Posts Tagged ‘Compile’

Fun with Apache / Nginx Webserver log – Visualize webserver access log in real time

Friday, July 18th, 2014

If you're working in a hosting company and looking for a graphical way to Visualize access to your Linux webservers – (Apache, Nginx, Lighttpd) you will be happy to learn about Logstalgia's existence. Logstalgia is very useful if you need to convince your Boss / company clients that the webservers are exceeding the CPU / Memory hardware limits physically servers can handle. Even if you don't have to convince anyone of anything logstalgia is cool to run if you want to impress a friend and show off your 1337 4Dm!N Sk!11Z 🙂 Nostalgia is much more pleasent way to keep an eye on your Webserver log files in real time better than (tail -f)

The graphical output of nostalgia is a pong-like battle game between webserver and never ending chain of web requests.

This is the official website description of Logstalgia:

Logstalgia is a website traffic visualization that replays web-server access logs as a pong-like battle between the web server and an never ending torrent of requests. Requests appear as colored balls (the same color as the host) which travel across the screen to arrive at the requested location. Successful requests are hit by the paddle while unsuccessful ones (eg 404 – File Not Found) are missed and pass through. The paths of requests are summarized within the available space by identifying common path prefixes. Related paths are grouped together under headings. For instance, by default paths ending in png, gif or jpg are grouped under the heading Images. Paths that don’t match any of the specified groups are lumped together under a Miscellaneous section.

To install Logstalgia on Debian / Ubuntu Linux there is a native package, so to install it run the usual:

apt-get --yes install logstalgia

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 4 not upgraded.
Need to get 161 kB of archives.
After this operation, 1,102 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 stable/main logstalgia amd64 1.0.0-1+b1 [161 kB]
Fetched 161 kB in 2s (73.9 kB/s)
Selecting previously deselected package logstalgia.
(Reading database ... 338532 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking logstalgia (from .../logstalgia_1.0.0-1+b1_amd64.deb) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up logstalgia (1.0.0-1+b1) ...

Logstalgia is easily installable from source code on non-Debian Linux distributions too, to install it on any non-debian Linux distrubution do:

cd /usr/local/src/ wget

–2014-07-18 13:53:23–
Resolving…, 2a00:1450:400c:c04::52
Connecting to||:443… connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response… 200 OK
Length: 841822 (822K) [application/x-gzip]
Saving to: `logstalgia-1.0.3.tar.gz'

100%[=================================>] 841,822     1.25M/s   in 0.6s

2014-07-18 13:53:24 (1.25 MB/s) – `logstalgia-1.0.3.tar.gz' saved [841822/841822]

Untar the archive with:

tar -zxvf logstalgia-1.0.5.tar.gz

Compile and install it:

cd logstalgia
make install


How to use LogStalgia?

Syntax is pretty straight forward just pass the Nginx / Apache

Process Debian Linux Apache logs:

logstalgia /var/log/apache2/access.log

Process CentoS, Redhat etc. RPM based logs:

logstalgia /var/log/httpd/access.log
To process webserver log in real time with logstalgia:

tail -f /var/log/httpd/access_log | logstalgia -

To make logstalgia visualize log output you will need to have access to server physical console screen. As physical access is not possible on most dedicated servers – already colocated in some Datacenter. You can also use a local Linux PC / notebook installed with nostalgia to process webserver access logs remotely like so:


ssh tail -f /var/log/apache2/access.log | logstalgia --sync

Note! If you get an empty output from logstalgia, this is because of permission issues, in this example my user hipo is added in www-data Apache group – if you want to add your user to have access like me, issue on remote ssh server):

addgroup hipo www-data

Alterantively you can login with ssh with root, e.g. ssh

If you're having a GNOME / KDE X environment on the Linux machine from which you're ssh-ing Logstalgia will visualize Webserver access.log requests inside a new X Window otherwise if you're on a Linux with just a console with no Xserver graphics it will visualize graphically web log statistics using console svgalib .


If you're planning to save output from nostalgia visualization screen for later use – lets say you have to present to your CEO statistics about all your servers  Webservers logs you can save nostalgia produced video in .ppm (netpbm) format.

Whether you have physical console access to the server:

logstalgia -1280x720 --output-ppm-stream output.ppm /var/log/httpd/access.log

Or if you just a have a PC with Linux and you want to save visualized content of access.log remotely:

ssh tail -f /var/log/nginx/pc-freak-access.log | logstalgia -1280x720 --output-ppm-stream --sync output.ppm


ssh tail -f /var/log/nginx/www.cyberciti.biz_access.log | logstalgia -1280x720 --output-ppm-stream --sync output.ppm

To make produced .ppm later usable you can use ffmpeg to convert to .mp4:

ffmpeg -y -r 60 -f image2pipe -vcodec ppm -i output.ppm -vcodec libx264 -preset ultrafast -pix_fmt yuv420p -crf 1 -threads 0 -bf 0 nginx.server.log.mp4

Then to play the videos use any video player, I usually use vlc and mplayer.

For complete info on Nostalgia – website access log visualizercheck home page on googlecode

If you're lazy to install Logstalgia, here is Youtube video made from its output:

Enjoy 🙂

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Make QMAIL with vpopmail vchkpw, courier-authlib and courier-imap auth work without MySQL on Debian Linux qmailrocks Thibs install

Friday, September 28th, 2012

How to make qmail vpopmail vchkpw courier-authlib and courier-imap work storing mails on hard disk with qmailrocks Thibs install

Recently installed a new QMAIL, following mostly Thibs Qmailrocks install guide. I didn’t followed literally Thibs good guide, cause in his guide in few of the sections like Install Vpopmail he recommends using MySQL as a Backend to store Vpopmail email data and passwords; I prefer storing all vpopmail data on the file system as I believe it is much better especially for tiny QMAIL mail servers with less than 500 mail box accounts.

In this little article I will explain, how I made Vpopmail courier-authlib and courier-imap play nice together without storing data in SQL backend.

1. Compile vpopmail with file system data storage support

So here is how I managed to make vpopmail + courier-authlib + courier-imap, work well together:

First its necessery to compile Vpopmailin store all its users data and mail data on file system. For this in Thibs Vpopmail Intsall step compiled Vpopmail without support for MySQL, e.g. instead of using his pointed compile time ./configure, arguments I used:

# cd /downloads/vpopmail-5.4.33
# ./configure \
--enable-qmaildir=/var/qmail/ \
--enable-qmail-newu=/var/qmail/bin/qmail-newu \
--enable-qmail-inject=/var/qmail/bin/qmail-inject \
--enable-qmail-newmrh=/var/qmail/bin/qmail-newmrh \
--enable-tcprules-prog=/usr/bin/tcprules \
--enable-tcpserver-file=/etc/tcp.smtp \
--enable-clear-passwd \
--enable-many-domains \
--enable-qmail-ext \
--enable-logging=y \
--enable-auth-logging \
--enable-libdir=/usr/lib/ \
--disable-roaming-users \
--disable-passwd \
--enable-domainquotas \
# make && make install-strip
# cat > ~vpopmail/etc/vusagec.conf < < __EOF__
Disable = True;
echo 'export PATH=$PATH:/var/qmail/bin/:/home/vpopmail/bin/' > /etc/profile.d/
chmod +x /etc/profile.d/
source /etc/profile

A tiny shell script with all above options to compile (qmail) vpopmail without MySQL / PostgreSQL support is here

For other steps concerning creation of vpopmail/vchkpw – user/group just follow as Thibs suggests.

2. Compile and install courier-authlib-0.59.1

I’ve made mirror of courier-authlib.0.59.1.tar.gz cause this version includes support for vchkpw without mysql, its a pity newer versions of courier-authlib not any more have support for vpopmail to store its data directly on the hard disk.

Then on downlaod, compile && install courier-authlib:

Download authlib courier-authlib.0.59.1.tar.gz – (I made mirror of courier-authlib.0.59.1.tar.gz you can use my mirror or download it somewhere else from the net):

# cd /usr/local/src
# wget -q
# tar -zxvvf courier-authlib.0.59.1.tar.gz

Compile courier-authlib

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local --exec-prefix=/usr/local --with-authvchkpw --without-authldap --without-authmysql --disable-root-check --with-ssl --with-authchangepwdir=/usr/local/libexec/authlib
# make && make install && make install-strip && make install-configure

On Debian Squeeze, this version of courier-authlib compiles fine, on Debian Lenny I use it too and there it is okay.

Unless above commands returns a compile error authlib will be installed inside /usr/local/libexec. If you get any errors it is most likely due to some missing header files. The error should be self explanatory enough, but just in case you have troubles to find what deb is necessery to install, please check here the complete list of installed packages I have on the host . In case of problems the quickest way (if on Debian Squeeze) is to install same packages, type:

# wget -q
# for i in $(cat list_of_all_deb_necessery_installed_packages_for_authlib.txt |awk '{ print $2 }'); do
apt-get install --yes $i;

This is for the lazy ones though it might install you some packs you don’t like to have on your host, so just install it in case you know what you’re doing 🙂

Next step is to set proper configuration for courier-authdaemon.

3. Configure courier-authlib in /usr/local/etc/authlib

Again for the lazy ones I have prepared a good config which is working 100% with vpopmail configured to store mails on the file system, to install the “good” configs, fetch mine and put them in proper location, e.g.:

# cd /usr/local/etc
# wget -q
# tar -zxvvf authlib-config-for-qmail-with-hdd-directory-stored-userdata.tar.gz

For those who prefer not to use my configuration as pointed above, here is what you will need to change manually in configs:

Edit /usr/local/etc/authlib/authdaemonrc and make sure there variable authmodulelist and authmodulelist and daemons=5
equals to:


authmodulelistorig="authuserdb authpgsql authldap authmysql authcustom authvchkpw authpipe"


Bear in mind here the setting daemons, will set how many maximum parallel connections should be possible to authdaemond on new IMAP fetch mail user requests. Setting it to 10 will allow your mail server to support up to 10 users to paralelly check your mail for a tiny mail server this setting is okay if you expect higher number of parallel mail users raise the setting to some setting fitting your needs.

P.S. On some qmail installations this value has created weird problems and took me hours to debug the whole mess is caused by this setting, make sure you plan it now unless you don’t to loose some time in future.

4. Stop debian courier-authdaemon and start custom compiled one

Now all is ready and authdaemond can be started, but before that if you have installed courier-authlib as a debian package you need to stop it via init script and only when completely sure old default Debian courier-authdaemon is stopped launch the new installed one:

# /etc/init.d/courier-authdaemon stop
# s ax |grep -i authdaemond |grep -v grep
# /usr/local/sbin/authdaemond start

To make the newly custom source installed courier-authdaemon to load itself on system boot instead of the debian installed package

# dpkg -l |grep -i courier-authdaemon
ii courier-authdaemon 0.63.0-3 Courier authentication daemon

open /etc/init.d/courier-authdaemond, after line:

. /lib/lsb/init-functions


/usr/local/sbin/authdaemond start
exit 0

This will make the script exit once launches cmd /usr/local/sbin/authdaemond start

5. Compile and Install courier-imap

You will also have to install from courier-imap archive source, I have tested it and know Qmail + Vpopmail + Courier-Imap works for sure with version courier-imap-4.1.2.tar.bz2

As of time of writing this post courier-imap-4.11.0.tar.bz2 is the latest available for download from Courier-imap download site unfortunately this version requires higher version of >= courier-authlib-0.63

In order install courier-imap-4.1.2.tar.bz2

# cd /usr/local/src
# wget -q
# tar -jxvvf courier-imap-4.1.2.tar.bz2
# chown -R hipo:hipo courier-imap-4.1.2
# su hipo
$ cd courier-imap-4.1.2/
$ export COURIERAUTHCONFIG=/usr/local/bin/courierauthconfig
$ export CPPFLAGS=-I/usr/local/courier-authlib/include
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/courier-imap --disable-root-check
$ exit
# make
# make install
# make install configure

It is recommended courier-imap to be compiled with non root username. In above code I use my username hipo, other people have to use any non-root user.

6. Set proper configuration and new init script for courier-imap

In /usr/lib/courier-imap, download following working configs (for convenience I’ve made tar with my configs):

# cd /usr/lib/courier-imap
# rm -rf etc
# wget -q

Then you will have to overwrite default courier-imap init script in /etc/init.d/courier-imap with another one to start the custom compiled one instead of debian default installed courier-imap

# mv /etc/init.d/courier-imap /root
# cd /etc/init.d
# wget -q
# mv debian-courier-imap courier-imap
# chmod +x courier-imap

This init script is written use /var/lock/subsys/courier-imap, so you will have to also create /var/lock/subsys/

# mkdir -p /var/lock/subsys

7. Start custom installed courier-imap

The start/stop init script of newly installed courier-imap is /usr/lib/courier-imap/libexec/imapd.rc

/usr/lib/courier-imap/libexec/imapd.rc start

Since a new /etc/init.dcourier-imap is installed too, it can be also used to control courier-imap start/stop.

Well thats should be enough for Courier-authlib and Courier-Authlib to communicate fine between each other and be able to connect and fetch e-mail stored in file system by vpopmail.

8. Test if Qmail IMAP proto finally works

# telnet localhost 143
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
a login my-username-password
a LIST "" "*"
* LIST (\HasNoChildren) "." "INBOX.Sent"
* LIST (\Marked \HasChildren) "." "INBOX"
* LIST (\HasNoChildren) "." "INBOX.Drafts"
* LIST (\HasNoChildren) "." "INBOX.Trash"
a OK LIST completed
* FLAGS (\Draft \Answered \Flagged \Deleted \Seen \Recent)
* OK [PERMANENTFLAGS ()] No permanent flags permitted
* 6683 EXISTS
* 471 RECENT
* OK [UIDVALIDITY 1272460837] Ok
* OK [MYRIGHTS "acdilrsw"] ACL
* 1 FETCH (BODY[] {2619}
Received: (qmail 22304 invoked by uid 1048); 24 Apr 2012 14:49:49 -0000
Received: from unknown (HELO localhost) (
by with SMTP; 24 Apr 2012 14:49:49 -0000
Received: from localhost []

That’s all it works. Enjoy 🙂

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How to install and configure djbdns from source as a Cachening Localhost Proxy resolver to increase resolving efficiency on Debian 6 Squeeze

Monday, August 1st, 2011

It seems DjbDNS on Debian Squeeze has been not included as a Debian package. There is still possibility to install djbdns from an older deb package or install it from source. I however decided to install it from source as finding the old Debian package for Lenny and Etch takes time, plus I'm running an amd64 version of Debian and this might even more complicate the situation.
Installing it from source is not really a Debian way but at least it works.

In this article I assume that daemontools and ucspi-tcp are preliminary installed, if not one needs to install them with:

debian:~# apt-get install ucspi-tcp daemontools daemontools-run

The above two ones are required as DJBDNS is originally made to run through djb's daemontools.

Here is the exact step I took to have it installed as local caching DNS server on a Debian Squeeze server:

1. Download and untar DjbDNS

debian:~# wget -q debian:~# tar -zxvvf djbdns-1.05.tar.gz

2. Add DjbDNS users to /etc/passwd

Creating the below two users is not arbitrary but it's recommendable.

echo 'dnscache:*:54321:54321:dnscache:/dev/null:/dev/null' >> /etc/passwd
echo 'dnslog:*:54322:54322:dnslog:/dev/null:/dev/null' >> /etc/passwd

3. Compile DJBDNS nameserver

First it's necessery to use the below echo command to work around a common Linux bug:

debian:~# cd djbdns-1.05
debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# echo gcc -O2 -include /usr/include/errno.h > conf-cc

Next let's make it:

debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# make

4. Install the compiled djbdns binaries

debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# make setup check
# here comes some long install related output

If no errors are produced by make setup check this means that the djbdns should have installed itself fine.

As installation is compileted it's a good idea to report about the newly installed DjbDNS server if running a mail server. This info is used by Dan Bernstein to gather statistical data about the number of installations of djbdns servers throughout the world.

5. Do some general configurations to the newly installed DJBDNS

Now let's copy the list of the IP addresses of the global DNS root servers in /etc/.

debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# cp -rpf /etc/ debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# ./dnscache-conf dnscache dnslog /etc/dnscache

dnscache-conf will generate some default configuration files for djbdns in /etc/dnscache

Next allow the networks which should be able to use the just installed djbdns server as a caching server:

debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# cd /etc/dnscache/root/ip
debian:/etc/dnscache/root# touch 192.168.1
debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# touch 123.123

First command will allow all ips in range 192.168.1.* to be able to access the DNS server and the second command will allow all ips from 123.123.1-255.1-255 to be able to query the server.

Some further fine tunning can be done from the files:

/etc/dnscache/env/CACHESIZE and /etc/dnscache/env/DATALIMIT

As a last step, before it's running, we have to link the /etc/dnscache to daemontools like so:

debian:/root/djbdns-1.05# ln -sf /etc/dnscache /etc/service/dnscache

If the daemontools is not linked to be accessible via /etc/service it's also a good to link it there:

debian:~# ln -sf /etc/service /

Now the DJBDNS should be running fine, to test if it's running without errors through daemontools I used:

debian:~# ps ax|grep -i readproc
5358 pts/18 R+ 0:00 grep -i readproc
11824 ? S 0:00 readproctitle service errors: ...........

If no errors are displayed it's configured and running to also test if it's capable of resolving I used the host command:

debian:~# host localhost
Using domain server:
Name: localhost
Aliases: has address mail is handled by 0

Now the DJBDNS is properly installed and if you test it for a while with time host localhost , you will see how quick it is in resolving.

The advantage of running DJBDNS is it does not require almost no maintance, its rock solid and great just like all other Dan Bernstein's written software.
Enjoy 😉

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