Archive for the ‘Various’ Category

Ancient Orthodox Christian Monastery Patleina and Great Preslav the First Bulgarian Kingdom Capital city near Shumen

Wednesday, February 14th, 2018


Recently I had the great oportunity to Visit another two great History Landmarks of my homeland Bulgaria the monastery Patleina (Saint Pantaleon (known in Slavonic tradition as Panteleimon) – in memoriam of the great healer Christian Saint) where according to Orthodox Church tradition and archeologists is the historical monastery where Saint (Tzar) King Boris the Baptizer of Bulgaria has concluded his early life as humble monk praying for the heavenly blessing and prosperity of his young Christinized Country Bulgaria.

Saint Panteleimon is famous in west Roman-Catholic Christian tradition to be one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers a patron of doctors and herbalists especially famous during the middle ages 14-19 century summoned by people as a shield against various diseases and asked for help for untreatable sicknesses.

Besides the famous monastery Patleina region is a natural reserve 40,62 hectars in North-East Bulgaria, after 893 just few years after the Christianization of Bulgaria in 865 by King Boris the region is famous for being a host of a world famous ancient Presval Literary School near the region are found the oldest known cyriic datable inscriptionsJust to name a few of the famous Preslav Literary School authors that is Saint Naum of Preslav, Bishop Constantine of Preslav (Author of Alphabet Prayer), Historics and various other ancient Bulgarian spiritual literature, John the Exarch, Tchernorizets Hrabar etc.

Notable to see near Patleina monastery are Orthodox Christian icon craftman workshops.


Ceramic Icon Workshops near Patleina region (picture source Wikipedia)


Just 6 km away from Patleina is situated another Great Historical Landmark, the first Bulgarian capital Great Preslav (Veliki Preslav).


9th century Monastery Patleina Church wall remains – picture source


Patlejna (Also known as Saint King Boris Monastery) IX century entrance Church wall remains


Patleina IX century monastery Church alter view


Veliki Preslav the famous Ceramic Icon found during archeological excavations in Patleina Monastery (2 km away from Veliki Preslav)
The icon style reminds of Byzantine art of 10 century, the icon image looks very much alike saint Theodor Stratilates though it not 100% proven whose image does the icon depicts – It is interesting fact that Patleinas craftman workshops are believed to be the biggest ceramic workshops on Balkans in 10th century consisting of a separate ceramic plates – picture source Wikipedia

Besides its  ancient monastery and archeological excavations Patleina region is famous for being a reserve keeping one rare type of tree Carob Tree (or Ceratonia siliqua).

Just about 300 meters away from the ancient monastery Patleina there is functioning monastery that was recently restored bought back by Bulgarian Orthodox Church from the Government, the monastery building started in the 1930s (in which Bulgaria was in a serious spiritual and economical boom, however the building completed right before the completion of the Second World War before 9.09.1944 the date at which the Third Bulgarian Kingdom finished its existence and the communist came to power.


Saint Panteleimon Monastery Patleina region – (notice the unusual architecture, the whole monastery is one big rounded monastic wall


Saint Panteleimon Monastery near Veliki Preslav (picture source

The monastery saint Panteleimon was planned as in impressive building as in the 30's there was a hope for a restoration of Patleina as a spiritual center that will elevate itself to the importance it once had in the 9th century for the raise of Bulgarian Empire, the building is 4 floor and has the shocking number of 120 rooms. 
The fresh air and nature all surrounding it makes it a great place for rest for people who are overwhelmed by their daily stressful life and as far as I understood there is possibility for renting some of the rooms for a couple of days for pilgrims or even tourists.

Currently the whole enormous monastery is inhabited by only one monk Hieromonk Father Constantne who is also appointed as an Abbot of the Monastery and is in process of doing his best for restoration of the monastery and building a monastic brotherhood.


Hieromonk Konstantin (the only abbot and monk of saint Panteleimon monastery near Shumen)

As it is visible from the picture (the boxes under the icon of the Virgin Mary) the monastery has holy relics of Saint Panteleimon and relics of few other saints. What is interesting about father Konstantin is he used to be working in the Bulgarian Atomic Central (AEC Kozlodoi) scientific work before he converted to become a fervent Christian. 

After father Konstantin understood God is a reality he decided to dedicate his life to Christ and he used to be a (novice – neophyte) in the Holy Mouth Athos monk republic in the Bulgarian Monastery saint George for 8 years!!!

It seems in this years father Konstantin realized he would be more helpful to become a monk in Bulgaria instead of Holy Mount Athos as here in Bulgaria, there is a lack of monks at the moment Bulgaria has according to what I heard a maximum of about 200 (monks and nuns) which is critically low.

Holy Liturgy Church service is being served regularly in the small monastic Church which is more looking like a Chapel and is on the first floor situated in the monastery building.

Father Constantine is famous for his hospitally just like most of the Holy Athos monks and right after the Sunday Service it is a tradition to feed all his guests, as a guests we were richly fed and we shared his lunch table just like Agape (the dinners of love of ancient Christian times).

To find out more about Saint Panteleimon Monastery check out the monastery official site here.

Very near to Patleina Monastery there are other great landmarks for those interested in archeology as Veliki Preslav (Great Preslav) the first Bulgarian Capital and Ancient Center of Orthodoxy who had a major influence on Russian Cyrillic and Orthodoxy and from where most likely many Christian icons and books were transferred later to Russia to help them raise their spirituality after Baptizmal of Russia is situated just few km away.


Entrance Walls fortress Great Preslav (picture source Izvora)


Fortress Walls Great Preslav – The First Bulgarian Capital (ruins from the IX-Xth century) – picture source Wikipedia

In the historical Veliki Preslav the most notable archeological remain is the so called Golden Church


Great Preslav the famous Golden Church – the Church was partially restored to show the visitor how approximately it might have looked like in the X-XII century (The church was found during archeological excavations in 1927-1928 by Krystio Miatev and Jordan Gospodinov – according to  written sources from 907 by Tudor Doksov, the Church coincides with the Church built by Simeon I the Great who proclaimed himself an Emperor of Bulgaria 


Preslav the Golden Church (also famous as the Round Church) – picture source


Cross on a Stone The Round Church – photograped by Angel Pavlov


Patleina and Great Preslav region view

Another Memorial Church worthy to visit in the region is situated on another fortress nearby to Great Preslav. The Memorial Church has the size of a Cathedral and is one of the biggest Cathedral Churches in Bulgaria.


Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius Memorial Church (In veneration of the creators of Glagolic Alphabet, later Bulgarian Cyrillic Alphabet)

St. St. Cyril and Methodius Church was planned as a memoriam of Saint Methodius (1000 years since his passing to Christ) planned to be build earlier in 1890s but delayed and later built in memorium of the Christianization of Bulgaria and 1000 years passed since the glorious Rule of King Simeon I, the Church building works completed thanks to Metropolitan Simeon in 1926 (the building works were delayed from 1897 'till 1918) A.D..

Very near the Church, one can see the ruins of another old Monastery dating again from the IX – X century, the construction is of a massive craved stone and was a masterpiece in the X century.

As an ex monastery the place can be considered holy as well and some people says it along with Veliki Preslov are a Gracious Energy filled places that can positively impact the human spirit.

Very near is situated also an Archeological Museum containing some of the artefacts found in Patleina, Veliki Preslav and the surrounding monasteries  – the museum is in the list of 100 Bulgarian National Museums and Landmarks.


Archeological Museum Great Preslav – picture source 100 Bulgarian National Landmarks

The museum has a very unique collection of artefacts and the entrance costs of 5 EUR is bearable, note that it's closed on Sundays.
The museum has an overall of 35 000 objects but unfortunately only 1700 artefacts are shown for the visitor, it is notable for holding one of the largest collection middle age Byzantine insignias, The Preslav Golden Treasure, bronze silver and ceramic artefacts.

The archeologists so far has determined that Veliki Preslav with all its Past Greatness and enormous territory, Churches and surrounding monasteries nearby has been planned as a rivalry Empire city to Constantinople and Preslav will definitely impress you if you're keen into archeology and history, hope you visit it soon, Enjoy! 🙂


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Saint Andrew the First called Apostle “Protocletus” by Jesus Christ celebrated on 30 June and 30 November in Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Thursday, November 30th, 2017


38 Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) where dwellest thou?

39 He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour.

40 One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.

41 He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ.

John 1:38-41 King James Version (KJV)

Church Troparion (Tone 4)

    Andrew, first-called of the Apostles
    and brother of the foremost disciple,
    entreat the Master of all
    to grant peace to the world
    and to our souls great mercy.

Church Kontakion (Tone 2)

    Let us praise Andrew, the herald of God,
    the namesake of courage,
    the first-called of the Savior's disciples
    and the brother of Peter.
    As he once called to his brother, he now cries out to us:
    "Come, for we have found the One whom the world desires!"


Saint Andrew the first called Bulgarian Icon

The saviour Jesus Christ choose saint Andrew (the brother of saint Peter) to be the first among apostles in the number of his 12 (desciples) apostoles. The name Andrew is translated from Greek to Brave / Manhood, there is no known Hebrew or Aramic name as that which means that most likely the name Andrew was perhaps given by him in later times when he preached among pagans.
It is believed. As the gospel tells us he immediately turned to Christ follower and desciple being honored to be the first desciple and among the first that received baptism after Jesus Christ, he was one of the desciples of saint John the baptist (as we and once he heard the "living water" words of the savior he immediately followed without reasoning.


The Lord Jesus Christ summons saint apostle Andrew for apostelship service (VI Century Ravenna Mosaic)

Saint Andrew's birth place according to our Orthodox Christian tradition is the village of Bethsaida on the Sea of Gallee (which has actually the size of a Lake), he was called with his brother saint Peter and promised by Jesus to be made a  "fishers of men" (Greek: ἁλιεῖς ἀνθρώπων, halieis anthrōpōn).
At the beginning of Jesus public life both apostles are said to have occupied the same house in Capernaum. He is believed to be the first bishop and founder of the holy see of Byzantium (later Constantinople today's Istanbul) in A.D. 38 and have ordained the first bishop of the city Stachys. He is known to have preached also among Thracians and travelled through the Black sea shelf (today Bulgarian lands) establishing Christian communities across the shelf lands.

He also preached in today's Greece in Peloponnese, Greece, and Epirus: he converted many to the Faith and ordained bishops and priests for them.

Saint Andrew Georgian Icon holding the Holy Theotokos Icon

On a boat he entered Georgia from Ajara, preached Christianity in Atsquri, built small church there and left miracle-working icon of Theotokos (the Holy Virgin Mary). Travelling back from Georgia, he visited today Russian lands, went through Kiev, he planted a cross on one of the high hills of Kiev, and he prophesied a city that would have many golden-domed churches, and a bright Christian future for the Rus' people.


Saint Andrew's prophecy of Kiev depicted in Radzivill Chronicle.

St. Andrew was martyred in Peloponnese, in the city of Patras. The Proconsul Aegeates' family believed in the miracles and preaching of St. Andrew, and the enraged Proconsul tortured and crucified St. Andrew. The new converts wanted to remove him from his cross, but the saint would not allow them. Instead, he comforted them from the cross and as he prayed an extraordinary light encompassed him for about a half hour. When it left, he gave up his soul. It was the year 62 AD.

St. Andrew's relics were taken to Constantinople, his head to Rome and a hand  perhaps transferred from Kiev to Moscow when the Russian capital changed.


The X Crossed Martyrdom of saint Andrew

Early texts, such as the Acts of Andrew known to Gregory of Tours describe Andrew as bound, not nailed, to a Latin cross of the kind on which Jesus is said to have been crucified; yet a tradition developed that Andrew had been crucified on a cross of the form called crux decussata (X-shaped cross, or "saltire"), now commonly known as a "Saint Andrew's Cross" — supposedly at his own request, as he deemed himself unworthy to be crucified on the same type of cross as Jesus had been. The iconography of the martyrdom of Andrew – showing him bound to an X-shaped cross – does not appear to have been standardized until the later Middle Ages.

Saint Andrew is the patron saint of several countries and cities including: Barbados, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Ukraine, Amalfi in Italy, Esgueira in Portugal, Luqa in Malta, Parañaque in the Philippines and Patras in Greece. He was also the patron saint of Prussia and of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He is considered the founder and the first bishop of the Church of Byzantium and is consequently the patron saint of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

It is interesting that in Romania there is a cave in Romania the so called Saint Andrew Cave where saint Andrew lived for a while on his journey from Black Sea Shelf to Kiev after he preached the Gospel to Daco-Roman people in province Dobrudja Region nowadays (Scythia Minor), this tradition was a local believe and was not widely aknowledged until the 20th century.

Entrance to Saint Andrew Cave in Dobrudja

According to Hippolyte of Antioch, (died c. 250 C.E.) in his On Apostles, Origen in the third book of his Commentaries on the Genesis (254 C.E.), Eusebius of Caesarea in his Church History (340 C.E.), and other sources, such as Usaard's Martyrdom written between 845–865, and Jacobus de Voragine's Golden Legend (c. 1260), Saint Andrew preached in Scythia, a possible reference to Scythia Minor, whose territory was part of Bulgaria but was integrated into Romania in the late 19th century.

Let by the prayers of saint Andrew we Christians grow in the understanding and love and be able to withstand the temptations of the hard times we live in!


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How to find out who sniffs out about your Android mobile smart phone

Thursday, November 16th, 2017


Maybe little know about this embedded Android mobile smart phone features but there is a few mobile code cheats that can help you find out a little bit about your phone security, that's pretty handy for anyone who really wants to know whether mobile phone is being sniffed / tapped on Android software level and can give you an idea on how much your smart phone data is protected or are you being a target of someone's secret surveillance, of course this info is just on Android firmware embedded features level and if your mobile is somehow hacked or trojanned the information that can show could be not adequate, but still it is a good info to know. I'm sure you'll be surprised how much embedded Android features are there for the controllers (Google staff) 🙂


1. Information about telephone, battery status and statistics about telephone use


To get information about battery, usage statistics and device.

2. Are Smart Phone Voice / SMS Transfers on?


This combination of numbers and symbols allows you to understand where your mobile is Transferring Calls, SMS-es or other messages. If you type this code and click call the phone screen should show any numbers to which any data is being transferred, if your phone is okay and not tapped you will get a message the phone call transfers and sms transfer is disabled. Always keep in mind that there is a danger for your info / data or even billings to be tapped already as Android is non-free software, so even if that code returns no transfers you're still insecure at the hands of Google's mercy.

3. Where are calls and SMS-es transffered in case if Voice / SMS Transfers are on?


This codes shows where are your input Calls and SMS-es are being transferred once someone is calling you and he is unable to reach you. At best case the inbound calls will be redirected as voice mail format to voice mail box of the number of your mobile operator.

4. Deactivate all kind of Phone Voice / SMS Transfers (Redirects) for security


By inputting above code you can deactivate all kind of redirects, which were prior configured at your mobile phone. The code is universal one and should work not only in Android but across all smart phones including IPhones. It is a recommended one especially if you're planning to travel in foreign country or region due to the roaming phone expenses.

5. Get IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identifier) phone info


Above code provides information about the ID number of the mobile phone th so called IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identifier). Using the email a mobile phone that has been recently stolen can be easily found, because the device is emitting its IMEI number to the mobile phone operator, nomatter what kind of SIM Card is inserted in the phone.


6. How to protect yourself from criminals and spies?

You can use alternative Messanger  Chat / Voice Clients such as: Telegram, Wickr, Signal or Alternatively run your own Jabber server and use it to securily communicate with your friends and relatives

Do not install an unknown source program to mobile phone, abstain from charging the phone on airports and suspicious free "charging" points, abtain from using any free wifi networks whose owner you don't know personally. Beware while browsing as there are websites that could infect you with javascript viruses and terrible phone malware stuff, to be safe make sure you have some kind of Antivirus software installed on the phone just in case.
Be vigilant!


7. Bigger list of Codes working across some of Android versions providing various phone stats and info (not working on all mobiles but might be working on yours)


Here is a list also with a useful codes for some of Android version releases (this will not work on IPhones)


*4636#*#*Information about statistics of phone, battery, usage

*#*#7780#*#*Nullify phone settings.. Delete only applications.

*2767*3855# – Nullify all settings, reinstall firmware.

*34971539#*#* – Full information about phone camera vendor etc.

*#*#273283*255*663282***Quickly archive media files

*#*#197328640#*#Test mobile service

232339#*#* / *#*#526#*#*Test Wireless (Wi-Fi) netework

*#*#232338#*#*Show Wi-Fi card physical MAC Address

*#*#1472365#*#*Quick GPS test

*#*#1575#*#* Various GPS Tests

*#*#0283#*#* Test mobile Loopback interface

*#*#0*#*#* – Test of liquid-crystals mobile display

*#*#0673#*#* / *#*#0289#*#*An Audio test

*#*#0842#*#* Test vibrations of the background phone lid (lightning)

*2663#*#* Get version of sensor screen

*2664#*#*Test of the sensor screen

* * * *0588#*#*Test distance sensor

* * *3264#*#*Get Installed RAM Version

*#*#232331#*#*Bluetooth Test

*#*#7262626#*#*Test GSM signal

*#*#232337#*#*Show bluetooth address

*#*#8255#*#* – Test Mobile Google Talk service

*#*#1234#*#*Information about firmware

*#*#1111#*#*Version of installed Open Trading software version


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FreeBSD post install configuration steps to make on fresh FreeBSD install to make ready for server and Desktop use

Saturday, October 28th, 2017


1. Update binary packages

First thing to do just like on any new operating system install is to update / patch the server

# freebsd-update fetch
# freebsd-update install


2. Update FreeBSD port packages

As a FreeBSD administrator you will need ports every now and then so make sure you have them at their latest release for your FBSD release


# pkg update
# pkg upgrade


3. Install editors and bash


# pkg install nano vim joe bash bash_completion


4. Install sudo

To be able to run commands without becoming superuser root just like on any Linux you will probably want to have sudo package installed

# pkg install sudo


Sudo config file is under /usr/local/etc/sudoers

To edit it with syntax check enabled use visudo


# visudo

# sudo pkg update


If you want a regular account to have root superuser edit / modify and do things permissions


# pw groupmod wheel -M your_user_name


Then to make the wheel permissions work add to sudoers:


%wheel    ALL=(ALL=ALL)    ALL

5. FreeBSD modify personal information for account


# chpass your_user_name

To change your account and others to use bash instead of default freebsd csh


# csh -s /bin/bash your_user_name


7. Set a Static IP address for a FreeBSD server and configure DNS

Edit /etc/rc.local to look something like so


ifconfig_em0="inet netmask"
# default gateway


/etc/rc.conf is also the file where you can easily enable / disable freebsd startup scripts

To restart network interafaces just like Debian Linux's /etc/init.d/networking restart type


# service netif restart
# service routing restart


To set Google DNS in FreeBSD just like in Linux add the IPs with nameserver prefix to /etc/resolv.conf


# echo 'nameserver' >> /etc/resolv.conf
# echo 'nameserver' >> /etc/resolv.conf
# echo 'search your-domain-name' >> /etc/resolv.conf


– If you need to change the hostname of the FreeBSD server change in /etc/rc.conf


– To add multiple IP addresses to a network interface on FBSD add line like below to /etc/rc.conf

ifconfig_em0_alias0=" netmask"
ifconfig_em0_alias1=" netmask"

To apply changes and bring up the newly set multiple IPs

# service netif restart

8. Setting up proper timezone

If for some reason the Time zone is improperly set during FreeBSD install, you can later set that with

# tzsetup

9. Set up ntp time server synchronization daemon

# vim /etc/rc.conf


First command will bring up NTP server at start up and second make it synchroniza with Internet NTP servers, to restart ntp so it set proper time

# service ntpd start

10. Add additional SWAP space to FreeBSD server after install

– First we need to create the swap file with command and then set up proper permissions for it

# truncate -S 3G /swapf
# chmod 0600 /swapf

– Then to make the swapf being used on boot we need to add it to /etc/fstab

# echo "md99 none swap sw,file=/swapf,late 0 0" >> /etc/fstab

To immediately apply the new added swap to be used by the system run:

# swapon -aqL

To check various things on how swap is configured use

# swapinfo -g

11. Configure Firewall in FreeBSD

# vim /etc/rc.conf


A very basic firewall to add to ipfw.rules file would be something like so:

    $IPF 70 allow all from any to any out keep-state
    $IPF 80 allow icmp from any to any
    # open port ftp

    $IPF 110 allow tcp from any to any 21 in
    $IPF 120 allow tcp from any to any 21 out

    # 22 for ssh
    $IPF 130 allow tcp from any to any 22 in
    $IPF 140 allow tcp from any to any 22 out

    # mail port 25

    $IPF 150 allow tcp from any to any 25 in
    $IPF 160 allow tcp from any to any 25 out

    # dns (53) udp and tcp in
    $IPF 170 allow udp from any to any 53 in
    $IPF 175 allow tcp from any to any 53 in

    # dns (53) udp and tcp out
    $IPF 180 allow udp from any to any 53 out
    $IPF 185 allow tcp from any to any 53 out

    # http (80),
    $IPF 200 allow tcp from any to any 80 in
    $IPF 210 allow tcp from any to any 80 out
    # deny and log everything
    $IPF 500 deny log all from any to any

To launch the firewall

# service ipfw start

To list current FreeBSD Firewall rules use

# ipfw list

Finally if you need to check your connections to the server just like Linux's netstat you might consider using sockstat comand

# sockstat -4 -6

– 4 -6 will list you network connections for ipv4 and ipv6 both tcp and udp

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The Best Most Effective Search Engine Optimization SEO tips or how to stay ahead of your competitors

Friday, October 27th, 2017


The 16 most effective search engine optimization tips

I've found an infogram that is showing the best practices of Search Engine Optimization as today SEO has been dependent strongly on this factors I suggest you closely check your site, whether all of the 16 pinpointed tips are already implemented in your site if not you better implement them before the robots (Machine Learning), Cloud Computing and the rest of the modern tech savy mambo jambo stuff modern technology takes over SEO ranking in Google. If you run a start up business like me this tips will definitely help you to keep up in the list of Google, Bing and Yahoo ahead of your competitors.

Enjoy Learning and please share anything you find missing on the diagram which you already do to Boost Up your SEO!

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How to turn keyboard backlight on GNU / Linux, keyboard no backlight solution

Friday, October 20th, 2017


If you're a GNU / Linux user and you happen to buy a backlighted keyboard, some nice new laptop whose keyboard supports the more and more modern keyboard growing or if you happen to install a GNU / Linux for a Gamer friend no matter the Linux distribution, you might encounter sometimes  problem even in major Linux distributions Debian / Ubuntu / Mint / Fedora with keyboard backlight not working.

Lets say you buy a Devastator II backlighted keyboard or any other modern keyboard you plug it into the Linux machine and there is no nice blinking light coming out of the keyboard, all the joy is gone yes I know. The free software coolness would have been even more grandiose if your keyboard was shiny and glowing in color / colors 🙂

But wait, there is hope for your joy to be made complete.

To make the keyboard backlight switch on Just issue commands:


xmodmap -e 'add mod3 = Screen_Lock'


# Turn on the keyboard bright lamps
xset led on

# Turns off the keyboard bright lamps
xset led off

If you want to make the keyboard backlight be enabled permanent the easiest solution is to

– add the 3 command lines to /etc/rc.local

E.g. to do so open /etc/rc.local and before exit 0 command just add the lines:


vim /etc/rc.local


xmodmap -e 'add mod3 = Screen_Lock'

# Turn on the keyboard bright lamps
xset led on

# Turns off the keyboard bright lamps
xset led off

If you prefer to have the keyboard colorful backlight enable and disabled from X environment on lets say GNOME , here is how to make yourself an icon that enabled and disables the colors.

That's handy because at day time it is a kind of meaningless for the keyboard to glow.

Here is the shell script:

sleep 1
xset led 3
xmodmap -e 'add mod3 = Scroll_Lock'

I saved it as /home/hipo/scripts/

(don't forget to make it executable!, to do so run):


chmod +x /home/hipo/scripts/

Then create  the .desktop file at /etc/xdg/autostart/backlight.desktop so that it runs the new shell script, like so:

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Devastator Backlight

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How to use find command to find files created on a specific date , Find files with specific size on GNU / Linux

Monday, October 16th, 2017

How to use find command to find files created on a specific date on GNU / Linux?


The easiest and most readable way but not most efficient ) especially for big hard disks with a lot of files not the best way) to do it is via:


find ./ -type f -ls |grep '12 Oct'


Example: To find all files modified on the 12th of October, 2017:

find . -type f -newermt 2017-10-12 ! -newermt 2017-10-13

To find all files accessed on the 29th of september, 2008:

$ find . -type f -newerat 2015-09-29 ! -newerat 2015-09-30

Or, files which had their permission changed on the same day:

$ find . -type f -newerct 2015-09-29 ! -newerct 2015-09-30

If you don't change permissions on the file, 'c' would normally correspond to the creation date, though.


Another more cryptic way but perhaps more efficient  to find any file modified on October 12th,2017,  would be with below command:


find . -type f -mtime $(( ( $(date +%s) – $(date -d '2017-10-12' +%s) ) / 60 / 60 / 24 – 1 ))




You could also look at files between certain dates by creating two files with touch

touch -t 0810010000 /tmp/f-example1
touch -t 0810011000 /tmp/f-example2

This will find all files between the two dates & times of the 2 files /tmp


find / -newer /tmp/f-example1 -and -not -newer /tmp/f-exampl2


How to Find Files with a certain size on GNU / Linux?


Lets say you got cracked and someone uploaded a shell php file of 50296 bytes a , that's a real scenario that just happened to me:

root@pcfreak:/var/www/blog/wp-admin/js# ls -b green.php 
root@pcfreak:/var/www/blog/wp-admin/js# ls -al green.php 
-rw-r–r– 1 www-data www-data 50296 окт 12 02:27 green.php

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo# find /var/www/ -type f -size 50296c -exec ls {} \;


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OSCommerce how to change / reset lost admin password

Monday, October 16th, 2017


How to change / reset OSCommerce lost / forgotten admin password?

The password in OSCommerce is kept in table "admin", so to reset password connect to MySQL with mysql cli client.

First thing to do is to generate the new hash string, you can do that with a simple php script using the md5(); function


root@pcfreak:/var/www/files# cat 1.php
echo $pass;


root@pcfreak:/var/www/files# php 1.php


Our just generated string (for text password password) is hash: 5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99

Next to update the new hash string into SQL, we connect to MySQL:


$ mysql -u root -p


And issue following command to modify the encrypted hash string:


UPDATE `DB`.`admin` SET `admin_password` = '5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99' WHERE `admin`.`admin_id` = 6;

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How to fix unfixable broken package dependencies on Debian GNU / Linux – Fix package mismatch

Wednesday, September 27th, 2017


I just tried to upgrade my Debian Wheezy 7 to the latest stable Debian Stretch 9 by not thinking too much and just changing the word wheezy with stretch in /etc/apt/sources.list so onwards on it looked like so:

cat /etc/apt/sources.list


deb stretch main contrib non-free
deb-src stretch main

deb stretch/updates main
deb-src stretch/updates main 

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
##deb stretch-updates main
deb-src stretch-updates main


I also make sure all the defined Google Chrome / Opera / Skype and Squeeze Backports repositories existent in /etc/apt/sources.list.d directory files which in my case were like so;


root@noah:/etc/apt/sources.list.d# ls
google-chrome.list  opera-stable.list  squeeze-backports.list
opera.list          skype-stable.list

 were commented out because they were producing extra apt update errors …

And afterwards ran as usual:


apt-get update
apt-get –yes upgrade

The upgrade command executed fine and a lot of packages got downloaded and reinstalled without much issue, so I thought everything would be fine and just proceeded with the attempt to finalize the distribution major release 7 to major release 9 by running:


apt-get –yes dist-upgrade

But guess what now I got some dependency errors with cron and other installed packages that depend on package versions that are not going to be installed as the apt-get tool informed me.

I tried to out-smart the dpkg dependency system and removed all the packages reporting to have a missing dependencies with a short for bash loop after duming all the problematic packages showing dependency issues with commands such as:

apt-get -f dist-upgrade >> out.txt
for i in $(cat out.txt); awk '{ print $1 }' >> to_delete.txt; done

Before proceeding further I had to manually edit few lines in a text editor to remove some of the junk left from apt-get too.

So i was brave and just removed the dependency missing packages with following other for loop:


for i in $(cat to_delete.txt); do dpkg -r –force-all $i; done

Now I was hoping that rerunning:


apt-get autoremove

dpkg --configure -a

apt-get update -f
apt-get dist-upgrade -f

would no longer complain and I would just install the removed packages in another for shell loop once every other packages gets installed.

But guess what I was wrong … the system entered into another bunch of depedency terribly issues and messed up so badly that there were at least 50 packages reporting to have a missing / broken or uninstallable deb version depedency …

I got totally Angry, I knew already from experience that just trying to jump over while skipping a major release e.g. upgrade Debian 7 to Debian 9, instead of first upgrading to Debian 8 Linux and then upgrading Debian 8 to Debian 9 have always produced the same mess but I was lame and stupid again to f**k it up and I was out of mind swearing (a truly bad habid I'm not proud of) …

So as the notebook with Linux so far was perfectly working with Debian 7 and had a tons of old installed software and I was in a state where if I restart the system it was very likely my Thinkpad r61 laptop won't boot at all, I googled around to find a solution unfortunately without any luck, so finally I used the good old and tested method to DO IT MYSELF and Find the Fix without Uncle Google's help and by God's grace I did, after experimenting a while with the aptitude package / install / remove update tool without much success, finally I find the solution to the totally messed up Debian package dependencies and it all came to a simply reverting back my /etc/apt/source.list to look like following:


# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0.0 _Wheezy_ – Official amd64 CD Binary-1 20130504-14:44]/ wheezy main

##deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0.0 _Wheezy_ – Official amd64 CD Binary-1 20130504-14:44]/ wheezy main

deb wheezy main contrib non-free
deb-src wheezy main

deb wheezy/updates main
deb-src wheezy/updates main

# wheezy-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
##deb wheezy-updates main
deb-src wheezy-updates main
##deb wheezy main non-free
#deb wheezy-backports main
###deb wheezy-backports main contrib non-free
##deb wheezy main
#deb wheezy/volatile main
###deb wheezy main non-free

run of the following two depedency fix commands !!!!


aptitude upgrade –full-resolver

aptitude full-upgrade –full-resolver

After a while a Debian LinuxOS system downgrade was initated and the missing packages were found, downloaded from the correct wheezy repositories and all broken and missing dependencies packages were fixed !!! HOORAY IT WORKS AGAIN!!


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Create dummy packages on Debian, Ubuntu, Mint Linux how to

Tuesday, September 26th, 2017


Creating dummy packages on Debian, Ubuntu, Mint Linux in order to fulfill broken or missing package dependencies is a very useful thing to do as many third party vendor packages such as skype does provide software that is compiled against a certain set of libraries to a specific Linux distribution release and as the distribution versions evolve it is impossible to install because of missing dependencies.

Sadly the third party maintainer almost always did not compile / provide new .deb package of their software specific for the new or sometimes older Linux distribution release and did not consider that Linux versions change frequently every 6 months or a year.

Hence The precompiled proprietary version of program and deb package provided by them depends on libraries or tools (contained within packages) that are either obsolete or does not match the package name and versions of installed Linux / Ubuntu / Mint or other deb based distribution.

When this occurs once you try to install the third party software, you can't because of the missing or unavailable packages within the current installed Linux version.

Commonly the problem with the missing and unavailable packages are not due to the inability of software to run with the older or newer (or in other words different) version of a library or tool from the ones provided by apt repositories but just because the package was compiled by third party vendor to depend on a very specfic versions of libraries and tools from the one provided by the respective Linux repositories.instead of making it cross platform compatible.

Thus often the ugly work around to that is to simply install the package in question without regard for dependencies with dpkg, i.e run:

dpkg -i –force-all skype-install.deb

Though the package gets installed, that way the broken dependencies of it are still pending and the apt package (on top of dpkg) is aware of that and once you try to do to lets say patch server or laptop against newest security flaws the do a package update you will end in a broken package state with a bunch of dependency errors of the missing libraries / packages.

You might end up in such situation if you're using lets say unstable verson of Debian or just if you're mixing /etc/apt/sources.list from Stable version with unstable one

Here is few example of what you might be getting once you're trying to install a package and there is / are broken unmet (missing) (uninstallable dependencies) caused by a forcably installed 3rd party software:



# aptget install libmagickwanddev
libmagickwand-dev : Depends: libmagickwand5 (= 8: but it is not going to be installed
Depends: libmagickcore5-extra (= 8: but it is not going to be installed
Depends: libmagickcore-dev (= 8: but it is not going to be installed E: Unable to correct problems, you have held broken packages.

Above example indicates libmagickcore5-extra and libmagickcre-dev required version can't be installed because the provided packages from Ubuntu /etc/apt/sources.list defined package download location for (current installed Ubuntu Linux) is different from the one the libmagickwand-dev required, this is because I have extra package sources defined to /etc/apt/sources.list


So what is the solution workaround to a missing and unavailable packages due to missing dependency package requirements ?


The easiest and least "painful" way is to fool the package system by installing a dummy package with the name of the missing package requirement, so the next time, some installed package on your system depends on a missing :i386 / amd64 or i586 architecture package or some other weird older or newer package missing on the system you can emulate the package is present by:

Creating Dummy Package with equivs (equivs-build, equivs-control)

Lets say you want to install GXMame frontend package manually with dpkg which is now obsolete and no longer available for install across Linux distributions the package depends on xmame but xmame is not available in latest Linux deb distributions, so the only work around is to create the xmame package as a dummy package and install it so you fool deb package management system to thing it is there and not explode with errors on apt operations.

To create a dummy package use the equivs which is a tool used by Debian / Ubuntu developers to do the package packaging, here is how to do it:

root@jericho:/home/hipo# apt-get install –yes equivs
root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-control xmame


root@jericho:/home/hipo# cat xmame


Section: games
Priority: optional
Standards-Version: 2.5.5


Package: xmame
Version: 0.182-1
Section: games
Maintainer: Georgi Georgiev
Provides: mame
Architecture: all
Description: Dummy Xmame Arcade Emulator package


Edit xmame or whatever dummy package you have chosen to build and change the Priority / Section / Maintainer / Version / Provides / Description

Architecture: all is suitable if you want to build the dummy package be compatible with all architectures, if you need a specific CPU architecture i386, i586, amd64 armpc etc. just set the proper one

root@jericho:/home/hipo# vim xmame



root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-build xmame
dh_install: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dh_installdocs: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Georgi Georgiev  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:55:27 +0300
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dh_installchangelogs: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dh_installdeb: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Georgi Georgiev  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:55:27 +0300
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dpkg-deb: building package 'xmame' in '../xmame_0.182-1_all.deb'.


The package has been created.
Attention, the package has been created in the current directory,
not in ".." as indicated by the message above!

Historically a very common use of Dummy debian package creation was when installing Qmail Mail server instead of Postfix (because some of the binary packages such as bsd-mailx used to be dependent on Postfix

Here is how the dummy postfix package was generated once the real one was already removed (because its presence on system was intereferring with already installed Qmail mail agent)


root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-control postfix


Command would generate a default dummy package skele template such as below:


### Commented entries have reasonable defaults.
### Uncomment to edit them.
# Source: <source package name; defaults to package name>
Section: misc
Priority: optional
# Homepage: <enter URL here; no default>
Standards-Version: 3.9.2



Package: <package name; defaults to equivs-dummy>
# Version: <enter version here; defaults to 1.0>
# Maintainer: Your Name <>
# Pre-Depends: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Depends: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Recommends: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Suggests: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Provides: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Replaces: <comma-separated list of packages>
# Architecture: all
# Multi-Arch: <one of: foreign|same|allowed>
# Copyright: <copyright file; defaults to GPL2>
# Changelog: <changelog file; defaults to a generic changelog>
# Readme: <README.Debian file; defaults to a generic one>
# Extra-Files: <comma-separated list of additional files for the doc directory>
# Files: <pair of space-separated paths; First is file to include, second is destination>
#  <more pairs, if there's more than one file to include. Notice the starting space>
Description: <short description; defaults to some wise words>
 long description and info
 second paragraph

To make the postfix named package you can modify the equivs-control generated file postfix to look like so:


Section: misc
Priority: optional
Standards-Version: 2.3.3


Package: postfix-dummy
Version: 2.7.0
Section: mail
Maintainer: Eric Lubow
Provides: mail-transport-agent
Architecture: all
Description: Dummy Postfix package



root@jericho:/home/hipo# equivs-build postfix
dh_install: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dh_installdocs: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Eric Lubow  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:52:46 +0300
dpkg-parsechangelog: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dh_installdeb: Compatibility levels before 9 are deprecated (level 7 in use)
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): badly formatted trailer line
LINE:  — Eric Lubow  Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:52:46 +0300
dpkg-gencontrol: warning:     debian/changelog(l5): found end of file where expected more change data or trailer
dpkg-deb: building package 'postfix-dummy' in '../postfix-dummy_2.7.0_all.deb'.


The package has been created.
Attention, the package has been created in the current directory,
not in ".." as indicated by the message above!

Once you have all your dummy packages built, just install the packages in a standard way with dpkg to install below 2 generated packages xmame_0.182-1_all.deb and postfix-dummy_2.7.0_all.deb:


root@jericho:/home/hipo#  dpkg -i  xmame_0.182-1_all.deb; dpkg -i postfix-dummy_2.7.0_all.deb


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