Posts Tagged ‘cdrom’

How to copy CD or DVD on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD using console or terminal

Monday, November 14th, 2011

CD Burning Console Terminal Linux / FreeBSD picture

These days more and more people start to forget the g* / Linux old times when we used to copy CDs from console using dd in conjunction with mkisofs .

Therefore to bring some good memories back of the glorious console times I decided to come up with this little post.

To copy a CD or DVD the first thing one should do is to make an image copy of the present inserted CD into the CD-drive with dd :

1. Make copy of the CD/DVD image using dd

# dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/mycd.iso bs=2048 conv=notrunc

/dev/cdrom is the location of the cdrom device, on many Linuces including (Debian) /dev/cdrom is just a link to the /dev/ which corresponds to the CD drive. Note on FreeBSD the location for the CD Drive is /dev/acd0
/tmp/mycd.iso instructs dd CD image creation to be placed in /tmp/ directory.
bs argument instructs it about the byte size portions by which the content of the CD-Drive inserted CD will be read. bs value of 2048 is actually only 2KB per dd read, increasing this value will decrease the time required for the CD image to be extracted.

2. Prepare CD image file to be ready for burning

After dd completes the image copy operation, next to prepare the extracted image / ISO to be ready for burning mkisofs is used:

# mkisofs -J -L -r -V TITLE -o /tmp/imagefile.iso /tmp/mycd.iso

The -J option makes the CD compatible for Pcs running Microsoft Windows. The -V TITLE option should be changed to whatever title the new CD should have, -r will add up status bar for the mkisofs operation.
-r is passed to create specific file permissions on the newly created CD, -o specifies the location where mkisofs will produce its file based on the CD image /tmp/mycd.iso .

3. Burning the mkisofs image file to a CD/DVD on GNU / Linux

linux:~# cdrecord -scanbus
linux:~# cdrecord dev=1,0,0 /tmp/imagefile.iso

If all wents okay with cdrecord operation, after a while the CD should be ready.

4. Burning the mkisofs image file to CD on FreeBSD

freebsd# burncd -f /dev/acd0 data /tmp/imagefile.iso fixate

The end of the work week :)

Friday, February 1st, 2008

One more week passed without serious server problems. Yesterday after upgrade to debian 4.0rc2 with

apt-get dist-upgrade and reboot the pc-freak box became unbootable.

I wasn’t able to fix it until today because the machine’s box seemed not to read cds well.The problem was consisted of this that after the boot process of the linux kernel has started the machine the boot up was interrupted with a message saying
/sbin/init is missing

and I was dropped to a busybox without being able to read nothing from my filesystem.Thankfully nomen came to Dobrich for the weekend and today he bring me his cdrom-drive I booted with the debian.

Using Debian’s linux rescue I mounted the partition to check what’s wrong. I suspected something is terribly wrong with the lilo’s conf.

Looking closely to it I saw it’s the lilo conf file it was setupped to load a initrd for the older kernel. changing the line to thenew initrd in /etc/lilo.conf and rereading the lilo; /sbin/lilo -C; /sbin/lilo;

fixed the mess and pc-freak booted succesfully! 🙂

Yesterday I had to do something kinky. It was requested from a client to have access to a mysql service of one of the company servers,the problem was that the client didn’t have static IP so I didn’t have a good way to put into the current firewall.

Everytime the adsl they use got restarted a new absolutely random IP from all the BTC IP ranges was assigned.

The solution was to make a port redirect to a non-standard mysql port (XXXXX) which pointed to the standard 3306 service. I had to tell the firewall not to check the coming IPs on the non-standard port (XXXXX) against the 3306 service fwall rules.

Thanks to the help of a guy inirc.freenode.net #iptables jengelh I figured out the solution.

To complete the requested task it was needed to mark all packagescoming into port (XXXXX) using the iptables mangle option and to add a rule to ACCEPT all marked packages.

The rules looked like this

/sbin/iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp –dport XXXXX -j MARK –set-mark 123456/sbin/iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d EXTERNAL_IP -i eth0 -p tcp –dport XXXXX -j DNAT –to-destination EXTERNAL_IP:3306

/sbin/iptables -t filter -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 3306 -m mark –mark 123456 -j ACCEPT .

Something I wondered a bit was should /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward in order for the above redirect to be working, in case you’re wondering too well it doesn’t 🙂 The working week was a sort of quiteful no serious problems with servers and work no serious problems at school (although I see me and my collegues become more and more unserious) at studying. My grand parentsdecided to make me a gift and give me money to buy a laptop and I’m pretty happy for this 🙂 All that is left is to choose a good machine with hardware supported both by FreeBSD and Linux.

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