Posts Tagged ‘ini’

How to find and Delete Duplicate files in directory on Linux server with find and fdupes command

Monday, March 16th, 2015

search-duplcate-files-linux-command-and-graphical-tools-how-to-find-duplicate-files-on-linux-mac-and-windows-os

Linux / UNIX find command is very helpful to do a lot of tasks to us admins such as Deleting empty directories to free up occupied inodes or finding and printing only empty files within a root file system within all sub-directories
There is too much of uses of find, however one that is probably rarely used known by sysadmins find command use is how to search for duplicate files on a Linux server:
 

find -not -empty -type f -printf “%s\n” | sort -rn | uniq -d | xargs -I{} -n1 find -type f -size {}c -print0 | xargs -0 md5sum | sort | uniq -w32 –all-repeated=separate

If you're curious how does duplicate files finding works, they are found by comparing file sizes and MD5 signatures, followed by a byte-by-byte comparison.

Most common application of below command is when you want to search and get rid of some old obsolete files which you forgot to delete such as old /etc/ configurations, old SQL backups and PHP / Java / Python programming code files etc.

If you have to do a regular duplicate file find on multiple servers Linux servers perhaps you should install and use  fdupes command.
On Debian Linux to install it:

root@pcfreak:/# apt-cache show fdupes|grep -i descr -A 4
Description: identifies duplicate files within given directories
 FDupes uses md5sums and then a byte by byte comparison to find
 duplicate files within a set of directories. It has several useful
 options including recursion.
Homepage: http://code.google.com/p/fdupes/

 

root@pc-freak.net:/# apt-get install –yes fdupes

To search for duplicate files with fdupes in lets /etc/ just run fdupes without arguments:

 

root@pcfreak:/# fdupes /etc/
/etc/magic
/etc/magic.mime

/etc/odbc.ini
/etc/.pwd.lock
/etc/environment
/etc/odbcinst.ini

/etc/shadow-
/etc/shadow


If you want to look up for all duplicate files within root directory:
 

root@pcfreak:/# fdupes -r /etc/
Building file list /

 

You can also find duplicate files for multiple directories by just passing all directories as arguments to fdupes

 

root@pcfreak:/# fdupes -r /etc/ /usr/ /root /disk /nfs_mount /nas


The -r argument (makes a recursive subdirectory search for duplicates), if you want to also see what is the size of duplicate files found add -S option

 

fdupes -r -S /etc/ /usr/ /root /disk /nfs_mount /nas

 


If you want to delete all duplicate files within lets say /etc/

 

root@pcfreak:/# fdupes -d /etc/

fdupes is also available and installable also on RPM based Linux distros Fedora / RHEL / CentOS etc., install on CentOS with:
 

[root@centos~ ]# yum -y install fdupes


There is also a port available for those who want to run it on FreeBSD on BSD install it from ports:

 

freebsd# cd /usr/ports/sysutils/fdupes
freebsd# make install clean


If you have a GUI environment installed on the server and you don't want to bother with command line to search for all duplicate files under main filesystem and other lint (junk) files take a look at FSlint

FSlint-2.02-search-for-duplicate-and-lint-files-linux-gui-tool

If you're looking for a GUI cross platform duplicate file finder tool that runs on all major used Operating Systems Mac OS X / Windows / Linux take a look at dupeGuru

 

Howto install XCache Debian on GNU / Linux to accelerate Apache Webserver – XCache Best alternative to outdated PHP cacher EAccelerator

Thursday, February 26th, 2015

xcache_install-and-enable-best-alternative-php-cacher-to-eaccelerator-logo
I was using Eaccelerator until recently on all Apache / PHP / MySQL  (LAMP) web-servers as a caching engine (Webserver accelerator) across all Debian GNU / Linux Lenny / Squeeze / Etch servers.
However recently, I've noticed in phpinfo output on some of the Debian hosts, that eaccelerator was loaded but showed:

 Caching Enabled false

eaccelerator_caching_enabled_false-phpinfo-screenshot-apache-debian-linux.

 

Our servers are quite busy serving about 50 000 to 100 000 requests and thus not having enabled caching puts a lot of extra load on the CPU and eats a lot of memory which were usually saved by eAccelerator.
Logically I tried fixing the issues following some Stackoverflow threads recommendations such as this one but didn't work I tried playing manually spending hours trying to make eaccelerator run again and as a final mean, I even tried to upgrade eaccelerator to newer version but noticed the latest available eaccelerator version 0.9.6 was 2.5 years old (from 03.09.2012). Thus while there is no new release, just make s so just to make sure I didn't break the module with (default Debian bundled distribution package which is also installed on the servers)  re-installed eAccelerator from source 

This didn't worked either and since I was totally pissed off by the worsened systems performance (CPU load increased with to 10-30%) per server, I looked for some alternatives I can use and in the mean time I learned a bit more about history of PHP Accelerators, I learned some interesting things such as that  ionCube (PHPA) was the  first PHP Accelerator Apache like module (encoding PHP code),  created in 2001, later it become inspirational for  birth to PHP-APC (Alternative PHP Cache) Apache module. 
There is also Zend Opcache PHP accelerator (available since PHP 5.5 onwards)  but since Zend OpCache caches well PHP Zend written PHP code and servers run PHP 5.4 + sites are not using Zend PHP Framewosk  this was an option.
Further investigation lead me to MMCache which is already too obsolete (latest release is from 2013), PHPExpress – PHP Encoder which  was said to run on Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Mac OS X, and Solaris) but already looks dead as there were no new releases since January 2012) and finally Lighttpd's XCache.

To give you an idea on what exactly is the difference between Apache Webserver with PHP-APC Caching or other PHP Cacher enabled and the Standard way PHP Interprets PHP scripts below is a diagram:

php-apc-cache-how-php-caching-works-with-and-without-encoding-php-code-diagram

Obviously my short research shows that from all the available PHP Cache Encoder / Accelerators only ones that seemed to be recently updated (under active development) are APC and XCache.
I've already used PHP-APC earlier on some servers and was having having some random Apache Webservers crashes and weird empty pages with some PHP pages and besides that APC is known to give lower speed in PHP caching than Eaccelerator and XCache, leaving me with the only and logical choise to use XCACHE.

Here is how Xcache developers describe their opcacher:
 

XCache is a free, open source operation code cacher, it is designed to enhance the performance of PHP scripts execution on servers. It optimizes the performance by eliminating the compilation time of PHP code by caching the compiled version of code into the memory and this way the compiled version loads the PHP script directly from the memory. This will surety accelerate the page generation time by up to 5 times faster and also optimizes and increases many other aspects of php scripts and reduce website/server load.

 


Thanksfully XCache is shipped by default with all Debians (Etch /Lenny / Squeeze / Wheezy)  Linuces so to install it just run the standard apt cmd:
 

apt-get install –yes php5-xcache


Then to enable XCache all I had to do is edit /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini and place below code
 

debian-server:~# vim /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini

 

[xcache-common]
;; install as zend extension (recommended), normally "$extension_dir/xcache.so"
;;zend_extension = /usr/lib/php5/20100525/xcache.so

 

[xcache.admin]
xcache.admin.enable_auth = On
; Configure this to use admin pages
; xcache.admin.user = "mOo"
; xcache.admin.pass = md5($your_password)
; xcache.admin.pass = ""

[xcache]
; ini only settings, all the values here is default unless explained

; select low level shm/allocator scheme implemenation
xcache.shm_scheme =        "mmap"
; to disable: xcache.size=0
; to enable : xcache.size=64M etc (any size > 0) and your system mmap allows
xcache.size  =                16M
; set to cpu count (cat /proc/cpuinfo |grep -c processor)
xcache.count =                 1
; just a hash hints, you can always store count(items) > slots
xcache.slots =                8K
; ttl of the cache item, 0=forever
xcache.ttl   =                 0
; interval of gc scanning expired items, 0=no scan, other values is in seconds
xcache.gc_interval =           0
; same as aboves but for variable cache

Note that Debian location which instructs xcache to load in Apache as a module is xcache.ini – e.g. /usr/share/php5/xcache/xcache.ini, so instead of placing above configuration right into php.ini you might prefer to place it in xcache.ini (though I personally prefer php.ini) because it is easier for me to later control how PHP behaves from single location.

To test whether XCache is enabled for Apache Webserver:

Create phpinfo.php somewhere in DocumentRoot (in my case this was /var/www/php_info.php)

debian-server:~# vim /var/www/php_info.php

 

<php?
phpinfo()
?>


When you access the php_info.php in browser you will get XCache loaded as in below screenshot:

 

xcache_loaded-in-php-apache-phpinfo-output-debian-gnu-linux-server

To Test whether Xcache is enabled also for PHP CLI (applications set to run as a crontab – cronjob) :
 

debian-server:~# php -v
PHP 5.4.37-1~dotdeb.0 (cli) (built: Feb  2 2015 05:03:00)
Copyright (c) 1997-2014 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.4.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2014 Zend Technologies
    with XCache v3.2.0, Copyright (c) 2005-2014, by mOo
    with XCache Cacher v3.2.0, Copyright (c) 2005-2014, by mOo

 

Once it is tested as successful install you might want to enable the XCache admin (which is disabled by default), to enable XCache Admin on Debian you need to generate new password for it first like so:

 

echo -n "xcache_rulez" | md5sum
acbf5ba4a44f03058aa0ad11e0a6b645

 


Then you need to add in /etc/php5/mods-available/xcache.ini

debian-server:~# vim /etc/php5/mods-available/xcache.ini
[xcache.admin]
xcache.admin.enable_auth = On
; Configure this to use admin pages
 xcache.admin.user = "admin"
; xcache.admin.pass = md5($your_password)
 xcache.admin.pass = "change_with_above_generated_password_here"

 

To enable admin and be able to access it in a browser (if you're using as a documentroot /var/www/ and docroot supports interpretting php scripts and (has AllowOverride All) enabled to also support htaccess authentication do:
 

debian-server:~# cd /var/www/
debian-server:~# ln -sf /usr/share/xcache/htdocs/ xcache

When you access http://your-url-address.com/xcache/ you should see in browser some statistics along with all configured xcache options:

xcacher-admin-on-debian-gnu-linux-in-chrome-browser-screenshot-enable-xcacher-admin-howto

If you have time you can play with the options and get some speed minor speed improvements. The overall increase in page opening XCache should give you is between 100% – 190% !

Enjoy 🙂

How to Turn Off, Suppress PHP Notices and Warnings – PHP error handling levels via php.ini and PHP source code

Friday, April 25th, 2014

php-logo-disable-warnings-and-notices-in-php-through-htaccess-php-ini-and-php-code

PHP Notices are common to occur after PHP version upgrades or where an obsolete PHP code is moved from Old version PHP to new version. This is common error in web software using Frameworks which have been abandoned by developers.

Having PHP Notices to appear on a webpage is pretty ugly and give a lot of information which might be used by malicious crackers to try to break your site thus it is always a good idea to disable PHP Notices. There are plenty of ways to disable PHP Notices

The easiest way to disable it is globally in all Webserver PHP library via php.ini (/etc/php.ini) open it and make sure display_errors is disabled:

display_errors = 0

or

display_errors = Off

Note that that some claim in PHP 5.3 setting display_errors to Off will not work as expected. Anyways to make sure where your loaded PHP Version display_errors is ON or OFF use phpinfo();

It is also possible to disable PHP Notices and error reporting straight from PHP code you need code like:

 

<?php
// Turn off all error reporting
error_reporting(0);
?>

 

or through code:

 

ini_set('display_errors',0);


PHP has different levels of error reporting, here is complete list of possible error handling variables:

 

 

 

<?php
// Report simple running errors

error_reporting(E_ERROR | E_WARNING | E_PARSE);

// Reporting E_NOTICE can be good too (to report uninitialized
// variables or catch variable name misspellings …)

error_reporting(E_ERROR | E_WARNING | E_PARSE | E_NOTICE);

// Report all errors except E_NOTICE
// This is the default value set in php.ini

error_reporting(E_ALL ^ E_NOTICE);
// Report all PHP errors (see changelog)

error_reporting(E_ALL);
// Report all PHP errors error_reporting(-1);
// Same as error_reporting(E_ALL);

ini_set('error_reporting', E_ALL); ?>

The level of logging could be tuned on Debian Linux via /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini or if necessary to set PHP log level in PHP CLI through /etc/php5/cli/php.ini with:

error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE

 

If you need to remove to remove exact warning or notices from PHP without changing the way  PHPLib behaves is to set @ infront of variable or function that is causing NOTICES or WARNING:
For example:
 

@yourFunctionHere();
@var = …;


Its also possible to Disable PHP Notices and Warnings using .htaccess file (useful in shared hosting where you don't have access to global php.ini), here is how:

# PHP error handling for development servers
php_flag display_startup_errors off
php_flag display_errors off
php_flag html_errors off
php_flag log_errors on
php_flag ignore_repeated_errors off
php_flag ignore_repeated_source off
php_flag report_memleaks on
php_flag track_errors on
php_value docref_root 0
php_value docref_ext 0
php_value error_log /home/path/public_html/domain/php_errors.log
php_value error_reporting -1
php_value log_errors_max_len 0

This way though PHP Notices and Warnings will be suppressed errors will get logged into php_error.log

Finding spam sending php scripts on multiple sites servers – Tracing and stopping spammer PHP scripts

Monday, April 14th, 2014

stop_php_mail-spam-find-spammer-and-stop-php-spammer-websites
Spam has become a severe issue for administrators, not only for mail server admins but also for webshosting adms. Even the most secure spam protected mail server can get affected by spam due to fact it is configured to relay mail from other servers acting as web hosting sites.

Webhosting companies almost always suffer seriously from spam issues and often their mail servers gets blocked (enter spam blacklists), because of their irresponsible clients uploading lets say old vulnerable Joomla, WordPress without Akismet or proper spam handling plugin,a CMS which is not frequently supported / updated or custom client insecure php code.

What I mean is Shared server A is often configured to sent mail via (mail) server B. And often some of the many websites / scripts hosted on server A gets hacked and a spam form is uploaded and tons of spam start being shipped via mail server B.

Of course on mail server level it is possible to configure delay between mail sent and adopt a couple of policies to reduce spam, but the spam protection issue can't be completely solved thus admin of such server is forced to periodically keep an eye on what mail is sent from hosting server to mail server.
 


If you happen to be one of those Linux (Unix) webhosting admins who find few thousand of spammer emails into mail server logs or your eMail server queue and you can't seem to find what is causing it, cause there are multiple websites shared hosting using mainly PHP + SQL and you can't identify what php script is spamming by reviewing  Apache log / PHP files. What you can do is get use of:

PHP mail.log directive

Precious tool in tracking spam issues is a PHP Mail.log parameter, mail log paramater is available since PHP version >= 5.3.0 and above.
PHP Mail.log parameter records all calls to the PHP mail() function including exact PHP headers, line numbers and path to script initiating mail sent.

Here is how it is used:
 

1. Create empty PHP Mail.log file

touch /var/log/phpmail.log

File has to be writtable to same user with which Apache is running in case of Apache with SuPHP running file has to be writtable by all users.

On Debian, Ubunut Linux:

chown www:data:www-data /var/log/phpmail.log

On CentOS, RHEL, SuSE phpmail.log has to be owned by httpd:

chown httpd:httpd /var/log/phpmail.log

On some other distros it might be chown nobody:nobody etc. depending on the user with which Apache server is running.

 

2. Add to php.ini configuration following lines

mail.add_x_header = On
mail.log = /var/log/phpmail.log

PHP directive instructs PHP to log complete outbund Mail header sent by mail() function, containing the UID of the web server or PHP process and the name of the script that sent the email;
 

(X-PHP-Originating-Script: 33:mailer.php)


i.e. it will make php start logging to phpmail.log stuff like:
 

 

mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/components/com_xmap/2ktdz2.php:1]: To: info@globalremarketing.com.au — Headers: From: "Priority Mail" <status_93@pomoriemon
astery.org> X-Mailer: MailMagic2.0 Reply-To: "Priority Mail" <status_93@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative;boundary="——
—-13972215105347E886BADB5"
mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/components/com_xmap/2ktdz2.php:1]: To: demil7167@yahoo.com — Headers: From: "One Day Shipping" <status_44@pomoriemonastery.
org> X-Mailer: CSMTPConnectionv1.3 Reply-To: "One Day Shipping" <status_44@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative;boundary="—
——-13972215105347E886BD344"
mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/components/com_xmap/2ktdz2.php:1]: To: domainmanager@nadenranshepovser.biz — Headers: From: "Logistics Services" <customer.
id86@pomoriemonastery.org> X-Mailer: TheBat!(v3.99.27)UNREG Reply-To: "Logistics Services" <customer.id86@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: mult
ipart/alternative;boundary="———-13972215105347E886BF43E"
mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/components/com_xmap/2ktdz2.php:1]: To: bluesapphire89@yahoo.com — Headers: From: "Priority Mail" <status_73@pomoriemonaster
y.org> X-Mailer: FastMailer/Webmail(versionSM/1.2.6) Reply-To: "Priority Mail" <status_73@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternativ
e;boundary="———-13972215105347E886C13F2"

 

On Debian / Ubuntu Linux to enable this logging, exec:

echo 'mail.add_x_header = On' >> /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
echo 'mail.log = /var/log/phpmail.log' >> /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini


I find it useful to symlink /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini to /etc/php.ini its much easier to remember php location plus it is a standard location for many RPM based distros.

ln -sf /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini /etc/php.ini

Or another "Debian recommended way" to enable mail.add_x_header logging on Debian is via:

echo 'mail.add_x_header = On' >> /etc/php5/conf.d/mail.ini
echo 'mail.log = /var/log/phpmail.log' >> /etc/php5/conf.d/mail.ini

On Redhats (RHEL, CentOS, SuSE) Linux issue:

echo 'mail.add_x_header = On' >> /etc/php.ini
echo 'mail.log = /var/log/phpmail.log' >> /etc/php.ini

3. Restart Apache

On Debian / Ubuntu based linuces:

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

P.S. Normally to restart Apache without interrupting client connections graceful option can be used, i.e. instead of restarting do:

/etc/init.d/apache2 graceful

On RPM baed CentOS, Fedora etc.:

/sbin/service httpd restart

or

apachectl graceful
 

4. Reading the log

To review in real time exact PHP scripts sending tons of spam tail it:

tail -f /var/log/phpmail.log

 

mail() on [/var/www/remote-admin/wp-includes/class-phpmailer.php:489]: To: theosfp813@hotmail.com — Headers: Date: Mon, 14 Apr 2014 03:27:23 +0000 Return-Path: wordpress@remotesystemadministration.com From: WordPress Message-ID: X-Priority: 3 X-Mailer: PHPMailer (phpmailer.sourceforge.net) [version 2.0.4] MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset="UTF-8"
mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/media/rsinstall_4de38d919da01/admin/js/tiny_mce/plugins/inlinepopups/skins/.3a1a1c.php:1]: To: 2070ccrabb@kiakom.net — Headers: From: "Manager Elijah Castillo" <elijah_castillo32@pomoriemonastery.org> X-Mailer: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.0; es-ES; rv:1.9.1.7) Gecko/20100111 Thunderbird/3.0.1 Reply-To: "Manager Elijah Castillo" <elijah_castillo32@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative;boundary="———-1397463670534B9A76017CC"
mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/media/rsinstall_4de38d919da01/admin/js/tiny_mce/plugins/inlinepopups/skins/.3a1a1c.php:1]: To: 20wmwebinfo@schools.bedfordshire.gov.uk — Headers: From: "Manager Justin Murphy" <justin_murphy16@pomoriemonastery.org> X-Mailer: Opera Mail/10.62 (Win32) Reply-To: "Manager Justin Murphy" <justin_murphy16@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative;boundary="———-1397463670534B9A7603ED6"
mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/media/rsinstall_4de38d919da01/admin/js/tiny_mce/plugins/inlinepopups/skins/.3a1a1c.php:1]: To: tynyrilak@yahoo.com — Headers: From: "Manager Elijah Castillo" <elijah_castillo83@pomoriemonastery.org> X-Mailer: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; Intel Mac OS X 10.5; pl; rv:1.9.1.9) Gecko/20100317 Thunderbird/3.0.4 Reply-To: "Manager Elijah Castillo" <elijah_castillo83@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative;boundary="———-1397463670534B9A7606308"
mail() on [/var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/media/rsinstall_4de38d919da01/admin/js/tiny_mce/plugins/inlinepopups/skins/.3a1a1c.php:1]: To: 2112macdo1@armymail.mod.uk — Headers: From: "Manager Justin Murphy" <justin_murphy41@pomoriemonastery.org> X-Mailer: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; Intel Mac OS X 10.5; pl; rv:1.9.1.9) Gecko/20100317 Thunderbird/3.0.4 Reply-To: "Manager Justin Murphy" <justin_murphy41@pomoriemonastery.org> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative;boundary="———-1397463670534B9A76086D1"

 

As you can see there is a junky spam mails sent via some spammer script uploaded under name .3a1a1c.php, so to stop the dirty bastard, deleted the script:

rm -f /var/www/pomoriemonasteryorg/media/rsinstall_4de38d919da01/admin/js/tiny_mce/plugins/inlinepopups/skins/.3a1a1c.php

It is generally useful to also check (search) for all hidden .php files inside directoring storing multiple virtualhost websites, as often a weirdly named hidden .php is sure indicator of either a PHP Shell script kiddie tool or a spammer form.

Here is how to Find all Hidden Perl / PHP scripts inside /var/www:

find . -iname '.*.php'
./blog/wp-content/plugins/fckeditor-for-wordpress-plugin/ckeditor/plugins/selection/.0b1910.php
./blog/wp-content/plugins/fckeditor-for-wordpress-plugin/filemanager/browser/default/.497a0c.php
./blog/wp-content/plugins/__MACOSX/feedburner_feedsmith_plugin_2.3/._FeedBurner_FeedSmith_Plugin.php

find . -iname '.*.pl*'

….

Reviewing complete list of all hidden files is also often useful to determine shitty cracker stuff

 find . -iname ".*"

Debugging via  /var/log/phpmail.log enablement is useful but is more recommended on development and staging (QA) environments. Having it enable on productive server with high amounts of mail sent via PHP scripts or just on dedicated shared site server could cause both performance issues, hard disk could quickly get and most importantly could be a severe security hole as information from PHP scripts could be potentially exposed to external parties.

Disabling PHP system(); and exec(); functions to raise up Apache security on Debian GNU / Linux

Wednesday, July 18th, 2012

Disabling PHP system(); and exec(); functions to raise up Apache security on Debian Gnu / Linux

At security critical hosts running Apache + PHP based sites it is recommended functions like:

system();
exec();shell_exec();.....

to be disabled. The reason is to mainly harden against script kiddies who might exploit your site/s and upload some shitty SK tool like PHP WebShell, PHP Shell and the probably thousands of “hacker” variations that exist nowdays.

In latest Debian stable Squeeze, suhosinadvanced protection module for php5 is being installed and enabled in Apache (by default).
Simply disabling a number of functions using suhosin, could prevent multiple of future headaches and hours of pondering on who 0wn3d your server ….

Disabling the basic PHP system(); and other similar functions which allows shell spawn is not always possible, since some websites or CMS platforms depends on them for proper runnig, anyways whether it is possible disabling ’em is a must.
There are two ways to disable system(); functions; One is through using /etc/php5/apache2/conf.d/suhosin.ini and 2nd by adding a list of functions that has to be disabled directly in Website Virtualhost file or in apache2.conf (/etc/apache2/apache2.conf;
For people hosting multiple virtualhost websites on the same server using the custom domain Virtualhost method is probably better, since on a global scale the functions could be enabled if some of the websites hosted on the server requires exec(); to work OK. In any case using /etc/php5/apache2/conf.d/suhosin.ini to disable system(); functions in PHP is less messy …

1. Disabling PHP system(); fuctions through /etc/apache2/apache2.conf and custom site Vhosts

Place somewhere (I prefer near the end of config);;;


php_admin_flag safe_mode on
php_admin_value disable_functions "system, exec, shell_exec, passthru , ini_alter, dl, pfsockopen, openlog, syslog, readlink, symlink, link, leak, fsockopen, popen, escapeshellcmd, apache_child_terminate apache_get_modules, apache_get_version, apache_getenv, apache_note,apache_setenv,virtual"

Disabling it for custom virtualhost is done by simply adding above Apache directvies (before the closing tag in /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/custom-vhost.com

2. Disabling PHP system();, exec(); shell spawn with suhosin.ini

In /etc/php5/apache2/conf.d/suhosin.ini add;;

suhosin.executor.func.blacklist =system, exec, shell_exec, passthru, ini_alter, dl,
pfsockopen, openlog, syslog, readlink, symlink, link, leak, fsockopen, popen,
escapeshellcmd, apache_child_terminate apache_get_modules, apache_get_version,
apache_getenv, apache_note,apache_setenv,virtual

To do it directly via shell issue;;;

server: conf.d/# cd /etc/php5/apache2/conf.d/
server: conf.d# echo 'suhosin.executor.func.blacklist =system, exec, shell_exec, passthru, ini_alter, dl,' >> suhosin.ini
server: conf.d# echo 'pfsockopen, openlog, syslog, readlink, symlink, link, leak, fsockopen, popen,' >> suhosin.ini
server: conf.d# echo escapeshellcmd, apache_child_terminate apache_get_modules, apache_get_version,' >> suhosin.ini
server: conf.d# echo 'apache_getenv, apache_note,apache_setenv,virtual' >> suhosin.ini

Then to re-load the memory loaded Apache libphp library an Apache restart is necessary;

server: conf.d# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
Restarting web server: apache2 ... waiting .
server: conf.d#

Tadam, this should be quite a good security against annoying automated script attacks. Cheers 😉

How to delete your linkedin account – I don’t want to be LINKED IN!

Tuesday, April 24th, 2012

I don't want to be linkedin, Linkedin is a fake and non-sense time wasting anti-social network

I've decided to delete my linkedin account as I don't see any good in constact connectiodness and being part of many "social" networks which if one thinks in deeply are not social but anti-social.

You just stay at home staring at a screen and it will be like this until the end of your days and even worser for the generations to come. Computer revolution or digital revolution is in reality huge devolutin (devil-lution)

To delete the linkedin account I used a short tutorial provided by This post

How to delete your linkedin account picture

TO reach to your Profile settings, use upper right corner of your browser and follow the menus:

Settings -> Account -> Close your account

Once, trying to delete your account, linkedin will try to manipulate you to stay in Linkedin by pushing some of your contacts, pointing how you will get disconnected from him.
I'm amazed how impudent this guys can be, actually, its not just them. If you have tried or deleted your facebook account before time you will have faced, exactly the same thing. A profile (person picture) which was recently browsed by you will be shown to you and be said you will be unable to connect with him any more. Well who cares if it is God's will we will connect again 🙂

The problem with us modern people is we're so deluded that we have started relying more on technology and human knowledge than to God. For most people who are atheists relying more on technology than on God for their lives seems reasanable However for us Christians putting more trust in technology than in Gods providence for us is sinful and deadly.
I'm starting to get the conclusion, non-technological societies are more happier than technological ones. In that sense, we the Bulgarians are blessed, because technology is not so widely spread.

How to get rid of “PHP Warning: PHP Startup: Unable to load dynamic library ‘/usr/lib/php5/20090626/suhosin.so'” on Debian GNU / Linux

Tuesday, October 25th, 2011

PHP-warning-how-to-fix-warnings-and-errors-php-logo

After a recent new Debian Squeeze Apache+PHP server install and moving a website from another server host running on CentOS 5.7 Linux server, some of the PHP scripts running via crontab started displaying the following annoying PHP Warnings :

debian:~# php /home/website/www/cron/update.php

PHP Warning: PHP Startup: Unable to load dynamic library '/usr/lib/php5/20090626/suhosin.so' – /usr/lib/php5/20090626/suhosin.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory in Unknown on line 0

Obviously the error revealed that PHP cli is not happy that, I've previously removes the suhosin php5-suhosin module from the system.
I wouldn't have removed php5-suhosin if sometimes it doesn't produced some odd experiences with the Apache webserver.
To fix the PHP Warning, I used first grep to see, where exactly the suhosin module gets included in debian's php.ini config files. debian:~# cd /etc/php5
debian:/etc/php5# grep -rli suhosin *
apache2/conf.d/suhosin.ini
cgi/conf.d/suhosin.ini
cli/conf.d/suhosin.ini
conf.d/suhosin.ini

Yeah that's right Debian has three php.ini php config files. One for the php cli/usr/bin/php, another for the Apache webserver loaded php library/usr/lib/apache2/modules/libphp5.so and one for Apache's cgi module/usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fcgid.so .

I was too lazy to edit all the above found declarations trying to include the suhosin module in PHP, hence I remembered that probably all this obsolete suhosin module declaration are still present because probably the php5-suhosin package is still not purged from the system.

A quick check with dpkg , further strenthened my assumption as the php5-suhosin module was still hanging around as an (rc – remove candidate);

debian:~# dpkg -l |grep -i suhosin
rc php5-suhosin 0.9.32.1-1 advanced protection module for php5

Hence to remove the obsolete package config and directories completely out of the system and hence solve the PHP Warning I used dpkg –purge, like so:

debian:~# dpkg --purge php5-suhosin
(Reading database ... 76048 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing php5-suhosin ...
Purging configuration files for php5-suhosin ...
Processing triggers for libapache2-mod-php5 ...
Reloading web server config: apache2.

Further on to make sure the PHP Warning is solved I did the cron php script another go and it produced no longer errors:

debian:~# php /home/website/www/cron/update.php
debian:~#

Fix of “Unable to allocate memory for pool.” PHP error messages

Saturday, October 15th, 2011

Since some time, I don’t know exactly where, after some updates of my WordPress running on a small server with FreeBSD 7.2. I’ve started getting a lot of Apache crashes. Often the wordpress scripts stopped working completely and I got only empty pages when trying to process the wordpress blog in a browser.

After a bunch of reading online, I’ve figured out that the cause might be PHP APC stands for Alternative PHP Cache .

I was not sure if the PHP running on the server had an APC configured at all so I used a phpinfo(); script to figure out if I had it loaded. I saw the APC among the loaded to show off in the list of loaded php modules, so this further led me to the idea the APC could be really causing the unexpected troubles.

Thus first I decided to disable the APC on a Virtualhost level for the domain where the crashing wordpress was hosted, to do I placed in the VirtualHost section in the Apache configuration /usr/local/etc/apache2/httpd.conf the following config directive:

php_flag apc.cache_by_default Off

These get me rid of the multiple errors:

PHP Warning: require_once() [function.require-once]: Unable to allocate memory for pool. in /usr/local/www/data-dist/blog/wp-content/plugins/tweet-old-post/top-admin.php on line 6

which constantly were re-occuring in php_error.log:

Further after evaluating all the websites hosted on the server and making sure none of which was really depending on APC , I’ve disabled the APC completely for PHP. To do so I issued:

echo 'apc.enabled = 0' >> /usr/local/etc/php.ini

Similarly on GNU/Linux to disable globally APC from PHP only the correct location to php.ini should be provided on Debian this is /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini .

How to solve “eAccelerator requires Zend Engine API version 220060519 , the Zend Engine API version 220090626 which is installed, is newer. Contact eAccelerator at http://eaccelerator.net for a later version of eAccelerator.” on FreeBSD

Monday, April 4th, 2011

I’ve recently upgraded my FreeBSD Apache server from port www/apache20 I had some issues before I tune up and recompile also the php5 port but eventually it worked out, however the Eaccelerator content caching module failed to load as it was outdated.

That’s a common inconvenient with eaccelerator that every system administrator out there has faced once or twice, especially on systems that has custom compiled Apache servers and does not use a specific precompiled version of the eaccelerator.

To solve the situation as you can expect I jumped on in the /usr/ports/www/eaccelerator and removed the current installed version of eaccelerator in order to compile and install the latest port version.:
To do that I first attempted to upgrade the eaccelerator port with portmaster but as there were some problems caused by autoconf initialization etc., I finally decided to abandon the idea of using portmaster and did it manually with the good old well known trivial commands:

freebsd# cd /usr/ports/www/eaccelerator
freebsd# make deinstall
freebsd# make install && make clean

I’ve continued further and restarted my Apache server to load the new eaccelerator version and made a small phpinfo php script to test if the eaccelerator is properly loaded, yet with zero success.

After checking out in my /var/log/httpd-error.log , I’ve determined the following error:

Failed loading /usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so: Cannot open "/usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so"

The error is quite obvious, to solve it I’ve opened my php configuration file /usr/local/etc/php.ini and placed in it:

and substituted the line:

zend_extension="/usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so:"

with:

zend_extension="/usr/local/lib/php/20090626/eaccelerator.so"

Further on I gave Apache another restart with:

freebsd# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache2 restart
Performing sanity check on apache2 configuration:
Syntax OK
Stopping apache2.
Waiting for PIDS: 71140.
Performing sanity check on apache2 configuration:
Syntax OK
Starting apache2.

followed by another test if the eaccelerator is loaded with the phpinfo(); script.

Now even though the Failed loading /usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so: Cannot open “/usr/local/lib/php/20060613/eaccelerator.so” was no more, the Eaccelerator was yet not loaded.

Another consult with /var/log/httpd-error.log now revealed me another eaccelerator error you read below:

eAccelerator requires Zend Engine API version 220060519.
The Zend Engine API version 220090626 which is installed, is newer.
Contact eAccelerator at http://eaccelerator.net for a later version of eAccelerator.

I did about 20 minutes of investigation on the internet looking for a possible fix which gave me some idea what might be the cause for error message, though it was finally my try/fail methodology that helped me solve the issue.

The solution to the issue appeared to be easy thanks God, to solve the error all you need to do is one more make clean right before installing the eaccelerator port.:
Here are the commands necessary to issue to solve the error and make the eaccelerator load properly:

freebsd# cd /usr/ports/www/eaccelerator
freebsd# make clean &&
freebsd# make install clean

Now after restarting the Apache server once again eaccelerator has properly been loaded once again.