Posts Tagged ‘configuration file’

Improve Website Apache Webserver SEO without Website source code moficitations with Google PageSpeed module on Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS, Fedora and SuSE Linux

Thursday, December 18th, 2014

Improve-website-apache-webserver-seo-without-website-source-code-modifications-with-Google-PageSpeed-Apache-module

For hosting companies and even personal website speed performance becomes increasingly important factor that gives higher and higher weight on overall PageRank and is one of the key things for Successful Site Search Engine Optimization (positioning) in Search Engines of a not specially SEO friendly crafted website.

Virtually all Google / Yahoo / Bing,  Yahoo  etc. Search Engines give better pagerank to websites which load faster and has little or no downtimes, for the reason a faster loading time of a website pages means better user experience and is indicator that the website is well maintained. 

Often websites deployed written for purpose of a business-es or just community CMS / Blog Website Open Source systems such as Joomla, Drupal and WordPress by default are not made to provide fantastic speed right after deploy without install of custom plugins and website tuning, i.e.:

  • Content size optimization (gzipping)
  • More efficient way to deliver CSS / Javascript (MinifyJS / CSS files into single ones
  • HTML optimization
  • Stripping (useful) page Comments
  • Adding <head> if missing on pages etc.

. Therefore as I said in many of my previous LAMP Optimization articles page  (opening) speed could make really Bad Users / Clients experience when the site grows too big or is badly optimized it gives degraded page speed times (often page loads 20 / 30 seconds waiting for the page to load!). Having Pages lagging on big information sites or EShos has both Ruining Company's Image on the market and quickly convinces the user to use another service from the already thosands available and thus drives out (potential) customers.

As Programming code maintainance and improvement is usually very costly, companies that want to save money or can't afford it (because of the shrinking budgets dictacted by the global economic crisis), the best thing to do is to ask your sysadmin to Squeeze the Best out of the WebService and Servers without major (Backend Code) infrastructural changes.

To  Speed up Apache and create Proper Page Caching without installing on server external PHP Caching modules such as Eaccelerator  / PHP APC caching and without
extra CMS modules
such as lets say WordPress W3 Total Cache there is Google Develop Apache Webserver external module – PageSpeed.

Here is Google Pagespeed Module overview :
 

PageSpeed speeds up your site and reduces page load time. This open-source webserver module automatically applies web performance best practices to pages and associated assets (CSS, JavaScript, images) without requiring that you modify your existing content or workflow.


What does Apache Google PageSpeed actually does?
 

  • Automatic website and asset optimization
  • Latest web optimization techniques
  • 40+ configurable optimization filters
  • Free, open-source, and frequently updated
  • Deployed by individual sites, hosting providers, CDNs


1. Install PageSpeed on Debian / Ubuntu, deb derivatives) Linux

a) Download and install module 

On 64 bit deb based Linux:

cd /usr/local/src
wget https://dl-ssl.google.com/dl/linux/direct/mod-pagespeed-stable_current_amd64.deb 
dpkg -i mod-pagespeed-stable_current_amd64.deb
apt-get -f install


On 32 bit Linux:

cd /usr/local/src
wget https://dl-ssl.google.com/dl/linux/direct/mod-pagespeed-stable_current_i386.deb
dpkg -i 
direct/mod-pagespeed-stable_current_i386.deb
apt-get -f install


b) Restart Apache
 

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Important files and folders placed on server by deb installer are:

/usr/bin/pagespeed_js_minify – binary that does Javascript minification
/etc/apache2/mods-available/pagespeed.conf – Pagespeed config
/etc/apache2/mods-available/pagespeed.load – Load module directives in Apache
/etc/cron.daily/mod-pagespeed – mod_pagespeed cron script for checking and installing latest updates.
/var/cache/mod_pagespeed – Mod Pagespeed cahing folder (useful to install memcached to increase even further caching performance)
/var/log/pagespeed – Directory to store pagespeed log files

 

2. Install PageSpeed on (RPM based CentOS, Fedora, RHEL / SuSE Linux)


RPM 64 bit package install:
 

rpm -Uvh https://dl-ssl.google.com/dl/linux/direct/mod-pagespeed-beta_current_x86_64.rpm

 


32 bit pack version:
 

rpm -Uvh https://dl-ssl.google.com/dl/linux/direct/mod-pagespeed-stable_current_i386.rpm


Modify pagespeed mod config 

Restart Apache

sudo /etc/init.d/httpd restart


Important config files and folders created during RPM install are:

  • /etc/cron.daily/mod-pagespeed : mod_pagespeed cron script for checking and installing latest updates.
  • /etc/httpd/conf.d/pagespeed.conf : The main configuration file for Apache.
  • /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_pagespeed.so : mod_pagespeed module for Apache.
  • /var/www/mod_pagespeed/cache : File caching direcotry for web sites.
  • /var/www/mod_pagespeed/files : File generate prefix for web sites.

3. Configuring Google PageSpeed module

 

To configure PageSpeed you can either edit the package installed bundled pagespeed.conf (/etc/apache2/mods-available/pagspeed.conf,  /etc/httpd/conf.d/pagespeed.conf) or insert configuration items inside Apache VirtualHosts config files or even if you need flexibility and you don't have straight access to Apache config files (on shared hosting servers where module is available) through .htaccess.
Anyways try to avoid adding pagespeed directives to .htaccess as it will be too slow and inefficient.

Configuration is managed by setting different so-called "Rewrite Levels". Default behavior is to use Level of "Corefilters.", a set of filters (module behavior configs) which according to Google is safe for use. PageSpeed Filters is a set of actions applied to Web Delivered files.

Default config setting is hence:
 

ModPagespeedRewriteLevel CoreFilters

Disabling default set of filters is done with:
 

ModPagespeedRewriteLevel PassThrough

"Corefilters" default filter set as of time of writting this article:
 

add_head
combine_css
convert_jpeg_to_progressive
convert_meta_tags
extend_cache
flatten_css_imports
inline_css
inline_import_to_link
inline_javascript
rewrite_css
rewrite_images
rewrite_javascript
rewrite_style_attributes_with_url

Complete documentation on Configuring PageSpeed Filters is here.

If caching is turned on, default PageSped caching is configured in /var/cache/mod_pagespeed/
Enabling someof the non-Corefilters that sometimes are useful for SEO (reduce of served / returned pagesize) are:
 

ModPagespeedEnableFilters pedantic,remove_comments

By default pagespeed does some things (such as inline_css, inline_javascript and rewrite_images (Optimize, removing Excess pixels).  My litle experience with pagespeed shows in some cases this could break websites), so I found for my case useful to disable some of the filters:

 

vim /etc/apache2/mods-available/pagespeed.conf

 

ModPagespeedDisableFilters rewrite_images,convert_jpeg_to_progressive,inline_css,inline_javascript

 

4. Testing if PageSpeed is Enabled pagespeed_admin

By default PageSpeed has Admin which by default is only allowed to be accessed from server localhost (127.0.0.1) to get basic statistics either install text browser like lynx / elinks or add more access IPs again in pagespeed config / vhosts pagespeed.conf include more Allow lines like below:

 

    <Location /pagespeed_admin>
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from localhost
        Allow from 127.0.0.1
        Allow from 192.168.1.1
        Allow from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

        #Allow from All
        SetHandler pagespeed_admin
    </Location>
    <Location /pagespeed_global_admin>
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from localhost
        Allow from 127.0.0.1

        Allow from 192.168.1.1
        Allow from xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
        SetHandler pagespeed_global_admin
    </Location>

 

Once configured pagespeed_admin access it with favourite browser on:

http://127.0.0.1/pagespeed_admin
http://127.0.0.1/pagespeed_global_admin

improve-website-apache-webserver-seo-without-source-code-modifications-google-pagespeed_admin_panel

Other way to test it is enabled is by creating php file with good old <? phpinfo(); ?> – PHP stats enabled / disabled features code:

pagespeed-in-phpinfo-x-mod-pagespeed-output-screenshot-apache-webserver

I've also tested also pagespeed unstable release, but experienced some segmentation faults in both error.log and access.log so finally decided to keep using stable release.

PageSpeed is a great way to boost your server sites performance, however it comes on certain costs as expect your server CPU Load to jump drastically, (in my case it jumped more than twice), there are Linux servers where enabling the module could totally stone the servers, so before implementing the module on a Production system environment, always first test thouroughfully with loaded pagespeed on UAT (testing) environment with AB or Siege (Apache Benchmarking Tools).

How to configure pine (alpine) console client to work with vpopmail pop3 and imap protocol

Monday, June 13th, 2011

I needed to check my mail via ssh connection, as my installed squirrelmail is curently broken and I’m away from my own personal computer.

I did some online research on how this can be achieved and thanksfully I finallyfound a way to check my pop3 and imap mailbox with a console client called alpine , better known in unix community under the name pine .

I installed pine on my Debian with apt:


debian:~# apt-get install alpine

Here is my pine configuration file .pinerc used to fetch my mail with pine:

a .pinerc conf file to check my pop3 mail

To use that file I placed it in my home directory ~/ , e.g.:


debian:~# wget http://www.pc-freak.net/files/.pinerc
...

To attune the pop3 server configuration in the sample .pinerc above one needs to change the value of:


inbox-path=

For example to configure pine to fetch mail from the pop3 server mail.pc-freak.net and store it locally in my home directory within a file called INBOX
I have configured the inbox-path .pinerc variable to look like so:


inbox-path={mail.pc-freak.net/pop3/user=hipo@pc-freak.net}INBOX

In above configuration’s inbox-path variable configuration the /pop3/ specifies I want to fetch my mail via the pop3 protocol , if one wants to use imap this has to be substituted with /imap/

The value user=hipo@pc-freak.net specifies my vpopmail created user which in my case is obviously hipo@pc-freak.net

The other variables which are good to be changed in .pinerc config are:


personal-name=

This variable has to be set to the name of the Email Sender which will be set, if pine is used to send email.

I also changed the user-domain variable as it’s used to set the domain name from which the pine client will send the emails from:

As my domain is pc-freak.net I’ve set the domain name variable to be:


user-domain=pc-freak.net

Now after launching pine it prompted me for my email password, putting in the pass did fetch all my new unread mails via pop3 protocol.

The only annoying thing was that each time I quit pine and start it up again, I’m now asked to enter the email password.

This behaviour is really shitty, but thanksfully one can easily workaround that by letting pine be constantly running detached in gni screen session.

How to solve “eAccelerator requires Zend Engine API version 220060519 , the Zend Engine API version 220090626 which is installed, is newer. Contact eAccelerator at http://eaccelerator.net for a later version of eAccelerator.” on FreeBSD

Monday, April 4th, 2011

I’ve recently upgraded my FreeBSD Apache server from port www/apache20 I had some issues before I tune up and recompile also the php5 port but eventually it worked out, however the Eaccelerator content caching module failed to load as it was outdated.

That’s a common inconvenient with eaccelerator that every system administrator out there has faced once or twice, especially on systems that has custom compiled Apache servers and does not use a specific precompiled version of the eaccelerator.

To solve the situation as you can expect I jumped on in the /usr/ports/www/eaccelerator and removed the current installed version of eaccelerator in order to compile and install the latest port version.:
To do that I first attempted to upgrade the eaccelerator port with portmaster but as there were some problems caused by autoconf initialization etc., I finally decided to abandon the idea of using portmaster and did it manually with the good old well known trivial commands:

freebsd# cd /usr/ports/www/eaccelerator
freebsd# make deinstall
freebsd# make install && make clean

I’ve continued further and restarted my Apache server to load the new eaccelerator version and made a small phpinfo php script to test if the eaccelerator is properly loaded, yet with zero success.

After checking out in my /var/log/httpd-error.log , I’ve determined the following error:

Failed loading /usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so: Cannot open "/usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so"

The error is quite obvious, to solve it I’ve opened my php configuration file /usr/local/etc/php.ini and placed in it:

and substituted the line:

zend_extension="/usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so:"

with:

zend_extension="/usr/local/lib/php/20090626/eaccelerator.so"

Further on I gave Apache another restart with:

freebsd# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache2 restart
Performing sanity check on apache2 configuration:
Syntax OK
Stopping apache2.
Waiting for PIDS: 71140.
Performing sanity check on apache2 configuration:
Syntax OK
Starting apache2.

followed by another test if the eaccelerator is loaded with the phpinfo(); script.

Now even though the Failed loading /usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so: Cannot open “/usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so” was no more, the Eaccelerator was yet not loaded.

Another consult with /var/log/httpd-error.log now revealed me another eaccelerator error you read below:

eAccelerator requires Zend Engine API version 220060519.
The Zend Engine API version 220090626 which is installed, is newer.
Contact eAccelerator at http://eaccelerator.net for a later version of eAccelerator.

I did about 20 minutes of investigation on the internet looking for a possible fix which gave me some idea what might be the cause for error message, though it was finally my try/fail methodology that helped me solve the issue.

The solution to the issue appeared to be easy thanks God, to solve the error all you need to do is one more make clean right before installing the eaccelerator port.:
Here are the commands necessary to issue to solve the error and make the eaccelerator load properly:

freebsd# cd /usr/ports/www/eaccelerator
freebsd# make clean &&
freebsd# make install clean

Now after restarting the Apache server once again eaccelerator has properly been loaded once again.

How to automatically reboot (restart) Debian GNU Lenny / Squeeze Linux on kernel panic, some general CPU overload or system crash

Monday, June 21st, 2010

If you are a system administrator, you have probably wondered at least once ohw to configure your Linux server to automatically reboot itself if it crashes, is going through a mass CPU overload, e.g. the server load average “hits the sky”.
I just learned from a nice article found here that there is a kernel variable which when enabled takes care to automatically restart a crashed server with the terrible Kernel Panic message we all know.

The variable I’m taking about is kernel.panic for instance kernel.panic = 20 would instruct your GNU Linux kernel to automatically reboot if it experiences a kernel panic system crash within a time limit of 20 seconds.

To start using the auto-reboot linux capabilities on a kernel panic occurance just set the variable to /etc/sysctl.conf

debian-server:~# echo 'kernel.panic = 20' >> /etc/sysctl.conf

Now we will also have to enable the variable to start being use on the system, so execute:

debian-server:~# sysctl -p There you go automatic system reboots on kernel panics is now on.
Now to further assure yourself the linux server you’re responsible of will automatically restart itself on a emergency situation like a system overload I suggest you check Watchdog

You might consider checking out this auto reboot tutorial which explains in simple words how watchdog is installed and configured.
On Debian installing and maintaining watchdog is really simple and comes to installing and enabling the watchdog system service, right afteryou made two changes in it’s configuration file /etc/watchdog.conf

To do so execute:

debian-server:~# apt-get install watchdog
debian-server:~# echo "file = /var/log/messages" >> /etc/watchdog.conf
debian-server:~# echo "watchdog-device = /dev/watchdog" >> /etc/watchdog.conf

Well that should be it, you might also need to load some kernel module to monitor your watchdog.
On my system the kernel modules related to watchdog are located in:

/lib/modules/2.6.26-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/watchdog/
If not then you should certainly try the software watchdog linux kernel module called softdog , to do so issue:
debian-server:~# /sbin/modprobe softdog

It’s best if you load the module while the softdog daemon is disabled.
If you consider auto loadig the softdog software watchdog kernel driver you should exec:

debian-server:~# echo 'softdog' >> /etc/modules

Finally a start of the watchdog is necessery:

 


debian-server:~# /etc/init.d/watchdog start
Stopping watchdog keepalive daemon....
Starting watchdog daemon....

That should be all your automatic system reboots should be now on! 🙂

Installing qmailmrtg (qmail graph statistics on qmail activity) on Debian Lenny

Monday, April 19th, 2010

1. First it’s necessery to have the mrtg debian package installed.
If it’s not installed then we have to install it:

debian-server:~# apt-get install mrtg

2. Second download the qmailmrtg source binary
To download the latest current source release of qmailmrtg execute:

debian-server:~# wget http://www.inter7.com/qmailmrtg7/qmailmrtg7-4.2.tar.gz

It’s a pity qmailmrtg is not available for download via debian repositories.

3. Third download the qmail.mrtg.cfg configuration file

debian-server~# wget http://www.pc-freak.net/files/qmail.mrtg.cfg

Now you have to put the file somewhere, usually it’s best to put it in the /etc/ directory.
Make sure the file is existing in /etc/qmail.mrtg.cfg
4. Untar compile and install qmailmrtg binary


debian-server:~# tar -xzvvf qmailmrtg7-4.2.tar.gz
...
debian-server:~# make && make install

strip qmailmrtg7
cp qmailmrtg7 /usr/local/bin
rm -rf *.o qmailmrtg7 checkq core
cc checkq.c -o checkq
./checkq
cc -s -O qmailmrtg7.c -o qmailmrtg7
qmailmrtg7.c: In function ‘main’:
qmailmrtg7.c:69: warning: incompatible implicit declaration of
built-in function ‘exit’
qmailmrtg7.c:93: warning: incompatible implicit declaration of
built-in function ‘exit’
qmailmrtg7.c:131: warning: incompatible implicit declaration of
built-in function ‘exit’
qmailmrtg7.c:137: warning: incompatible implicit declaration of
built-in function ‘exit’

5. Set proper file permissions according to the user you indent to execute qmailmrtg as
I personally execute it as root user, if you intend to do so as well set a permissions to
/etc/qmail.mrtg.cfg of 700.
In order to do that issue the command:

debian-server:~# chmod 700 /etc/qmail.mrtg.cfg

6. You will now need to modify the qmail.mrtg.cfg according to your needs
There you have to set a proper location where the qmailmrtg shall generate it’s html data files.
I use the /var/www/qmailmrtg qmailmrtg log file location. If you will do so as wellyou have to create the directory.

7. Create qmailmrtg html log files directory

debian-server:~# mkdir /var/log/qmailmrtg

8. Now all left is to set a proper cron line to periodically invoke qmailmrtg in order to generate qmail activity statistics.

Before we add the desired root’s crontab instructions we have to open the crontab for edit, using the command.

debian-server:~# crontab -u root -e

I personally use and recommend the following line as a line to be added to root’s crontab.

0-55/5 * * * * env LANG=C /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/qmail.mrtg.cfg > /dev/null
9. Copy index.html from qmailmrtg source directory to /var/log/qmailmrtg


debian-server:/usr/local/src/qmailmrtg7-4.2# cp -rpf index.html /var/log/qmailmrtg

10. Last step is to make sure Apache’s configuration contains lines that will enable you to access the qmail activity statistics.

The quickest way to do that in Debian running Apache 2.2 is to edit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf and add a directory Alias as follows

Alias /qmailmrtg/ "/var/www/qmailmrtg/"

Now after Apache restart /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
You should be now able to access the qmail mrtg qmail log statistics through your Apache’s default configured host.
For instance, assuming your default configured Apache host is domain.com. You’ll be able to reach the qmailmrtg statistics through an url like:

http://domain.com/qmailmrtg/

After I verified and ensured myself qmail mrtg is working correctly after all the above explained steps partook I wasn’t happy with some headlines in the index.html and the html tile of qmailmrtg,
so as a last step I manually edited the /var/www/qmailmrtg/index.html to attune it to my likings.

Here is a screenshot of the qmailmrtg web statistics in action.

qmail mrtg on debian lenny

Apache Benchmarking

Monday, January 14th, 2008

They’re few tools out there which are most common in use to do benchmarking and stess test on webservers. One of them “the most common one”is called “ab” or apache benchmark Check it out here another very common tool is called flood Check it here Flood seems to be the newer and most accurate tool to use for stress testing unfortunately it has one weakness. It only works with configuration file which is in xml format. So every time before you start it you have to generate a new xml file to suite your needs. Also a tool recommended to me in the #apache in the irc.freenode.net network is called “jmeter”, it’s located here . I personally didn’t tested it because it uses Java as a back end. While googling around I also have stucked on this interesting project PHPSPEED although I wasn’t able to test it looks like a promising test suite.END—–

Strained day

Saturday, March 31st, 2007

Yesterday the day was quite strained. We were prepairing for few weeks to host the new website of pozvanete.bgcreated by our firm Design.BG, so yesterday in 9:40, our project manager has called and said pozvanete.bg’s DNSrecord is already changed to point to our server, but there is a problem while http://www.pozvanete.bg opensnormally, http://pozvanete.bg opens DBG’s 404 error page. I remembered that this is due to a configuration of theserver cause there was some SEO stuff in the past on the server, so I was able to fix the problem quickly.The problems started to come after that. The machine where we hosted the site (and it was the only site there was1.6ghz AMD with 1 giga of RAM). Unfortunately 30 minutes after it started to open from our server I observed themachine’s cpu stays idle 0.0 all the time and the site responds very slowly to browser requests. I tried to tinkerit changing things from the webserver configuration file with no luck. I spoke with my boss explained him the situationso he decided we’ll move the site on another machine which is ( 3.0 Ghz Intel ), and the next week we’ll move the siteagain to a rack machine colocated in Sofia in Evo Link. It took a lot of conversations over the phone and talk with Vladibefore we moved completely the site on the new machine before that I have to recompile the machine’s current httpd and php to match the requirements of the site but Praise the Lord in the everything went smoothly and we were able to move the site completely the site to the new location. I’ve speak with Pozvanete’s administrator to change the DNS records to point to the new machine and in 6:00 o’clock the site could be seen from the new server. In the mean time Bobb has bought an IBM rack he quickly packed it and send it to Sofia. Among all this a lot of collegues from the office found me urgent work, I got a complaint about a problem with the mails of propertyinvestld the guy claimed our webmail sent the .doc files as winmail.dat which as I suspected was not true. But Praise the Lord everything went smoothly in the end. In 8:00 o’clock we go out of home with Nomen and decided to go to the Mino’s coffee to see Sami cause he’s has come back from Sofia. Mino’s coffee was a lot of fuller than usual, and it was very smoky, Tsetso speak a lot about art and history as usual, I was bored as usual etc. etc.After that we had the idea to watch a film in Nomen’s home but my Aunt called and said if I have time it will be good to see my grandma cause she is not feeling well (they made her eye surgery 3 days ago). I went to his home and stayed with her it’s awful she is such a nice lady and she’s suffering so much. She said how bad she felt nobody went to the hospital to see her for 3 days ( First I was angry to my mother .. then I calmed down ). I realized all the world is in birth pains as written in the Bible so I praid a lot to the Creator to have mercy over my grandma. Then I tried reading The Bible for some time but I was too sleepy and I went to bed. END—–