Posts Tagged ‘Commands’

Common commands to Repair Broken or Unbootable Windows XP / Vista / 7 without system Re-install

Monday, October 22nd, 2012

Common commands to repair broken unbootable Windows XP 7 and Vista, the famous genuine great! mfc command :)
If you have severe problems with Windows 7 / Vista / XP whatever and you don’t want to re-install. It is handy to know about the existence of few commands, which can help you fix your basis Windows system without re-install. This commands are not to fix 100% of messed up Windows installs but in most cases I know, they either improved the state of the system or fixed it completely, so here are commands:

1. Change permissions of C:\boot.ini and delete it

Many Viruses install via standard Windows boot.ini file and change permissions of the file to make it hard to delete by programs and by
Administrator user. To solve that in Windows Safe Mode (without networking) exec:


C:\> COPY boot.ini boot.bak
C:\> ATTRIB -RSH C:\boot.ini
C:\> DEL boot.ini

-RSH ATTRIB cmd options instruct it to remove Read Only, System and Hidden flags from boot.ini.

2. Re-build boot.ini and other essential Win boot components


C:\> CD WINDOWS
C:\WINDOWS> BOOTCFG /REBUILD

BOOTCFG /Rebuild is a very important for recovering. The command will do complete evaluation with diagnostic tests trying to replace / repair whatever files are preventing OS boot.

3. Fix problems with Unbootable Windows Systems

If the system is completely unbootable you need to use the Windows Install (Setup) CDRecovery Console and in first boot up (blue screen), type R key to enter recovery console. There is option of automated recovery console but for me Automated System Recovery – ASR, never worked.
Once in Recovery Console to repair broken Windows boot up (fix winboot loader):


C:\WINDOWS> BOOTCFG /Rebuild
C:\WINDOWS> CHKDSK /R /F
C:\WINDOWS> FIXBOOT

You should already know from the MS-DOS, DR-DOS times CHKDSK (Check Disk) is thanksfully still on every next Windows release. As CHKDSK does a hard drive check for irregularities and BAD Blocks (depending on the size of HDD) it takes time usually from 30 minutes to 1 hour.
4. System File Checker (SFC) command – restore basis .DLLs and others to Setup CD (install) originals


C:\WINDOWS> SFC /SCANNOW

SFC – has been useful in many, many Windows installs, I fixed it is really precious cmd. It does check the system essential (DLL – Dynamic Loadable Libraries) and matches them against a clean working copy which was copied on the system by Windows Install (CD) SETUP program. If some of the primary win .EXE or .DLL files checksums are not matching, the file is substituted with a clean (working) copy of the Install CD original ones. Some Viruses and Spyware might change those original (clean) binary files placed by Windows during install time. So intelligent Virus progs are very rare so in lets say 90% of broken Windows installs SFC /SCANNOW solves problems with main win files 🙂

If you have doubt that those binaries which SFC matches with are changed, you can always use a Setup Install CD with same Service Pack version as installed on the host. To restore main Windows binaries and libs using the external recovery CD use:


C:\WINDOWS> sfc /offbootdir=c:\ /offwindir=c:\windows /scannow

This tutorial should solve also all kind of start-up errors like:


Windows could not start because the following file is missing or corrupt:
\\WINDOWS\\SYSTEM32\\CONFIG\\SYSTEM


You can attempt to repair this file by starting Windows Setup
using the original Setup CD-ROM.
Select ‘R’ at the first screen to start repair.

Windows NT could not start because the below file is missing or corrupt:
X:\\WINNT\\System32\\Ntoskrnl.exe


Windows NT could not start because the below file is missing or corrupt:
X:\\WINNT\\System32\\HAL.dll


NTLDR is Missing
Press any key to restart


Invalid boot.ini
Press any key to restart

Some Helpful Subversion (SVN) general repository managing commands when you have to deal with Subversion on Debian Lenny servers

Friday, April 2nd, 2010

When I started with subversion it was a bit chaotic for me to grasp the subversion repository software basics.
Since I know there are many other people like me who are a novice into suversion I decided to post few of the
life saving (vital) subversion commands, I learned and use quite often this days.
This post should be considered as a very very overview of subversion commands. For more information please check, The subversion red-bean book here .
So here we go:
1. First To create repository after installing subversion you need to execute something similar to:

debian-server:~# svnadmin create --fs-type fsfs /path/to/repos/repo

In the above example /path/to/repos is actually the path to where you store the svn repositories, and repo is actually the repository name.
By the way note that by default svnadmin would create the repository in the fsfs database format, even if you skip the,
fsfs option.2. Let’s say you want to import some code into the newly created repository located in /path/to/repo via the local filesystem.
Here is how:

# imports in the subversion repositorydebian-server:~# svn import -m "importing directory in svn over local filesystem"
~/directory_to_import/ files:///path/to/repos/repo/trunk

In the forementioned example the, -m and the following text: “importing directory in svn over local filesystem” is for description of the importing data,
the ~/directory_to_import/ is the directory you prefer to import into the local repository, the code left,
files:///path/to/repo/trunk specifies that you want to import the data into the repository subdirectory “trunk”.

Then again let’s assume that you want to achieve a file import into a newly created repository through ssh + the apache mod_dav_svn

It’s pretty easy the above should be changed to:

debian-server:~# svn import -m "importing directory in svn over mod_dav_svn e.g. (svn+ssh)"
~/directory_to_import/ svn+ssh://user@host/path/to/repos/repo/trunk
of course it preliminary that you input a proper user and host or ip address as you have previously configured the mod_dav_svn, then again svn+ssh specifies the protocol type.

Now as we have imported our program source code into the repository, next it’s important to checkout the code to have a current copy of the source code.
3. To checkout code already existing in some repository in your subversion server via (svn+ssh) protocol, you need to execute some command similar to:

debian-server:~# svn co svn+ssh://user@host/path/to/repos/repo/trunk ~/checkout_into_directory/

Here again as a first protocol argument (svn+ssh://) it’s necessery to enter path/to/repos/repo/trunk and as a second argument to gsvn (the subversion command line client interface) we put ~/checkout_into_directory/ , it’s a nice idea to to create the checkout_into_directory beforehead.

Now if we have to checkout the code after we’ve been logged in the system and the repository database is locally stored on the same server as we are, we have to execute:

debian-server:~# svn co files://path/to/repos/repo/trunk ~/checkout_into_directory/

Take a note that in the example above I use the root user but possibly you would choose a non-privileged user, therefore you should have properly set both physical user account permissons on the subversion repository database (e.g. chown your /path/to/repos/repo/ and put your local user into the proper /etc/groups).

Another truly precious command that you will probably need to use on daily and hourly basis would probably be:
4. The listing of repository content cmd, in order to do that while locally logged on the server with the svn repository execute:

debian-server:~# svn list file:///path/to/repos/repo/trunk

I believe the above command is self-explanatory enough, in case if you plan to do file listing within the svn repository over (ssh+svn) here is how:

debian-server:~# svn list --verbose svn+ssh://user@host/path/to/repos/repo/trunk

Again, I won’t take the time to explain since the logic in the syntax is equal to the one exhibited beforehead.
5. Another handy thing to do with your subversion repository content after checkout is the subversion source repository update

the svn update The checkout will enable you to always synchronize your ~/checkout_into_directory to the latest stable version of the code within your svn repository.

So after the first checkout it would be good idea to use svn update and update your repository project source tree.
So here is how:

debian-server:~# svn update ~/checkout_into_directory/

So now as I have shown most basic operations with subversion, Lest important to show you is
6. How to delete source from a repository in subversion.

In order to delete some part from your subversion repository project source from the local filesystem use:
debian-server:~# svn delete files:///path/to/repos/repo/track/some_directory

This command would completely erradidacate some_directory from your example repo. Yet if you desire to delete a file specify a file instead of the some_directory

Now to accomplish the same delete operation via (svn+ssh) execute something like:

debian-server:~# svn delete svn+ssh://user@host/path/to/repos/repo/track/some_directory

Once again I won’t bother to explain the above example code, cause I believe it’s clear enough for everybody to understand.

7. To reverse your project code to some stable release of your source code existing in the repository you should use something like:

debian-serve~:# svn checkout -r 4 files:///path/to/repos/repo/trunk
This would checkout the project source to it's 4th release from the repository: repo

8. To commit code with changes in your subversion repository use a command like:

debian-server:~# svn commit -m "Some description text" some_directory/

The svn command line interface is also capable of svn copy and svn rename in order to either,
copy or rename commited source, however I won’t get into details on that just experiment and you’ll quickly master them.
9. Now one last thing I’m gonna tell you about is the subversion svn info command and svn status . This really useful command should be used to check information on your source tree after you have either checked it out or have used svn update to have the latest copy of it. This is an absolute necessity.

Here is how to check the information assigned about the version release and some other useful info for your source tree.

debian-server:~# svn info ~/check_into_directory
or you might type svn info without arguments as well
debian-server:~# svn info

Yet another useful one on project status is:

debian-server:~# svn status

Windows Vista Commands (Windows Vista Command Line List)

Sunday, September 20th, 2009

Some time ago I needed to have get some insight in Windows Vista commands.To achieve my tasks back then I used some the following Windows Vista Commands list . It would be probably interesting for you to check out commandswindows’s website .END—–