Posts Tagged ‘boost’

What Every Body is Saying – one of Best books on Body Language ever written

Tuesday, August 14th, 2018

how-to-learn-to-read-people-and-become-a-better-communicator-What-every-body-is-saying-book-cover

Those interested in People Reading or holding a Management position position job inside some Small or Mid sized corporation could benefit greatly of a Book called
What Every Body is Saying

What Every Body is Saing is written by an ex-FBI Agent (JOE NAVANNO), probablythere are no actually ex-FBI agents, but that's a topic for another post.

The book is quick to read, especially if you follow the pictures of Body postures shown with their little description below.
Many of the Body Languages so commonly adopted by multitudes of people, thanks to the American of the Culture world-wide are being practiced
in some degree in mostly all people you might know (mostly unconsciously) …


What Every Body is Saying could be of a great help to people who want to make through in life and for Start-up company CEOs, Human Resource Managers, or anyone who want to better learn to communicate and Influence People.

Even in a normal family relations, being able to properly identify the Body Language of your Wife or kids would seriously benefit you and if you keep attention (focus) would reveal there short term-plans.

what-sitting-posture-is-sayingbook-what-every-body-is-saying

Adopting some of the suggested body languages in the book would definitely help you improve how people perceive you and practising some so called "Confident postures" could even boost your Confidence levels dramatically both when you're alone or when you are in a group of people or A Company Team Meeting.

Reading the Person Body language is of a great help also to understand the approximate Emotional / Spiritual state the person in front of you is and even if applied proparly could help you make the person or group of people be positively influenced to change from a negative to positive mindset
or when working on a project, could help you dramatically to make the people work more efficiently and boost their motivation / mood about the things, they have to someday do anyways.

The reader has to know of course that most of the mentioned body language cues are generalizations and in order to find out the exact messages being sent on non-verbal communication level depends on a multiple factors and many of the Body languages talked might be in a modified form and even some could be totally different from any of the described of the book.

However the observation practice (at least mine) shows that at least 60-70% of the described Body Language postures are adopted and used by mostly anyone out there.
To check the validity of the things described in the books just sit somewhere in a park or in a bar / caffeteria and watch carefully how people interact, you will be surprised how many things are being communicated non-verbally and how often the lack of one of the two, or two have severe communication issues, just because they couldn't synchronize their body language or lack the ability to read the other interlocutor's processed and communicated intentions.

The book when red at least for me was a wide eyes opener and even though as a Christian, I've always been doubting that any-generalization model trying to frame up people is very untrue and trying to influence people with your Body Language is bad sinful (kinda of satanic) practice, realizing that even Christians does communicate and do use body language (because they're conditioned by the society they lived in), that means that improving your Body Language to be more convincing in mostly anti-christian society we live can do you good favour to be adequate in society, or at least you can be aware of the existence of the Body Language and its meaning.

By the way, many of the models and gestures as translated described as a behaviour body interpretations are perhaps highly used nowadays by Agents across all the major Secret Services agencies such as CIA, MI6, KGB, Mussad etc.

book-what-every-body-is-saying_or-how-to-improve-your-daily-relations-by-reading-people

This kind of things are learned in most business universities nowadays, but the way the Body Reading / Influencing knowledge is communicated in Business universities is a disaster, because it is usually compiled by Professors who alone are not expert or haven't been advanced enough in body language.
Thus even like that if you read the book, I'm sure you will benefit and perhaps reread it at least a couple of times in the coming years …

A summary of the book goes like this:

1. It starts with a short story on how the author get acquainted to the knowledge of body language and his personal life events

The author Joe Navarro was an emigrant from Cuba to US as the age of 8, because the author inability to speak English at all, his best way to understand what the other was saying or communicating in the first few years in US was to observe closely what the person in front was communicating non-verbally and makes guesses, what that could be.
His family and grandmother also played a key role to help him learn the craft of Body Language reaading.

Growing up and graduating college in the age of Baby Boomers, Joe Navarro was hired in FBI where he spend the following years as an agent specializing in Counter Intelligence
and behavior assessment.

2. It continues as the knowledge on Body interprations is being served in a very stuffed manner

 

what-everybody-is-saying-back-book-cover

The 3 key things to remember out of the book goes like that:

    A. At least 60% of what you say is not coming out of your mouth.
    B. There’s one more option next to fight or flight responce our brain does automatically
    C. To become a master at reading body language, you have to develop situational awareness.

The book claims that people tend to be stuck into 3 main states (as a result of the evolutionary development of species (Creationists and Christian fundamentalists could argue seriously here 🙂 ) , whenever facing a difficult situation these are:

  • Freeze
  • Fight
  • Flight

To sum up if you're looking for new ways to improve your current relationships with people and build a new ones, the book would definitely help you tremendously.
I've found the book in a PDF format with few simple searches online so those who can't afford it could also download it from the internet (at least as of time of writting this article).
A lot of the exampled Body confidence / influence postures described in the book you will find on mostly any Kids Cartoon and Internet top shows and in mostly everybody from TED Talks show and mostly all Youtube educational videos and podcasterers.

That's all Folks, Enjoy reading!

 

 

Migrate Webserver and SQL data from old SATA Hard drive to SSD to boost websites performance / Installing new SSD KINGSTON 120GB hard disk on Linux

Monday, March 28th, 2016

ssd-linux-migrate-webserver-and-mysql-from-old-SATA-to-SSD-Kingston-Hard-drive-to-boost-performance-installing-new-SSD-on-Debian-linux
Blog and websites hosted on a server were giving bad performance lately and the old SATA Hard Disk on the Lenovo Edge server seemed to be overloaded from In/Out operations and thus slowing down the websites opeining time as well as SQL queries (especially the ones from Related Posts WordPress plugin was quite slow. Sometimes my blog site opening times were up to 8-10 seconds.

To deal with the issue I obviously needed a better speed of I/O of hard drive thus as I've never used SSD hard drives so far,  I decided to buy a new SSD (Solid State Drive) KINGSTON SV300S37A120G, 605ABBF2, max UDMA/133  hard disk.
Mounting the hard disk physically on the computer tower case wasn't a big deal as there are no rotating elements of the SSD it doesn't really matter how it is mounted main thing is that it is being hooked up somewhere to the case.

I was not sure whether the SSD HDD is supported by my Debian GNU / Linux so I had see whether Linux Operating System has properly detected your hard disk use dmesg

1. Check if SSD Hard drive is supported in Linux

 

linux:~# dmesg|grep -i kingston
[    1.182734] ata5.00: ATA-8: KINGSTON SV300S37A120G, 605ABBF2, max UDMA/133
[    1.203825] scsi 4:0:0:0: Direct-Access     ATA      KINGSTON SV300S3 605A PQ: 0 ANSI: 5

 

linux:~# dmesg|grep -i sdb
[    1.207819] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] 234441648 512-byte logical blocks: (120 GB/111 GiB)
[    1.207847] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
[    1.207848] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
[    1.207860] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[    1.207928]  sdb: unknown partition table
[    1.208319] sd 4:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI disk

 

Well great news as you see from above output obviously the Kingston SSD HDD was detected by the kernel.
I've also inspected whether the proper dimensions of hard drive (all 120 Gigabytes are being detected by the OS):

 

linux:~# fdisk -l /dev/sdb
Disk /dev/sdb: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders, total 234441648 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Even better as the proper HDD sizing was detected by Linux kernel.
Next thing to do was of course to create ext4 filesystem on the SSD HDD.
I wanted to give 2 separate partitions for my Webserver Websites DocumentRoot directories which all lay under the standard Apache location inside /var/www as well as MySQL data folder which is also under the standard Debian based Linuces – /var/lib/mysql as the SQL data directory was just 3.3 GB size, I've decided to reserve 20GB gigabytes for the MySQL and another 100 GB for my PHP / CSS / JS / HTML and other data files /var/www.
 

2. Create SSD partitions with cfdisk

Hence I needed to create:

1. SSD partition of 100GB
2. SSD partition of 20GB

I have cfdisk installed and I believe, the easiest way to create the partitions is using interactive partitioner as CFDISK instead of fdisk: so in order to make the proper partitions I've ran

 

linux:~# cfdisk /dev/sdb


I' will skip explainig details on how to use CFDISK as it is pretty standard – display or manipulate disk partition table tool.
Just press on NEW button (moving with arrow keys buttons) and choose the 2 partitions size 100000 and 20000 MB (one thing to note here is that you have to choose between Primary and  Logical creation of partitions, as my SSD is a secondary drive and I already have a ) and then press the
WRITE button to save all the partition changes.

!!! Be very careful here as you might break up your other disks data make sure you're really modifying the SSD Hard Drive and not your other /dev/sda or other attached external Hard drive or ATA / SATA disk.
Press the WRITE button only once you're absolutely sure, you do it at your own (always create backup of your other data and don't blame me if something goes wrong) …

Once created the two partitions will look like in the screenshot below:
creating-linux-partitions-with-cfdisk-linux-partitioning-tool.png

 


3. Create ext4 filesystem 100 and 20 GB partitions

Next thing to do before the two partitions are ready to mount under Webserver's files documentroot /var/www and /var/lib/mysql is to create ext4 filesystem, though some might prefer to stick to ext3 or reiserfs partition, I would recommend you use ext4 for the reason ext4 according to my quick research is said to perform much better with SSD Hard Drives.

The tool to create the ext4 filesystems is mkfs4.ext4 it is provided by debian package e2fsprogs I have it already installed on my server, if you don't have it just go on and install it with:
 

linux:~# apt-get install –yes e2fsprogs

 

To create the two ext4 partitions run:
 

linux:~# mkfs4.ext4 /dev/sdb5

 

linux:~# mfs4.ext4 /dev/sdb6


Here the EXT4 filesystem on partition that is supposed to be 100 Gigabytes will take 2, 3 minutes as the dimensions of partition are a bit bigger, so if you don't want to get boring go grab a coffee, once the partitions are ready you can evaluate whether everyhing is properly created with fdisk you should get output like the one below

 

linux:~# fdisk -l /dev/sdb
Disk /dev/sdb: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders, total 234441648 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1              63   234441647   117220792+   5  Extended
/dev/sdb5             126    39070079    19534977   83  Linux
/dev/sdb6        39070143   234441647    97685752+  83  Linux

 

4. Mount newly created SSD partitions under /var/www and /var/lib/mysql

Before I mounted /var/www and /var/lib/mysql in order to be able to mount under the already existing directories I had to:

1. Stop Apache and MySQL server
2. Move Mysql and Apache Documentroot and Data directories to -bak
3. Create new empty /var/www and /var/lib/mysql direcotries
4. Copy backpups ( /var/www-bak and /var/lib/mysql-bak ) to the newly mounted ext4 SSD partitions

To achieve that I had to issue following commands:
 

linux:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 stop
linux:~# /etc/init.d/mysql stop

linux:~# mv /var/www /var/www-bak
linux:~# mv /var/lib/mysql /var/lib/mysql-bak

linux:~# mkdir /var/www
linux:~# mkdir /var/lib/mysql
linux:~# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql


Then to manually mount the SSD partitions:
 

linux:~# mount  /dev/sdb5 /var/lib/mysql
linux:~# mount /dev/sdb6 /var/www


To check that the folders are mount into the SSD drive, ran mount cmd:

 

linux:~# mount
/dev/sda1 on / type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,noexec,nosuid,gid=5,mode=620)
fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw)
/dev/sdc1 on /backups type ext4 (rw)
/dev/sdb5 on /var/lib/mysql type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered))
/dev/sdb6 on /var/www type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered))

 

That's great now the filesystem mounts fine, however as it an SSD drive and SSD drives are being famous for having a number of limited writes on disk before the drive lifetime is over it is a good idea to increase a bit the lifetime of the SSD by mounting the SSD partitions with noatime and errors=remount-ro (in order to not log file access times to filesystem table and to remount the FS read only in case of some physical errors of the drive).

5. Configure SSD partitions to boot every time Linux reboots

Now great, the filesystems gets mounted fine so next thing to do is to make it automatically mount every time the Linux OS boots up, this on GNU / Linux is done through /etc/fstab, for my 2 ext4 partitions this is the content to add at the end of /etc/fstab:

 

/dev/sdb5               /var/lib/mysql      ext4        noatime,errors=remount-ro       0       1
/dev/sdb6               /var/www        ext4    noatime,errors=remount-ro       0       1

 

quickest way to add it without a text editor is to echo to the end of file:
 

linux:~# cp -rpf /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.bak_25_03_2016
linux:~# echo ' /dev/sdb5               /var/lib/mysql      ext4        noatime,errors=remount-ro,discard       0       1' >> /etc/fstab
linux:~# echo ' /dev/sdb6               /var/www        ext4    noatime,errors=remount-ro,discard       0       1 ' >> /etc/fstab


Then mount again all the filesystems including the 2 new created SSD (100 and 20 GB) partitions:
 

linux:~# umount /var/www
linux:~# umount /var/lib/mysql
linux:~# mount -a


To assure properly mounted with noatime and remount-ro on errors options:


linux:~# mount | grep -i sdb
/dev/sdb5 on /var/lib/mysql type ext4 (rw,noatime,errors=remount-ro)
/dev/sdb6 on /var/www type ext4 (rw,noatime,errors=remount-ro)

 

It is also a good idea to check a statistics of disk free command:
 

linux:~# df -h|grep -i sdb
/dev/sdb5         19G  0G    19G  0% /var/lib/mysql
/dev/sdb6         92G   0G    92G  0% /var/www


6. Copy all Webserver and SQL data from backupped directories to new SSD mounted

Last but not least is to copy all original content files from /var/www-bak and /var/lib/mysql-bak to the new freshly  created SSD partitions, though copying the files can be made with normal linux copy command (cp),
I personally prefer rsync because rsync is much quicker and more efficient in copying large amount of files in my case this were 48 Gigabytes.

To copy files from with rsync:

 

linux:~# rsync -av –log-file /var/log/backup.log  /var/www-bak /var/www
linux:~# rsync -av –log-file /var/log/backup.log  /var/lib/mysql-bak /var/lib/mysql


Then ofcourse, finally to restore my websites normal operation I had to bring up the Apache Webservers and MySQL service

 

linux:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 start
linux:~# /etc/init.d/mysql start


7. Optimizing SSD performance with periodic trim (discard of unused blocks on a mounted filesystem)

As I digged deeper into how to even further optimize SSD drive performance I learned about the cleaning action TRIM of the partitions for a long term performance proper operation, to understand it better think about trimming like Windows degrament operatin.
 

NAME
fstrim – discard unused blocks on a mounted filesystem

SYNOPSIS
fstrim [-o offset] [-l length] [-m minimum-free-extent] [-v] mountpoint

DESCRIPTION
fstrim is used on a mounted filesystem to discard (or "trim") blocks which are not in use by the filesystem. This is useful for
solid-state drives (SSDs) and thinly-provisioned storage.

By default, fstrim will discard all unused blocks in the filesystem. Options may be used to modify this behavior based on range or
size, as explained below.


Trimming is really necessery, otherwise SSD become very slow after some time. All modern SSD's support TRIM, but older SSD's from before 2010 usually don't.
Thus for an older SSD you'll want to check this on the website of the manufacturer.

As I mentioned earlier TRIM is not supported by all SSD drives, to check whether TRIM is supported by SSD:

linux:~# hdparm -I /dev/sdb|grep -i -E 'trim|discard'
                  *          Data set Management TRIM supported (limit 1 block)

It's easiest to let the system perform an automatic TRIM. That can be done in several ways.

The quickest way for trimming is to place into /etc/rc.local trim  commands, in my case it was the following commands:

 

fstrim -v /var/lib/mysql
fstrim -v /var/www

To add it I've used my favourite vim text editor.
Adding commands to rc.local will make SSD trimming be executed at boot time so this will reduce a bit the downtime during the trim with some time so perhaps for those like me which are running a crually important websites a better

An alternative way is to schedule a daily cron job to do just place a new job in /etc/cron.daily/trim e.g.:
 

linux:~# vim /etc/cron.daily/trim

 

#!/bin/sh
fstrim -v /var/lib/mysql
fstrim -v /var/www

linux:~# chmod +x /etc/cron.daily/trim

However the best way to enable automatic trimming to SSD  is to just add the discard parameter to /etc/fstab I've already done that earlier in this article.

Not really surprising the increase of websites opening (page load times) were decreased dramatically web page loading waiting time fall down 2 to 2.5 times, so the moral of story for me is always when possible from now on to use SSD in order to have superb websites opening times.

To sum it up what was achieved with moving my data into SSD Drive, before moving websites and SQL data to SSD drive the websites were opening for 6 to 10 seconds now sites open in 2 to 4.5 seconds which is below 5 seconds (the normal waiting time for a user to see your website).
By the way it should be not a news forfor people that are into Search Engine Optimization but might be for some of unexperienced new Admins and Webmasters that, all that all page opening times that  exceeds 5 secs is considered to be a slow website (and therefore perhaps not worthy to read).
The high load page times >5 secs makes the website also less interesting not only for end users but also for search engines (Google / Yahoo / Bing / Baidoo etc.) will is said to crawl it less if website is slow.
Search Engines are said to Index much better and crawl more frequently into more responsive websites.
Hence implementing SSD to a server and decreasing the page load time should bring up my visitors stats a bit too.

Well that's all for today, hope you enjoyed 🙂

Top Paying Google Adsense Keywords for 2013 – Increase blog earnings with high paying keywords

Wednesday, July 31st, 2013

Most-High-Paying-Google-AdSense-Keywords-for-year-2013-Increase-your-revenues-from-Google-with-these-keywords

Whether you're a blogger and you're trying to earn some extra cash for your daily living via blogging you already know how hard it is. It is not hard it is almost impossible to earn enough from Blog or personal website to make it your primary source of income. With the Crisis the CPC (Cost Per Click) rate of Advertisements and the number of people willing to pay big money for Cost per click dropped down drastically … This means also our earnings as bloggers decreased badly … However there is still a bit of hope to boost a bit Google Adsense Paying revenues, by trying to write articles including certain high payed keywords. Not surprisingly this high pay keywords vary seriously over years. You might be shocked to know that there are some keywords for which Google pays over 100$ per CLICK!!! OMG 100$ per click this sounds unrealistic but according to some rumors online its a fact. I've found on the internet a list of 70 keywords said to make your blog money per click from 179 dollars (highest clickable advertiser pay fee) to 51 bucks at minimum. Actually the reason to write this post was to test if this rumors with so high CPC are true. I will update the post later to tell you whether really top words work or its jus ta big fraud. Here is list of 70 top earning Google Adsense revenue keywords for 2013

Keywords
CPC
MESOTHELIOMA LAW FIRM
    $179.01
DONATE CAR TO CHARITY CALIFORNIA
    $130.25
DONATE CAR FOR TAX CREDIT
    $126.65
DONATE CARS IN MA
    $125.58
DONATE YOUR CAR SACRAMENTO
    $118.20
HOW TO DONATE A CAR IN CALIFORNIA
    $111.21
SELL ANNUITY PAYMENT
    $107.46
DONATE YOUR CAR FOR KIDS
    $106.01
ASBESTOS LAWYERS
    $105.84
STRUCTURED ANNUITY SETTLEMENT
    $100.8
ANNUITY SETTLEMENTS
    $100.72
CAR INSURANCE QUOTES COLORADO
    $100.93
NUNAVUT CULTURE
    $99.52
DAYTON FREIGHT LINES
    $99.39
HARDDRIVE DATA RECOVERY SERVICES
    $98.59
DONATE A CAR IN MARYLAND
    $98.51
MOTOR REPLACEMENTS
    $98.43
CHEAP DOMAIN REGISTRATION HOSTING
    $98.39
DONATING A CAR IN MARYLAND
    $98.20
DONATE CARS ILLINOIS
    $98.13
CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS FLORIDA
    $98.07
BEST CRIMINAL LAWYER IN ARIZONA
    $97.93
CAR INSURANCE QUOTES UTAH
    $97.92
LIFE INSURANCE CO LINCOLN
    $97.07
HOLLAND MICHIGAN COLLEGE
    $95.74
ONLINE MOTOR INSURANCE QUOTES
    $95.73
ONLINE COLLEDGES
    $95.65
PAPERPORT PROMOTIONAL CODE
    $95.13
ONLINECLASSES
    $95.06
WORLD TRADE CENTER FOOTAGE
    $95.02
MASSAGE SCHOOL DALLAS TEXAS
    $94.90
PSYCHIC FOR FREE
    $94.61
DONATE OLD CARS TO CHARITY
    $94.55
LOW CREDIT LINE CREDIT CARDS
    $94.49
DALLAS MESOTHELIOMA ATTORNEYS
    $94.33
CAR INSURANCE QUOTES MN
    $94.29
DONATE YOUR CAR FOR MONEY
    $94.01
CHEAP AUTO INSURANCE IN VA
    $93.84
MET AUTO
    $93.70
FORENSICS ONLINE COURSE
    $93.51
HOME PHONE INTERNET BUNDLE
    $93.32
DONATING USED CARS TO CHARITY
    $93.17
PHD IN COUNSELING EDUCATION
    $92.99 
NEUSON
    $92.89
CAR INSURANCE QUOTES PA
    $92.88
ROYALTY FREE IMAGES STOCK
    $92.76
CAR INSURANCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA
    $92.72
EMAIL BULK SERVICE
    $92.55
WEBEX COSTS
    $92.38
CHEAP CAR INSURANCE FOR LADIES
    $92.23
CHEAP CAR INSURANCE IN VIRGINIA
    $92.03
REGISTER FREE DOMAINS
    $92.03
BETTER CONFERENCING CALLS
    $91.44
FUTURISTIC ARCHITECTURE
    $91.44
MORTGAGE ADVISER
    $91.29
CAR DONATE
    $88.26
VIRTUAL DATA ROOMS
    $83.18
AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT ATTORNEY
    $76.57
AUTO ACCIDENT ATTORNEY
    $75.64
CAR ACCIDENT LAWYERS
    $75.17
DATA RECOVERY RAID
    $73.22
MOTOR INSURANCE QUOTES
    $68.61
PERSONAL INJURY LAWYER
    $66.53
CAR INSURANCE QUOTES
    $61.03
ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER
    $60.96
INJURY LAWYERS
    $60.79
PERSONAL INJURY LAW FIRM
    $60.56
ONLINE CRIMINAL JUSTICE DEGREE
    $60.4
CAR INSURANCE COMPANIES
    $58.66
BUSINESS VOIP SOLUTIONS
    $51.9

FreeBSD Jumbo Frames network configuration short how to

Wednesday, March 14th, 2012

FreeBSD Jumbo Frames Howto configure FreeBSD

Recently I wrote a post on how to enable Jumbo Frames on GNU / Linux , therefore I thought it will be useful to write how Jumbo Frames network boost can be achieved on FreeBSD too.

I will skip the details of what is Jumbo Frames, as in the previous article I have thoroughfully explained. Just in short to remind you what is Jumbo Frames and why you might need it? – it is a way to increase network MTU transfer frames from the MTU 1500 to MTU of 9000 bytes

It is interesting to mention that according to specifications, the maximum Jumbo Frames MTU possible for assignment are of MTU=16128
Just like on Linux to be able to take advantage of the bigger Jumbo Frames increase in network thoroughput, you need to have a gigabyt NIC card/s on the router / server.

1. Increasing MTU to 9000 to enable Jumbo Frames "manually"

Just like on Linux, the network tool to use is ifconfig. For those who don't know ifconfig on Linux is part of the net-tools package and rewritten from scratch especially for GNU / Linux OS, whether BSD's ifconfig is based on source code taken from 4.2BSD UNIX

As you know, network interface naming on FreeBSD is different, as there is no strict naming like on Linux (eth0, eth1, eth2), rather the interfaces are named after the name of the NIC card vendor for instance (Intel(R) PRO/1000 NIC is em0), RealTek is rl0 etc.

To set Jumbro Frames Maximum Transmission Units of 9000 on FreeBSD host with a Realtek and Intel gigabyt ethernet cards use:freebsd# /sbin/ifconfig em0 192.168.1.2 mtu 9000
freebsd# /sbin/ifconfig rl0 192.168.2.2 mtu 9000

!! Be very cautious here, as if you're connected to the system remotely over ssh you might loose connection to it because of broken routing.

To prevent routing loss problems, if you're executing the above two commands remotely, you better run them in GNU screen session:

freebsd# screen
freebsd# /sbin/ifconfig em0 192.168.1.2 mtu 9000; /sbin/ifconfig rl0 192.168.1.2 mtu 9000; \
/etc/rc.d/netif restart; /etc/rc.d/routed restart

2. Check MTU settings are set to 9000

If everything is fine the commands will return empty output, to check further the MTU is properly set to 9000 issue:

freebsd# /sbin/ifconfig -a|grep -i em0em0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 9000freebsd# /sbin/ifconfig -a|grep -i rl0
rl0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 9000

3. Reset routing for default gateway

If you have some kind of routing assigned for em0 and rl0, network interfaces they will be affected by the MTU change and the routing will be gone. To reset the routing to the previously properly assigned routing, you have to restart the BSD init script taking care for assigning routing on system boot time:

freebsd# /etc/rc.d/routing restart
default 192.168.1.1 done
add net default: gateway 192.168.1.1
Additional routing options: IP gateway=YES.

4. Change MTU settings for NIC card with route command

There is also a way to assign higher MTU without "breaking" the working routing, e.g. avoiding network downtime with bsd route command:

freebsd# grep -i defaultrouter /etc/rc.conf
defaultrouter="192.168.1.1"
freebsd# /sbin/route change 192.168.1.1 -mtu 9000
change host 192.168.1.1

5. Finding the new MTU NIC settings on the FreeBSD host

freebsd# /sbin/route -n get 192.168.1.1
route to: 192.168.1.1
destination: 192.168.1.1
interface: em0
flags: <UP,HOST,DONE,LLINFO,WASCLONED>
recvpipe sendpipe ssthresh rtt,msec rttvar hopcount mtu expire
0 0 0 0 0 0 9000 1009

6. Set Jumbo Frames to load automatically on system load

To make the increased MTU to 9000 for Jumbo Frames support permanent on a FreeBSD system the /etc/rc.conf file is used:

The variable for em0 and rl0 NICs are ifconfig_em0 and ifconfig_rl0.
The lines to place in /etc/rc.conf should be similar to:

ifconfig_em0="inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 media 1000baseTX mediaopt half-duplex mtu 9000"
ifconfig_em0="inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 media 1000baseTX mediaopt half-duplex mtu 9000"

Change in the above lines the gateway address 192.168.1.1 and the netmask 255.255.255.0 to yours corresponding gw and netmask.
Also in the above example you see the half-duplex ifconfig option is set insetad of full-duplex in order to prevent some duplex mismatches. A full-duplex could be used instead, if you're completely sure on the other side of the host is configured to support full-duplex connections. Otherwise if you try to set full-duplex with other side set to half-duplex or auto-duplex a duplex mismatch will occur. If this happens insetad of taking the advantage of the Increase Jumbo Frames MTU the network connection could become slower than originally with standard ethernet MTU of 1500. One other bad side if you end up with duplex-mismatch could be a high number of loss packets and degraded thoroughout …

7. Setting Jumbo Frames for interfaces assigning dynamic IP via DHCP

If you need to assign an MTU of 9000 for a gigabyt network interfaces, which are receiving its TCP/IP network configuration over DHCP server.
First, tell em0 and rl0 network interfaces to dynamically assign IP addresses via DHCP proto by adding in /etc/rc.conf:

ifconfig_em0="DHCP"
ifconfig_rl0="DHCP"

Secondly make two files /etc/start_if.em0 and /etc/start_if.rl0 and include in each file:

ifconfig em0 media 1000baseTX mediaopt full-duplex mtu 9000
ifconfig rl0 media 1000baseTX mediaopt full-duplex mtu 9000

Copy / paste in root console:

echo 'ifconfig em0 media 1000baseTX mediaopt full-duplex mtu 9000' >> /etc/start_if.em0
echo 'ifconfig rl0 media 1000baseTX mediaopt full-duplex mtu 9000' >> /etc/start_if.rl0

Finally, to load the new MTU for both interfaces, reload the IPs with the increased MTUs:

freebsd# /etc/rc.d/routing restart
default 192.168.1.1 done
add net default: gateway 192.168.1.1

8. Testing if Jumbo Frames is working correctly

To test if an MTU packs are transferred correctly through the network you can use ping or tcpdumpa.) Testing Jumbo Frames enabled packet transfers with tcpdump

freebsd# tcpdump -vvn | grep -i 'length 9000'

You should get output like:

16:40:07.432370 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 50, id 63903, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 9000) 192.168.1.2.80 > 192.168.1.1.60213: . 85825:87285(1460) ack 668 win 14343
16:40:07.432588 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 50, id 63904, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 9000) 192.168.1.2.80 > 192.168.1.1.60213: . 87285:88745(1460) ack 668 win 14343
16:40:07.433091 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 50, id 63905, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 9000) 192.168.1.2.80 > 192.168.1.1.60213: . 23153:24613(1460) ack 668 win 14343
16:40:07.568388 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 50, id 63907, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 9000) 192.168.1.2.80 > 192.168.1.1.60213: . 88745:90205(1460) ack 668 win 14343
16:40:07.568636 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 50, id 63908, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 9000) 192.168.1.2.80 > 192.168.1.1.60213: . 90205:91665(1460) ack 668 win 14343
16:40:07.569012 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 50, id 63909, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 9000) 192.168.1.2.80 > 192.168.1.1.60213: . 91665:93125(1460) ack 668 win 14343
16:40:07.569888 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 50, id 63910, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 9000) 192.168.1.2.80 > 192.168.1.1.60213: . 93125:94585(1460) ack 668 win 14343

b.) Testing if Jumbo Frames are enabled with ping

Testing Jumbo Frames with ping command on Linux

linux:~# ping 192.168.1.1 -M do -s 8972
PING 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1) 8972(9000) bytes of data.
9000 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_req=1 ttl=52 time=43.7 ms
9000 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_req=2 ttl=52 time=43.3 ms
9000 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_req=3 ttl=52 time=43.5 ms
9000 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_req=4 ttl=52 time=44.6 ms
--- 192.168.0.1 ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 2.397/2.841/4.066/0.708 ms

If you get insetad an an output like:

From 192.168.1.2 icmp_seq=1 Frag needed and DF set (mtu = 1500)
From 192.168.1.2 icmp_seq=1 Frag needed and DF set (mtu = 1500)
From 192.168.1.2 icmp_seq=1 Frag needed and DF set (mtu = 1500)
From 192.168.1.2 icmp_seq=1 Frag needed and DF set (mtu = 1500)

--- 192.168.1.1 ping statistics ---
0 packets transmitted, 0 received, +4 errors

This means a packets with maximum MTU of 1500 could be transmitted and hence something is not okay with the Jumbo Frames config.
Another helpful command in debugging MTU and showing which host in a hop queue support jumbo frames is Linux's traceroute

To debug a path between host and target, you can use:

linux:~# traceroute --mtu www.google.com
...

If you want to test the Jumbo Frames configuration from a Windows host use ms-windows ping command like so:

C:\>ping 192.168.1.2 -f -l 8972
Pinging 192.168.1.2 with 8972 bytes of data:
Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=8972 time=2ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=8972 time=2ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=8972 time=2ms TTL=255
Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=8972 time=2ms TTL=255
Ping statistics for 192.168.1.2:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 2ms, Maximum = 2ms, Average = 2ms

Here -l 8972 value is actually equal to 9000. 8972 = 9000 – 20 (20 byte IP header) – 8 (ICMP header)