition with another partition.

Since merging the partition is not a trivial job and would require me to have installable CD with the Linux distro (in my case that's Debian Linux) or have a bootable USB flash drive, I preferred second approach to problem e.g. to free up disk space on ROOT partition by creating a second partition and move the /usr folder to reside there.

Before that it is of course necessery to  have extended the .VDI file using VirtualBox, so more space than the default 10GB preconfigured are available, this is easily done on Windows OS as, VBox is provided with GUI clickable option to do it, but for who knows what reason that is not the case with Linux, so Linux users only option to increase VDI file is to manually run command part of the virtualbox package, that is not a hard task really but it requires some typing and basic knowledge on how to run commands in terminal.

To .VDI resize (extend), we first go to default location where VirtualBox stores its image .VDI files (by default as of moment of writting this article – this is ~/"VrtualBox VMs"  (or home directory of logged in user dir VirtualBox VMs), the command to use is VBoxManage


root@jericho:/home/hipo# cd VirtualBox VMs/
root@jericho:/home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs# ls
Debian 6  Debian 9  Windows 10
root@jericho:/home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs# cd Debian 6/
oot@jericho:/home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs/Debian 6# ls
Debian 6.vbox  Debian 6.vbox-prev  Debian 6.vdi  Logs  NewVirtualDisk1.vdi  Snapshots

root@jericho:/home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs/Debian 6# VBoxManage modifyhd Debian 6.vdi –resize 20000
root@jericho:/home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs/Debian 6#


Above command does resize the 10GB default created partition for Linux, where I have installed Linux which was 99% full of data, because of the many packages I installed to 20GB size, to make it bigger just use the respective size, be it 30000 (for 30GB) or 100000 (for 100GB) etc.

Even though in this example VBoxManage virtual partition resize command was done for GNU / Linux Operating System, it can be done for any other Operating as well to resize the size of the Virtual .VDI file (Virtual Machine) partition, be it Windows 7 / 8 / 10 or the rest of Free Operating systems FreeBSD / OpenBSD / BSD that are installed in a VM etc.

Next Launch the Virtual Machine with VBox Server client Program and install there Gparted (GNU Parted), as we'll need it to create a new Hard Disk Partition:


$ VirtualBox


Inside virtualmachine's in gnome-terminal / xterm etc. depending on the graphical environment used do install with apt-get:


debian:# apt-get install –yes gparted


debian~:# gparted

Notice that gparted has to be ran as a root superuser.


Run GParted and create new EXT3 filesystem that is 10GB (the size of the new created partition).

If you have installed Debian to place all partitions under / (root directory /dev/sda1) then the fresh new partition to create should be
/dev/sda3, anyways just look closely in EXT3 and in your case if the partiition is named differently create according to proper partition /dev/ naming.

I'll not run into details on how to create the partition with GParted as the program interface is very self-explanatory, the only thing is to apply the update to create partition and the ext3 filesystem, that's being done
with a green tick:


Next step is to check with fdisk whether, we have ext3 properly created  filesystem as we've done already with GPARTED:

Once we have the partition created with EXT3 filesystem, we're ready to move /usr temporary to other folder, I use usually /root for the move but you can create anywhere a new folder for that and move to there.

To move to /root directory run again in terminal:


debian:~# mv /usr /root
debian:~# mkdir /usr




Note that during the move operations, your Desktop icons will become without (with broken) pictures and the default Debian background picture is to disappear, that's because the GUI environment will soon realize /usr/ libraries that're periodically reloaded in memory are missing and will be unable to reload them as it does in a cycle.

That should take a few minutes, so grab a coffee or if you're a smoker (hope not as smoking kills 🙂 ), in 5 / 10 minutes time depending on your computer / server configuration, it will be over, so we're ready to create new /usr dir and mount the  new partition:


debian:~# mount /dev/sda3 /usr




Now we check with mount command whether mount is fine:



Now  /dev/sda3 is mounted under /usr  and we have to move back /root/usr directory content back to the newly mounted /usr so we run command:

debian:~#  mv /root/usr/* /usr/*

Finally we need to create proper records for the new partition inside /etc/fstab (fstab –FileSystem Tab file – the file which describes instructs the Linux OS what partition to boot where, what)


Before adding anything to /etc/fstab you need to check the UUID of /dev/sda3 (or whatever the partition is called), without proper UUID, the system might fail to boot.
So here is how to check the UUID we'll need for config:


hipo@debian:~$ /sbin/blkid /dev/sda3
/dev/sda3: UUID="2273db4b-3069-4f78-90fc-e7483c0305bd" SEC_TYPE="ext2" TYPE="ext3"

hipo@debian:~$ ls -al /dev/disk/by-uuid/
total 0
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 100 Oct  6 05:16 .
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 120 Oct  6 05:16 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  10 Oct  6 05:16 2273db4b-3069-4f78-90fc-e7483c0305bd -> ../../sda3
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  10 Oct  6 05:16 b98d92cd-41aa-4e18-a474-9b8df445dbe5 -> ../../sda1
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  10 Oct  6 05:16 f27f7448-f200-4983-b54f-b9e5206f77ac -> ../../sda5

As you can see our /dev/sda3 UUID is 2273db4b-3069-4f78-90fc-e7483c0305bd

Further on lets view and edit /etc/fstab you can also download a copy of my Virtual Machine fstab here


debian:~# cat /etc/fstab

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=b98d92cd-41aa-4e18-a474-9b8df445dbe5 /               ext3    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=f27f7448-f200-4983-b54f-b9e5206f77ac none            swap    sw              0       0
/dev/scd0       /media/cdrom0   udf,iso9660 user,noauto     0       0
/dev/scd1       /media/cdrom1   udf,iso9660 user,noauto     0       0

We need to add following line to  /etc/fstab:

UUID=2273db4b-3069-4f78-90fc-e7483c0305bd    /usr        ext3 error=remount-ro    0    1


Open the file with your favourite text editor (gedit / nano / pico / vim / joe) etc.

debian:~# vim /etc/fstab


# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=b98d92cd-41aa-4e18-a474-9b8df445dbe5 /               ext3    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=f27f7448-f200-4983-b54f-b9e5206f77ac none            swap    sw              0       0
/dev/scd0       /media/cdrom0   udf,iso9660 user,noauto     0       0
/dev/scd1       /media/cdrom1   udf,iso9660 user,noauto     0       0

UUID=2273db4b-3069-4f78-90fc-e7483c0305bd     /usr        ext3 error=remount-ro    0    1    

Basicly it should be possible to add (for historic reasons) also instead of UUID=2273db4b-3069-4f78-90fc-e7483c0305bd  /dev/sda3
So it looks like so but, the better practice is to use UUID line given.

Well that's all folks now /usr directory will contain all your heavy root partition (disk filling) libraries and files, so you can happily use /var/lib/mysql or /var/lib/postgresql /var/www to store your web application files and import your databases.

Big thanks to Ubuntu Forums article – How do I increase the hard disk size of the Virtual Machine article for inspiring this post.

Hope that helps anyone and thanks and other comments are always welcome ! 🙂

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Play Midis on Linux / Make Linux MIDI Ready for the Future – Enable embedded MIDI music to play in a Browser, Play MIDIs with VLC and howto enjoy Midis in Text Console

Wednesday, October 4th, 2017



Play Midis on Linux or Make Linux MIDI Ready for the Future – Enable embedded MIDI music to play in a Browser, Play MIDIs with VLC and howto enjoy Midis in Text Console HOWTO


Playing MIDI has been quite a lot of fun historically,

if you grow up in the days when personal computers were still young and the Sound Blaster was a luxury, before the raise of Mp3 music format, you have certainly enjoyed the beeping of PC Speaker and later on during 386 and 486 / 586 computers the enjoyment of playing tracked music such as S3M and MOD,

in that good days playing MIDI music was the only alternative for PC maniacs who doesn't own a CD Drive (which itself) was another luxury and even thouse who had a CD ROM device, were mainly playing music in CD audio format (.CDA).
Anyhow MIDI was a cheap and a CPU unintensive way to listen to equivalent of favourite popular Audio Songs and for those who still remember many of the songs were recreated in MIDI format, just with a number of synthesized instruments without any voice (as MIDI is usually).

The same was true also for the good old days of raise of Mobile Phones, when polyphonic was a standard as CPU power was low MIDI was a perfect substitute for the CPU heavy Encoded MP3s / OGG and other formats that required a modern for that time Intel CPU running in 50+ Mhz usually 100 / 166Mhz was perfect for the days to play Mp3 but still even on that PCs we listened to Midi songs.

Therefore if you're one of those people like me who still enjoy to play some Midi Music in the year 2017 and feel a bit like Back into the Future movie and a Free Software fan and user, especially if you're a novice GNU  / Linux Free Software user, you will be unpleasently surprised that most today's default Linux distributions doesn't have an easy way to play Midi music format out of the box right after install.

Hence below article aims to give you an understanding on

How you can play Midi Music on GNU / Linux Operating System

First, lets Prepare to load necessery Linux kernel modules to make sure MIDI can be played by soundcard:

In /etc/modules make sure you have the following list of modules loaded:

linux-desktop:~# cat /etc/modules

!Note the modules are working as of time of writting and in time can change to some other modules, depending on how the development of ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) goes, and if the developers decide to rename the upmentioned modules

If you just have added the modules to /etc/modules with vim / nano to reload modules into the Linux kernel run:


linux-desktop:~# modprobe -a

Secondly, Installing a whole bunch of MIDI music related program tools can be achieved in Debian by installing the multimedia-midi package, e.g.:


linux-desktop:~# apt-get install –yes multimedia-midi


1. Playing Midi in Graphical environment with a double click using VLC

How to make MIDI easy listanable in Linux graphical environment like GNOME / KDE / XFCE desktop ?


If you want to make Midi music execution sa easy as  just clicking on the .MIDI file format on Linux you can do that with a midi extension available for VLC (Video Lan Client) Universal Multi Platform Media Player player

To install it on Debian Ubuntu GNU / Linux

# apt-get install –yes vlc-plugin-fluidsynth


Необходимо е да се изтеглят 6754 B архиви.
След тази операция ще бъде използвано 35,8 kB допълнително дисково пространство.
Изт:1 stretch/main amd64 vlc-plugin-fluidsynth amd64 2.2.6-1~deb9u1 [6754 B]
Изтеглени 6754 B за 0с (33,6 kB/сек)           
Selecting previously unselected package vlc-plugin-fluidsynth:amd64.
(Reading database … 382976 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack …/vlc-plugin-fluidsynth_2.2.6-1~deb9u1_amd64.deb …
Unpacking vlc-plugin-fluidsynth:amd64 (2.2.6-1~deb9u1) …
Setting up vlc-plugin-fluidsynth:amd64 (2.2.6-1~deb9u1) …
Processing triggers for libvlc-bin:amd64 (2.2.6-1~deb9u1) …

Besides making your MIDI play on the GUI environment easy as a a point and click VLC will also be able to play MIDIs on GNU / Linux from your favourite browser (nomatter Firefox / Chrome or Opera), even though the player would play in a new PopUP Window it is easy to select once MIDI file from a random website for example – here is a directory listing of Webserver with Doom II Soundtrack in MIDI format , click over any file from list and Choose option for VLC to always remember that MIDI files has to be opened with VLC player.

2. Enable Firefox / IceWeasel browser to Support Website embedded MIDI files



So VLC could make you listen the downloadable MIDIs from Web pages but,

What if you have stumbled on an old website which was configured with very OLD HTML Code to play some nice music (or even different MIDI songs) for each part of the website (for each webpage) and you want to have the Websites created with embedded MIDIs to automatically play on Linux oncce you visit the site?

Sadly default support in Browser for MIDI across all GNU / Linux, I've used so far never worked out of the box, not that still anyone is developing modern websites with MIDIs, but still for the sake of backward compitability and for sake of interactivity it is worthy to enable embedded MIDI support in Linux

But with a couple of tunings as usual GNU / Linux can do almost everything, so here is how to enable embedded browser support for Midi on Linux (That should work with minor modifications not only on Debian / Ubuntu / ArchLinux but also on Fedoras, CentOS etc.
If you try it on any of this distributions, please drop a short comment and tell me in few lines how you made embedded midi worked on that distros.


apt-get install –yes timidity mozplugger

Next do restart firefox

Sometimes in order to work you might need to delete /home/[YOUR_USERNAME]/.mozilla/pluginreg.dat and restart firefox again, e.g. make a backup and give it a try:


cp -rpf /home/hipo/.mozilla/pluginreg.dat /home/hipo/.mozilla/pluginreg.dat.bak
rm -f /home/hipo/.mozilla/pluginreg.dat


Another good tip as talking for embedding MIDI support is to embed XPDF to render PDF pages inside the Browser, by default this is done by GNOME's Evince PDF reader but as it is sometimes buggy and might crash it is generally a good idea to switch to xpdf instead, if for some reason PDF is not directly displaying in browser or suddenly stopped working after some distro uipgrade, you might want to do below as well:

apt-get install xpdf

vim /etc/mozpluggerrc

Fin d and Comment out the line starting with:

It should look like this afterwards:

 Repeat Swallow ….

text/x-pdf: pdf: PDF file
#      repeat swallow(documentShell) fill: acroread -geometry +9000+9000 +useFrontEndProgram "$file"
        repeat noisy swallow(Xpdf) fill: xpdf -g +9000+9000 "$file"
        repeat noisy swallow(gv) fill: gv –safer –quiet –antialias -geometry +9000+9000 "$file"


3. Play Midi music in Linux text console / terminal

There is a console tool that historically has been like the Linux standard for playing midis over the years as I remember, its called timidity


To install timidity on .Deb based Linux:

linux-desktop:~$ su root
linux-desktop:~# apt-get install –yes timidity

Необходимо е да се изтеглят 0 B/580 kB архиви.
След тази операция ще бъде използвано 0 B допълнително дисково пространство.
(Reading database … 382981 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack …/timidity_2.13.2-40.5_amd64.deb …
Unpacking timidity (2.13.2-40.5) over (2.13.2-40.5) …
Processing triggers for menu (2.1.47+b1) …
Processing triggers for man-db ( …
Setting up timidity (2.13.2-40.5) …
Processing triggers for menu (2.1.47+b1) …


To test your new MIDI Synthesizer tool and make the enjoyment full you can download Doom 2 extracted MIDI Soundtrack from here

Once you have downloaded above Metal MIDI DOOM old school arcade soundtrack and untarred it into your home directory be it ~/doom-midis

A remark to make here is timidity is quite CPU intensive, but on modern Dual and Quad-Core PC Notebooks, the CPU load is not of a big concern.

To test and play with timidity:

linux-desktop~$ timidity ~/mp3/midis/*


hipo@jericho:~/mp3/midis$ aplaymidi -l
 Port    Client name                      Port name
 14:0    Midi Through                     Midi Through Port-0
128:0    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 0
128:1    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 1
128:2    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 2
128:3    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 3


We have also the playmidi  (simple midi text console terminal player), which historically was working quite decent and I use it to in the past on my RedHat 6.0 and RedHat 7.0 to listen to my .MID format files but unfortunately as of time of writting something is wrong with it, so when I try to play MIDIs with it instead of timidity I get this erro:


$ playmidi *.mid
Playmidi 2.4 Copyright (C) 1994-1997 Nathan I. Laredo, AWE32 by Takashi Iwai
This is free software with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.
For details please see the file COPYING.
open /dev/sequencer: No such file or directory

Even though I tried hard to resolve that error by loading various midi related MIDI modules and following a lot of the suggestions online on how to  make /dev/sequencer work again it was all no luck.

Some people back in the distant year 2005, reported the problem was solved by simply loading snd-seq

But as of time of writting:


# modprobe snd-seq


Some people said in archlinux's Forum

/dev/sequencer sequencer: No such file or directory


is solved by loading snd-seq-oss kernel module, but on my Debian Linux 9.1 Stretch, this ain't work as well :


root@jericho:/home/hipo/mp3/midis# modprobe snd-seq-oss
modprobe: FATAL: Module snd-seq-oss not found in directory /lib/modules/4.9.0-3-amd64
root@jericho:/home/hipo/mp3/midis# uname -a;
Linux jericho 4.9.0-3-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.9.30-2+deb9u5 (2017-09-19) x86_64 GNU/Linux

Another invention of mine was to try to also link /dev/snd/seq to /dev/sequencer but this produced no positive result either:


# ln -sf /dev/snd/seq /dev/sequencer
# ls -al /dev/sequencer
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 окт  4 16:48 /dev/sequencer -> /dev/snd/seq

Note that after lining in that way I got following error with my attempt to play MIDIs with playmidi

# playmidi *.mid
Playmidi 2.4 Copyright (C) 1994-1997 Nathan I. Laredo, AWE32 by Takashi Iwai
This is free software with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.
For details please see the file COPYING.
there is no soundcard

Anyhow on some other Linux distributions (especially with Older Kernel versions), some of the above 3 suggested Fix might work perfectly fine so if you have some time give it a try please and drop me  a comment on how it went, you will help the GNU / Linux community out there that way.

Well never mind the bollocks, so

Now back to where I started timidity even though it will play fine it will not give any indication on the lenght of the midi song (precious information such as how much time is left until the end is over).

Hence if you prefer a player that gives you an indicator on how much is left towards the end length of each of the played MIDI file you can give a try to wildmidi:


linux-desktop:~$ apt-cache show wildmidi|grep -i description -A 2

Description-en: software MIDI player
 Minimal MIDI player implementation based on the wildmidi library that
 can either dump to WAV or playback over ALSA. It is intended to

Description-md5: b4b34070ae88e73e3289b751230cfc89
Tag: implemented-in::c, role::program, sound::midi, sound::player,

Description: software MIDI player
Description-md5: 4673a7051f104675c73eb344bb045607

If yet not installed install it after becoming admin user:


linux-desktop:~$ su root

linux-desktop:~# apt-get install –yes wildmidi

wildmidi is much less CPU intensive (it uses gstreamer to play (Gstreamer – open source multimedia framework)

And next give it a try by running:


linux-desktop:~$ wildmidi ~/mp3/midis/*





4. Editting MIDI files with Free Software and Proprietary MIDI Editor Programs


If you want a professional software that can play Midi in a fuzzy interactive GUI way and have some extra possibilities to edit MIDIs and other format give a try to Muse Sequencer:


linux-desktop:~$ sudo apt-get install –yes muse

The following NEW packages will be installed:
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 38 not upgraded.
Need to get 5814 kB of archives.
After this operation, 21.0 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 stretch/main amd64 muse amd64 2.1.2-3+b1 [5814 kB]
Fetched 5814 kB in 2s (2205 kB/s)                             
    are supported and installed on your system.
Preconfiguring packages …
Selecting previously unselected package muse.
(Reading database … 382981 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack …/muse_2.1.2-3+b1_amd64.deb …
Unpacking muse (2.1.2-3+b1) …
Processing triggers for mime-support (3.60) …
Processing triggers for desktop-file-utils (0.23-1) …
Processing triggers for doc-base (0.10.7) …
Processing 1 added doc-base file…
Registering documents with scrollkeeper…
Processing triggers for man-db ( …
Processing triggers for shared-mime-info (1.8-1) …
Unknown media type in type 'all/all'
Unknown media type in type 'all/allfiles'
Processing triggers for gnome-menus (3.13.3-9) …
Setting up muse (2.1.2-3+b1) …
Processing triggers for hicolor-icon-theme (0.15-1) …


Below is short description what Muse can do for you:


MusE is a MIDI/audio sequencer with recording and editing capabilities.
 Some Highlights:

  * Standard midifile (smf) import-/export.
  * Organizes songs in tracks and parts which you can arrange with
    the part editor.
  * MIDI editors: pianoroll, drum, list, controller.
  * Score editor with high quality postscript printer output.
  * Realtime: editing while playing.
  * Unlimited number of open editors.
  * Unlimited undo/redo.
  * Realtime and step-recording.
  * Multiple MIDI devices.
  * Unlimited number of tracks.
  * Sync to external devices: MTC/MMC, Midi Clock, Master/Slave.
  * Audio tracks, LADSPA host for master effects.
  * Multithreaded.
  * Uses raw MIDI devices.
  * XML project file.
  * Project file contains complete app state (session data).
  * Application spanning Cut/Paste Drag/Drop.


linux-desktop~:$ muse



Below is another non-free program that you might, try if MusE doesn't fit your needs (is not rich enough for editting capabilities is bitwig (though I don't recommend since it is not free software)

bitwig – Bitwig Studio is a multi-platform music-creation system for production, performance and DJing, with a focus on flexible editing tools and a super-fast workflow.



5. Some examples for Text editing and MIDI Conversion to CSV and ABC file formats There is pretty much more

For the MIDI Extremists who or people that create MIDIs and want to learn how a MIDI is made (the content of it etc.), I suggest you take a look at these 3 command line MIDI editing / conversion tools

  • midi2abc – A little tool to create MIDI formats to ABC format
  • midi2csv – Conver tour Favourite MIDI files to CSV for educational purposes so see what Channels, Tracks and Time Intervals is a MIDI song mad
  • midicopy – Copy selected, track, channel, time interval of MIDI file to another MIDI file3


Well, that's all folks now enjoy your MIDIs and don't forget to donate, as I'm jobless at the moment and the only profit I make is just a few bucks out of advertisement on this blog.

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How to fix unfixable broken package dependencies on Debian GNU / Linux – Fix package mismatch

Wednesday, September 27th, 2017


I just tried to upgrade my Debian Wheezy 7 to the latest stable Debian Stretch 9 by not thinking too much and just changing the word wheezy with stretch in /etc/apt/sources.list so onwards on it looked like so:

cat /etc/apt/sources.list


deb stretch main contrib non-free
deb-src stretch main

deb stretch/updates main
deb-src stretch/updates main 

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
##deb stretch-updates main
deb-src stretch-updates main


I also make sure all the defined Google Chrome / Opera / Skype and Squeeze Backports repositories existent in /etc/apt/sources.list.d directory files which in my case were like so;


root@noah:/etc/apt/sources.list.d# ls
google-chrome.list  opera-stable.list  squeeze-backports.list
opera.list          skype-stable.list

 were commented out because they were producing extra apt update errors …

And afterwards ran as usual:


apt-get update
apt-get –yes upgrade

The upgrade command executed fine and a lot of packages got downloaded and reinstalled without much issue, so I thought everything would be fine and just proceeded with the attempt to finalize the distribution major release 7 to major release 9 by running:


apt-get –yes dist-upgrade

But guess what now I got some dependency errors with cron and other installed packages that depend on package versions that are not going to be installed as the apt-get tool informed me.

I tried to out-smart the dpkg dependency system and removed all the packages reporting to have a missing dependencies with a short for bash loop after duming all the problematic packages showing dependency issues with commands such as:

apt-get -f dist-upgrade >> out.txt
for i in $(cat out.txt); awk '{ print $1 }' >> to_delete.txt; done

Before proceeding further I had to manually edit few lines in a text editor to remove some of the junk left from apt-get too.

So i was brave and just removed the dependency missing packages with following other for loop:


for i in $(cat to_delete.txt); do dpkg -r –force-all $i; done

Now I was hoping that rerunning:


apt-get autoremove

dpkg --configure -a

apt-get update -f
apt-get dist-upgrade -f

would no longer complain and I would just install the removed packages in another for shell loop once every other packages gets installed.

But guess what I was wrong … the system entered into another bunch of depedency terribly issues and messed up so badly that there were at least 50 packages reporting to have a missing / broken or uninstallable deb version depedency …

I got totally Angry, I knew already from experience that just trying to jump over while skipping a major release e.g. upgrade Debian 7 to Debian 9, instead of first upgrading to Debian 8 Linux and then upgrading Debian 8 to Debian 9 have always produced the same mess but I was lame and stupid again to f**k it up and I was out of mind swearing (a truly bad habid I'm not proud of) …

So as the notebook with Linux so far was perfectly working with Debian 7 and had a tons of old installed software and I was in a state where if I restart the system it was very likely my Thinkpad r61 laptop won't boot at all, I googled around to find a solution unfortunately without any luck, so finally I used the good old and tested method to DO IT MYSELF and Find the Fix without Uncle Google's help and by God's grace I did, after experimenting a while with the aptitude package / install / remove update tool without much success, finally I find the solution to the totally messed up Debian package dependencies and it all came to a simply reverting back my /etc/apt/source.list to look like following:


# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0.0 _Wheezy_ – Official amd64 CD Binary-1 20130504-14:44]/ wheezy main

##deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0.0 _Wheezy_ – Official amd64 CD Binary-1 20130504-14:44]/ wheezy main

deb wheezy main contrib non-free
deb-src wheezy main

deb wheezy/updates main
deb-src wheezy/updates main

# wheezy-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
##deb wheezy-updates main
deb-src wheezy-updates main
##deb wheezy main non-free
#deb wheezy-backports main
###deb wheezy-backports main contrib non-free
##deb wheezy main
#deb wheezy/volatile main
###deb wheezy main non-free

run of the following two depedency fix commands !!!!


aptitude upgrade –full-resolver

aptitude full-upgrade –full-resolver

After a while a Debian LinuxOS system downgrade was initated and the missing packages were found, downloaded from the correct wheezy repositories and all broken and missing dependencies packages were fixed !!! HOORAY IT WORKS AGAIN!!


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Create dummy packages on Debian, Ubuntu, Mint Linux how to

Tuesday, September 26th, 2017


Creating dummy packages on Debian, Ubuntu, Mint Linux in order to fulfill broken or missing package dependencies is a very useful thing to do as many third party vendor packages such as skype does provide software that is compiled against a certain set of libraries to a specific Linux distribution release and as the distribution versions evolve it is impossible to install because of missing dependencies.

Sadly the third party maintainer almost always did not compile / provide new .deb package of their software specific for the new or sometimes older Linux distribution release and did not consider that Linux versions change frequently every 6 months or a year.

Hence The precompiled proprietary version of program and deb package provided by them depends on libraries or tools (contained within packages) that are either obsolete or does not match the package name and versions of installed Linux / Ubuntu / Mint or other deb based distribution.

When this occurs once you try to install the third party software, you can't because of the missing or unavailable packages within the current installed Linux version.

Commonly the problem with the missing and unavailable packages are not due to the inability of software to run with the older or newer (or in other words different) version of a library or tool from the ones provided by apt repositories but just because the package was compiled by third party vendor to depend on a very specfic versions of libraries and tools from the one provided by the respective Linux repositories.instead of making it cross platform compatible.

Thus often the ugly work around to that is to simply install the package in question without regard for dependencies with dpkg, i.e run:

dpkg -i –force-all skype-install.deb

Though the package gets installed, that way the broken dependencies of it are still pending and the apt package (on top of dpkg) is aware of that and once you try to do to lets say patch server or laptop against newest security flaws the do a package update you will end in a broken package state with a bunch of dependency errors of the missing libraries / packages.

You might end up in such situation if you're using lets say unstable verson of Debian or just if you're mixing /etc/apt/sources.list from Stable version with unstable one

Here is few example of what you might be getting once you're trying to install a package and there is / are broken unmet (missing) (uninstallable dependencies) caused by a forcably installed 3rd party software:



# aptget install libmagickwanddev
libmagickwand-dev : Depends: libmagickwand5 (= 8: but it is not going to be installed
Depends: libmagickcore5-extra (= 8: but it is not going to be installed
Depends: libmagickcore-dev (= 8: but it is not going to be installed E: Unable to correct problems, you have held broken packages.

Above example indicates libmagickcore5-extra and libmagickcre-dev required version can't be installed because the provided packages from Ubuntu /etc/apt/sources.list defined package download location for (current installed Ubuntu Linux) is different from the one the libmagickwand-dev required, this is because I have extra package sources defined to /etc/apt/sources.list


So what is the solution workaround to a missing and unavailable packages due to missing dependency package requirements ?


The easiest and least "painful" way is to fool the package system by installing a dummy package with the name of the missing package requirement, so the next time, some installed package on your system depends on a missing :i386 / amd64 or i586 architecture package or some other weird older or newer package missing on the system you can emulate the package is present by:

Creating Dummy Package with equivs (equivs-build, equivs-control)

Lets say you want to install GXMame frontend package manually with dpkg which is now obsolete and no longer available for install across Linux distributions the package depends on xmame but xmame is not available in latest Linux deb distributions, so the only work around is to create the xmame package as a dummy package and install it so you fool deb package management system to thing it is there and not explode with errors on apt operations.

To create a dummy package use the equivs which is a tool used by Debian / Ubuntu developers to do the package packaging, here is how to do it:

root@jericho:/home/hipo# apt-get install –yes equivs
root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-control xmame


root@jericho:/home/hipo# cat xmame


Section: games
Priority: optional
Standards-Version: 2.5.5


Package: xmame
Version: 0.182-1
Section: games
Maintainer: Georgi Georgiev
Provides: mame
Architecture: all
Description: Dummy Xmame Arcade Emulator package


Edit xmame or whatever dummy package you have chosen to build and change the Priority / Section / Maintainer / Version / Provides / Description

Architecture: all is suitable if you want to build the dummy package be compatible with all architectures, if you need a specific CPU architecture i386, i586, amd64 armpc etc. just set the proper one

root@jericho:/home/hipo# vim xmame



root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-build xmame
dh_install: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dh_installdocs: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Georgi Georgiev  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:55:27 +0300
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dh_installchangelogs: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dh_installdeb: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Georgi Georgiev  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:55:27 +0300
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dpkg-deb: building package 'xmame' in '../xmame_0.182-1_all.deb'.


The package has been created.
Attention, the package has been created in the current directory,
not in ".." as indicated by the message above!

Historically a very common use of Dummy debian package creation was when installing Qmail Mail server instead of Postfix (because some of the binary packages such as bsd-mailx used to be dependent on Postfix

Here is how the dummy postfix package was generated once the real one was already removed (because its presence on system was intereferring with already installed Qmail mail agent)


root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-control postfix


Command would generate a default dummy package skele template such as below:


### Commented entries have reasonable defaults.
### Uncomment to edit them.
# Source: <source package name; defaults to package name>
Section: misc
Priority: optional
# Homepage: <enter URL here; no default>
Standards-Version: 3.9.2



Package: <package name; defaults to equivs-dummy>
# Version: <enter version here; defaults to 1.0>
# Maintainer: Your Name <>
# Pre-Depends: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Depends: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Recommends: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Suggests: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Provides: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Replaces: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Architecture: all
# Multi-Arch: <one of: foreign|same|allowed>
# Copyright: <copyright file; defaults to GPL2>
# Changelog: <changelog file; defaults to a generic changelog>
# Readme: <README.Debian file; defaults to a generic one>
# Extra-Files: <comma-separated list of additional files for the doc directory>
# Files: <pair of space-separated paths; First is file to include, second is destination>
#  <more pairs, if there's more than one file to include. Notice the starting space>
Description: <short description; defaults to some wise words>
 long description and info
 second paragraph

To make the postfix named package you can modify the equivs-control generated file postfix to look like so:


Section: misc
Priority: optional
Standards-Version: 2.3.3


Package: postfix-dummy
Version: 2.7.0
Section: mail
Maintainer: Eric Lubow
Provides: mail-transport-agent
Architecture: all
Description: Dummy Postfix package



root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-build postfix
dh_install: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dh_installdocs: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Eric Lubow  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:52:46 +0300
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dh_installdeb: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Eric Lubow  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:52:46 +0300
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dpkg-deb: building package 'postfix-dummy' in '../postfix-dummy_2.7.0_all.deb'.


The package has been created.
Attention, the package has been created in the current directory,
not in ".." as indicated by the message above!

Once you have all your dummy packages built, just install the packages in a standard way with dpkg to install below 2 generated packages xmame_0.182-1_all.deb and postfix-dummy_2.7.0_all.deb:


root@jericho:/home/hipo#  dpkg -i  xmame_0.182-1_all.deb; dpkg -i postfix-dummy_2.7.0_all.deb


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