Posts Tagged ‘certificate’

Fix “Secure Connection Failed” – An error occured SSL received a record that exceeded the maximum permissible length howto

Monday, September 14th, 2015

When I was trying to establish a new Internal Business SSL certificate on one of the 6 months planned SPLIT projects (e.g. duplicate a range systems environment to another one), I've stumbled a very odd SSL issue. Once I've setup all the virtualhost SSL configurations properly (identical SSL configuration directives and Apache Webserver version to another host and testing in a browser I was getting the following error:

Secure Connection Failed

An error occurred during a connection to

SSL received a record that exceeded the maximum permissible length.

(Error code: ssl_error_rx_record_too_long)

Below is a screenshot:

The page you are trying to view can not be shown because the authenticity of the received data could not be verified. Please contact the web site owners to inform them of this problem. Alternatively, use the command found in the help menu to report this broken site.

The first logical thing to do was to check the error.log but there was no any errors there that point me to anything meaningful, besides that the queries I was making to the Domain doesn't show off as requests neither in Apache access.log nor in error.log so this was puzzling.
I thought I might have messed up something during Key file / CSR generation time so I revoked old certificate and reissued it.


$ openssl x509 -text -in |less ertificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2) Serial Number:

Shows that all is fine with certificate Then when trying to test remote certificate with SSL command:


openssl s_client -CApath -connect

: There was an error After plenty of research in Google I come to conclusion something is either wrong with Listen httpd.conf directive or NameVirtualHost is binded to port 80 or some other port different from 443, however surprisingly I did not used the NameVirtualHost at all in my apache config. After a lot of pondering I finally spot it. The whole certificate isseus were caused by:

< – Less than sign

which I missaw and forget to clean up from template during IP paste (obtained from /sbin/ifconfig |grep -i xx.xx.xx.xx). So finally in order to fix the SSL error I had to just delete <, e.g.:

<VirtualHost <>

had to become:



Such a minor thing took me 3 hours of pondering to resolve and thanksfully it is finally fixed! Then of course had to restart Apache to make fixed Vhost settings working:

# apachectl stop; sleep 2; apachectl start

So now the SSL works again, thanks God!

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Weblogic – How to change / remove IP/hostname quick and dirty howto

Wednesday, March 11th, 2015


This is just quick & dirty doc on how to change/remove IP/host on Oracle WebLogic Application server

– In logs the Error message will be message like:


<Oct 21, 2013 1:06:51 AM SGT> <Warning> <Security> <BEA-090504> <Certificate chain received from – failed hostname verification check. Certificate contained but check expected>




On web console – change/remove IP/hostname


As root / admin supersuser:


– Stop Weblogic Webserver 

As this is RHEL Linux, to stop WLS use standard init script start / stop service command


service wls stop


– As Application user create directory where new key will be created


mkdir /home/uwls11pp/tmp_key
cd /home/uwls11pp/tmp_key


– Make backup of current JKS (Keystore File)


cp /WLS/app/oracle/wls1036/wlserver_10.3/server/lib/DemoIdentity.jks /WLS/app/oracle/wls1036/wlserver_10.3/server/lib/DemoIdentity.jks_11032015


– Execute set env . script




– Copy & paste output from script above and export variables


export PATH;


– Check old certificate in keystore


/WLS/app/oracle/jdk1.7.0_25/bin/keytool -list -v -keystore /WLS/app/oracle/wls1036/wlserver_10.3/server/lib/DemoIdentity.jks  -storepass DemoIdentityKeyStorePassPhrase


– Delete old Weblogic keystore JKS file


/WLS/app/oracle/jdk1.7.0_25/bin/keytool -delete -alias demoidentity -keystore /WLS/app/oracle/wls1036/wlserver_10.3/server/lib/DemoIdentity.jks -storepass DemoIdentityKeyStorePassPhrase


– Check wether proper Java version is used


java -version


– Get hostname from hosts file


cat /etc/hosts


#Replace weblogic1 with your FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) – this step will create new certificate with new hostname


java utils.CertGen -cn weblogic1 -keyfilepass DemoIdentityPassPhrase -certfile newcert -keyfile newkey


#Import certificate to “official” keystore


java utils.ImportPrivateKey -keystore /WLS/app/oracle/wls1036/wlserver_10.3/server/lib/DemoIdentity.jks -storepass DemoIdentityKeyStorePassPhrase -keyfile newkey.pem -keyfilepass DemoIdentityPassPhrase -certfile newcert.pem -alias demoidentity


#Recheck once again if correct certificate is in use


/WLS/app/oracle/jdk1.7.0_25/bin/keytool -list -v -keystore /WLS/app/oracle/wls1036/wlserver_10.3/server/lib/DemoIdentity.jks  -storepass DemoIdentityKeyStorePassPhrase

– Finally issue as root user restart Weblogic server again



service wls start

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Apache SSLCertificateChainFile adding SSL with Certificate Chain / What is Certificate Chain

Friday, January 31st, 2014


If you work in a big company with large network infrastructure who has to deal with SSL Certificates you will sooner or later will have to learn about existence of SSL Certificate Chains.
Its worthy thus to know what is SSL Certificate Chains and how such a chain is configured in Apache?

Personal SSL certificates (certificates issued to an individual or a company) can be used by clients to uniquely identify themselves when they are involved in starting an SSL connection.
SSL Certificate file contains X.509 certificate, which, in turn, contains a public key used for encryption.
Each personal certificate has zero or more certificate chains of certification authority certificates that extend back to the root certification authority.

Certificate R (Root Certification Authority)
    | represents issuer of
Certificate I1 (Intermediate Certification Authority)
    | represents issuer of
Certificate I2 (A subsidiary Intermediate Certification Authority)
    | represents issuer of
Certificate I3 (A further subsidiary Intermediate Certification Authority)
    | represents issuer of
Certificate P (A personal certificate that is used to identify its owner
               on an SSL handshake)

Certificate chains are used to verify the authenticity of each certificate in that chain, including the personal certificate. Each certificate in the chain is validated using its 'parent' certificate, which in turn is validated using the next certificate up the chain, and so on, from the personal certificate up to the root certification authority certificate.

Now after explaining thoroughfully what is SSL Certificate Chain, here is how to configure a SSL Certificate in Apache Webserver.

Open apache2.conf or httpd.conf (depending on GNU / Linux distribution) and add to it;

  SSLEngine On
   SSLCertificateFile conf/cert/webserver-host.crt
   SSLCertificateKeyFile conf/cert/webserver-host.key
   SSLCertificateChainFile conf/cert/internet-v4.crt
   # SSLCertificateChainFile conf/cert/intranet-v3.crt
   SSLOptions +StdEnvVars +OptRenegotiate +ExportCertData

SSLCertificateChainFile conf/cert/chain-cert.crt
loads a chain of separate Personal SSL certificates each signing each other on different levels, chain is leading to top ROOT CA (Certificate Authority).

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How to generate self signed SSL certificate with openssl on Linux / BSD

Wednesday, November 6th, 2013

How to generate self signed SSL certificate with openssl on Linux / BSD

It is common solution for personal use to generate SSL certificates which are self-signed. Self-signed certificates are dangerous as no authority or company guarantees that remote site is trustable. However for private use having encrypted connection whether you need to transfer personal data is better than not having such. There are plenty of tutorials online pointing how to set-up Apache webserver to provide access via SSL port 443 with self-signed certifacate, but anyways I decided to blog here a one-liner command way, which makes generating self-signed certificate a piece of cake. Self-signed certificates on UNIX are generated with openssl command part of openssl (Secure Socket Layer cryptocgraphic tools).

On Debian Linux to install openssl (if you still don't have it):

apt-get install --yes openssl

On Fedora, RHEL, CentOS etc. same install should be done with:

yum install -y openssl

On FreeBSD to install it use ports;

cd /usr/ports/security/openssl
make install clean

Once openssl is available, here is command to generate self signed SSL certitifacate;

openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 3650 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout my-sitename.key -out my-sitename.crt
Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
writing new private key to 'key.pem'
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:BG
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Sofia
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Sofia
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Pc Freak
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Pc Freak
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []
Email Address []

The generated certificate Private Key file is placed in my-sitename.key
, actual certificate is located in my-sitename.crt -days option tells for how long period certificate will be valid. Regenerating certificate every year (360 days) is good security practice but it is pretty annoying to see your certificate has expered thus for private self signed SSL certificate it is more confortable to generate cert for 10 years time.
To use my-sitename.key and my-sitename.crt copy them to /etc/ssl/crt/

cp -rpf my-sitename.crt /etc/ssl/crt/
cp -rpf my-sitename.key /etc/ssl/crt/

Next what's left is to configure Apache to use new generated certs. Quickest way is to add it inside virtual host. Adding to Apache also depends on Linux distribution where SSL has to be added but in general, what should work is something like:

SSLEngine on
SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/crt/my-sitename.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/crt/my-sitename.key

Note that if SSL has to be enabled for specific Virtual Host you will have to place above Apache directives into the Vhost. Though certifiate will only be trusted by your authority RSA 2048 bit encryption in transfer data between your Webserver and Browser should guarantee you extra security of data, not that it is impossible for data to be still sniffed by a skilled hacker but makes data securily transferred in probably 99% of cases 🙂

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Don’t revoke GoDaddy SSL certificate. (Expired) Revoked SSL is impossible to revert

Thursday, April 12th, 2012

One of our company SSL (https) Certificates recently expired so I needed to renew the SSL certificate.

I was in a hurry doing plenty of other stuffs so it seemed logical for me to Revoke the Certificate. I thought revoking the certificate will simply cancel it and afterwards, in Godaddy's SSL (Manager Certificates) interface the Revoked – Cancelled certificate will re-appear in the menu, ready to be generated in the same way as earlier I initially generated the Godaddy's bought SSL certificate

Hence I proceeded and used Revoke button:

Godaddy SSL certificate manager browser certificate Screenshot

Well guess what my calculations, were wrong.
 Revoking, just cancel it. The  revoked domain SSL certificate did not show up again in Godaddy's Cert Manager and I have no way from their interface to revert the changes.

To deal with the situation, I contacted Godaddy Support immediately with the following inquiry:

Other : Revoked SSL Certificate
Issue :
Hello we have revoked the SSL certificate for our domain
 Can we revert back the certificate as it was.
If not how to generate a new key for our domain
Thanks in Advance.
Kindest Regards

"My-Company-name" Tech Support

In 5 hours time I received the following tech support answer:

Dear Tech Support,

Thank you for contacting Online Support. It is not possible to reinstate a canceled certificate. You will need to purchase a new certificate. I have requested that a refund be applied to your account. Once the credit appears in your account, please allow 5-7 business days to see the funds applied to the associated payment method. Thank you for your patience and understanding in this matter.

Please let us know if we can help you in any other way.


Christian P.
Online Support Team
Customer Inquiry
Name : Cadia Tech Support
Domain Name :
ShopperID : xxxxxxxxx
Phone : xxxxxxxx
Shopper Validated : Yes
Browser : Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.1; en-US; rv: Gecko/20100401 Firefox/3.6.3

Apparently Godaddy, can work out a bit on their tech support answering time 5 hours for a simple reply is quite long.

Now taking in consideration, above reply from Godady, my only options are to either wait for 5 to 7 (business days) or buy a new credit for SSL certificate.

Buying a new credit will probably not happen as our company is experiencing some financial troubles because of the crisis. So I guess we will have to wait for this 7 days at worst. So again if you wonder to REVOKE or not an SSL certificate. Think again …

Just a small note to make here, that Godaddy has a very straight forward way to just renew an expered certificate, which I succesfully later have done for 4 domains. Well, if only I knew earlier what REVOKE SSL cert really does I wouldn't have ended in this mess …

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How to fix “sslserver: fatal: unable to load certificate” Qmail error on GNU / Linux

Friday, October 14th, 2011

After setupping a brand new Qmail installation following the QmailRocks Thibs Qmail Debian install guide , I’ve come across unexpected re-occuring error message in /var/log/qmail/qmail-smtpdssl/ , here is the message:

@400000004e9807b10d8bdb7c command-line: exec sslserver -e -vR -l -c 30 -u 89 -g 89
-x /etc/tcp.smtp.cdb 0 465 rblsmtpd -r -r -r -r qmail-smtpd /home/vpopmail/bin/vchkpw /bin/true 2>&1
@400000004e9807b10dae2ca4 sslserver: fatal: unable to load certificate

I was completely puzzled initially by the error as the sertificate file /var/qmail/control/servercert.pem was an existing and properly self generated one. Besides that qmail daemontools init script /service/qmail-smtpd/run was loading the file just fine, where the same file failed to get loaded when sslserver command with the cert argument was invoked via /service/qmail-smtpdssl/run

It took me quite a while to thoroughfully investigate on what’s wrong with the new qmail install. Thanksfully after almost an hour of puzzling I found it out and I was feeling as a complete moron to find that the all issues was caused by incorrect permissions of the /var/qmail/control/servercert.pem file.
Here are the incorrect permissions the file possessed:

linux:~# ls -al /var/qmail/control/servercert.pem
-rw------- 1 qmaild qmail 2311 2011-10-12 13:21 /var/qmail/control/servercert.pem

To fix up the error I had to allow all users to have reading permissions over servercert.pem , e.g.:

linux:~# chmod a+r /var/qmail/control/servercert.pem

After adding all users readable bit on servercert.pem the file permissions are like so:

linux:~# ls -al /var/qmail/control/servercert.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 qmaild qmail 2311 2011-10-12 13:21 /var/qmail/control/servercert.pem

Consequently I did a qmail restart to make sure the new readable servercert.pem will get loaded from the respective init script:

linux:~# qmailctl restart
* Stopping qmail-smtpdssl.
* Stopping qmail-smtpd.
* Sending qmail-send SIGTERM and restarting.
* Restarting qmail-smtpd.
* Restarting qmail-smtpdssl.

Now the annoying sslserver: fatal: unable to load certificate message is no more and all works fine, Hooray! 😉

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How to renew self signed QMAIL toaster and QMAIL rocks expired SSL pem certificate

Friday, September 2nd, 2011


One of the QMAIL server installs, I have installed very long time ago. I've been notified by clients, that the certificate of the mail server has expired and therefore I had to quickly renew the certificate.

This qmail installation, SSL certificates were located in /var/qmail/control under the names servercert.key and cervercert.pem

Renewing the certificates with a new self signed ones is pretty straight forward, to renew them I had to issue the following commands:

1. Generate servercert encoded key with 1024 bit encoding

debian:~# cd /var/qmail/control
debian:/var/qmail/control# openssl genrsa -des3 -out servercert.key.enc 1024
Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus
e is 65537 (0x10001)
Enter pass phrase for servercert.key.enc:
Verifying - Enter pass phrase for servercert.key.enc:

In the Enter pass phrase for servercert.key.enc I typed twice my encoded key password, any password is good, here though using a stronger one is better.

2. Generate the servercert.key file

debian:/var/qmail/control# openssl rsa -in servercert.key.enc -out servercert.key
Enter pass phrase for servercert.key.enc:
writing RSA key

3. Generate the certificate request

debian:/var/qmail/control# openssl req -new -key servercert.key -out servercert.csr
debian:/var/qmail/control# openssl rsa -in servercert.key.enc -out servercert.key
Enter pass phrase for servercert.key.enc:writing RSA key
root@soccerfame:/var/qmail/control# openssl req -new -key servercert.key -out servercert.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:UK
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:London
Locality Name (eg, city) []:London
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:My Company
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:My Org
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:
Email Address []

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

In the above prompts its necessery to fill in the company name and location, as each of the prompts clearly states.

4. Sign the just generated certificate request

debian:/var/qmail/control# openssl x509 -req -days 9999 -in servercert.csr -signkey servercert.key -out servercert.crt

Notice the option -days 9999 this option instructs the newly generated self signed certificate to be valid for 9999 days which is quite a long time, the reason why the previous generated self signed certificate expired was that it was built for only 365 days

5. Fix the newly generated servercert.pem permissions debian:~# cd /var/qmail/control
debian:/var/qmail/control# chmod 640 servercert.pem
debian:/var/qmail/control# chown vpopmail:vchkpw servercert.pem
debian:/var/qmail/control# cp -f servercert.pem clientcert.pem
debian:/var/qmail/control# chown root:qmail clientcert.pem
debian:/var/qmail/control# chmod 640 clientcert.pem

Finally to load the new certificate, restart of qmail is required:

6. Restart qmail server

debian:/var/qmail/control# qmailctl restart
Restarting qmail:
* Stopping qmail-smtpd.
* Sending qmail-send SIGTERM and restarting.
* Restarting qmail-smtpd.

Test the newly installed certificate

To test the newly installed SSL certificate use the following commands:

debian:~# openssl s_client -crlf -connect localhost:465 -quiet
depth=0 /C=UK/ST=London/L=London/O=My Org/OU=My Company/
verify error:num=18:self signed certificate
verify return:1
debian:~# openssl s_client -starttls smtp -crlf -connect localhost:25 -quiet
depth=0 /C=UK/ST=London/L=London/O=My Org/OU=My Company/
verify error:num=18:self signed certificate
verify return:1

If an error is returned like 32943:error:140770FC:SSL routines:SSL23_GET_SERVER_HELLO:unknown protocol:s23_clnt.c:607: this means that SSL variable in the qmail-smtpdssl/run script is set to 0.

To solve this error, change SSL=0 to SSL=1 in /var/qmail/supervise/qmail-smtpdssl/run and do qmailctl restart

The error verify return:1 displayed is perfectly fine and it's more of a warning than an error as it just reports the certificate is self signed.

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How to check if newly installed SSL certificate for IMAP and IMAPS is properly installed

Tuesday, June 28th, 2011

Did you have to regenerate your SSL certificate for your mail server’s IMAP and IMAP SSL service?
Did you have to find out if the newly installed certificates are fine after install?

Here is how:

          root@server-hosting [/usr/local ]# openssl s_client -connect
root@server-hosting [/usr/local ]# openssl s_client -connect -starttls imap

The output returned by this two commands will be the imap and imaps configured certificates as well as extensive info concerning the installed SSL, the last chunk of info to be spit is most crucial to know if certificate is fine.
It should be something like:

New, TLSv1/SSLv3, Cipher is AES256-SHA
Server public key is 1024 bit
Secure Renegotiation IS supported
Compression: NONE
Expansion: NONE
Protocol : TLSv1
Cipher : AES256-SHA
Session-ID: 0B69E91022CB56D64F56CFA08405944D9C4C0069EE4097890B98F1406CF084D5
Master-Key: 13745B94E0C5A0604EB7529E7409251961DFD5F4134F3A8F
Key-Arg : None
Start Time: 1309265383
Timeout : 300 (sec)
Verify return code: 18 (self signed certificate)
. OK CAPABILITY completed

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How to fix “Could not verify this certificate for unknown reasons” SSL certificate lighttpd troubles

Tuesday, June 28th, 2011

Firefox SSL Pro could not verify for uknown reasons solve error

I’ve been issuing new wildcard multiple SSL certificate to renew an expiring ones. After I completed the new certificate setup manually on the server (a CentOS 5.5 Final running SoluSVM Pro – Virtual Private Manager), I launched Firefox to give a try if the certificate is properly configured.

Instead of my expectations that the browser would just accept the certificate without spitting any error messages and all will be fine, insetad I got error with the just installed certificate and thus the browser failed to report the SSL cert is properly authenticated.

The company used to issue the SSL certificate is GlobeSSL – , it was quite “hassle”, with the tech support as the first certficate generated by globessl was generation based on SSL key file with 4096 key encryption.

As the first issued Authenticated certificate generated by GlobeSSL was not good further on about a week time was necessery to completethe required certificate reissuing ….

It wasn’t just GlobeSSL’s failure, as there were some spam filters on my side that was preventing some of GlobeSSL emails to enter normally, however what was partially their fault as they haven’t made their notification and confirmation emails to pass by a mid-level strong anti-spam filter…

Anyways my overall experience with GlobeSSL certificate reissue and especially their technical support is terrible.
To make a parallel, issuing certificates with GoDaddy is a way more easier and straight forward.

Now let me come back to the main certificate error I got in Firefox …

A bit of further investigation with the cert failure, has led me to the error message which tracked back to the newly installed SSL certificate issues.
In order to find the exact cause of the SSL certificate failure in Firefox I followed to the menus:

Tools -> Page Info -> Security -> View Certificate

Doing so in the General browser tab, there was the following error:

Could not verify this certificate for unknown reasons

The information on Could not verify this certificate for unknown reasons on the internet was very mixed and many people online suggested many possible causes of the issue, so I was about to loose myself.

Everything with the certificate seemed to be configured just fine in lighttpd, all the GlobeSSL issued .cer and .key file as well as the ca bundle were configured to be read used in lighttpd in it’s configuration file:

Here is a section taken from lighttpd.conf file which did the SSL certificate cert and key file configuration:

$SERVER["socket"] == "" {
ssl.engine = "enable"
ssl.pemfile = "/etc/lighttpd/ssl/wildcard.mydomain.bundle"

The file /etc/lighttpd/ssl/wildcard.mydomain.bundle was containing the content of both the .key (generated on my server with openssl) and the .cer file (issued by GlobeSSL) as well as the CA bundle (by GlobeSSL).

Even though all seemed to be configured well the SSL error Could not verify this certificate for unknown reasons was still present in the browser.

GlobeSSL tech support suggested that I try their Web key matcher interface to verify that everything is fine with my certificate and the cert key. Thanks to this interface I figured out all seemed to be fine with the issued certificate itself and something else should be causing the SSL oddities.
I was further referred by GlobeSSL tech support for another web interface to debug errors with newly installed SSL certificates.
These interface is called Verify and Validate Installed SSL Certificate and is found here

Even though this SSL domain installation error report and debug tool did some helpful suggestions, it wasn’t it that helped me solve the issues.

What helped was First the suggestion made by one of the many tech support guy in GlobeSSL who suggested something is wrong with the CA Bundle and on a first place the documentation on SolusVM’s wiki – .
Cccording to SolusVM’s documentation lighttpd.conf‘s file had to have one extra line pointing to a seperate file containing the issued CA bundle (which is a combined version of the issued SSL authority company SSL key and certificate).
The line I was missing in lighttpd.conf (described in dox), looked like so: = “/usr/local/solusvm/ssl/gd_bundle.crt”

Thus to include the directive I changed my previous lighttpd.conf to look like so:

$SERVER["socket"] == "" {
ssl.engine = "enable"
ssl.pemfile = "/etc/lighttpd/ssl/wildcard.mydomain.bundle" = "/etc/lighttpd/ssl/server.bundle.crt"

Where server.bundle.crt contains an exact paste from the certificate (CA Bundle) mailed by GlobeSSL.

There was a couple of other ports on which an SSL was configured so I had to include these configuration directive everywhere in my conf I had anything related to SSL.

Finally to make the new settings take place I did a lighttpd server restart.

[root@centos ssl]# /etc/init.d/lighttpd restart
Stopping lighttpd: [ OK ]
Starting lighttpd: [ OK ]

After lighttpd reinitiated the error was gone! Cheers ! 😉

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Howto create a (wildcard / multiple) SSL certificate

Thursday, June 23rd, 2011

Wildcard SSL picture

It’s the first time I’m creating a wildcard ssl certificate. It appeared there is no fundamental difference between generating a normal SSL certificate and generating a wildcard certificate.

The procedure for generating a wildcard SSL certificate is as follows:

1. Generate an SSL key file

server:~# /usr/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 -out 2048
Enter pass phrase for

Fill in any passphrase you like, the 2048 specifies the encryption level, 2048 is good enough and is the most commonly used as of today.
I’ve saw there is also an option to use 4096 bits encryption but I never tried that myself, I would be glad if somebody can share if he has succesfully established an SSL certificate with 4096 encryption.

2. Generate the certificate request file

server:~# /usr/bin/openssl req -new -key /home/hipo/ -out /home/hipo/

Further on it’s necessery to fill in some info concerning the newly generated webserver SSL, e.g.:

Enter pass phrase for /home/hipo/
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:
Email Address []:
Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

Fill all the values according to your requirements, the only vital thing here is to fill in a proper Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:

The Common Name should always be equal to * , if something else is typed in the SSL certificate won’t be considered a valid one when placed on the multiple subdomains.

The newly generated file should be looking something similar to:

server:~# less <

Next on this BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST will have to be filled in to the certificate issuer website, whether it’s requested, let’s say in GlobeSSL.

Based on the certificate request a valid SSL certificate will be issued by the SSL provider.
Here one important note to make is that if your domain contians some prohibited keywords like, let’s say bank, finance, poker etc., a keywords which might be considered a fraud or forgery then probably the SSL certificate won’t be issued by the SSL issuer and you will have to further contact the SSL cert provider and send them some more information related to the type of business the new website is going to run.
This kind of domain keyword filter, that is implemented by SSL certificate issuer companies is made to protect internet users from possible frauds or scam websites as well as reduce the level of potential dangerous pyramid like businesses that are so modern on the net these days.

Last step before the certificate will be visible in a browser is to set it for a domain name or virtualhost in Apache, lighttpd or whatever webser is used.
As I’m personally using it with Apache webserver, below I’ll describe how to set it in Apache version 2.x.
3. Configure the newly configured SSL certificate to run on Apache virtualhost

Open up the virtualhost file which coresponds to the domain name to be secured with SSL, for example /etc/apache/sites-available/
Within the <Virtualhost> directives place in a code similar to:

SSLEngine on
# cointains the wildcard SSL certificate generated and obtained by you from RapidSSL
SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/

Here the file /etc/apache2/ssl/ should contain both the:

—-BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY—– issued earlier in step one with openssl command, as well as:

—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—– which will be issued by the SSL certificate reseller.

Finally it’s necessery that Apache is restarted to load the new configured certificate:

server:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

The above described steps need to be repeated for all the wildcard subdomains which will use the multiple SSL generated certificate and hopefully if all is well tuned, the certificates should start appearing to all the web domain subdomains immediately.

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