Posts Tagged ‘list’

How to Avoid the 7 Most Frequent Mistakes in Python Programming

Monday, September 9th, 2019

python-programming-language-logo

Python is very appealing for Rapid Application Development for many reasons, including high-level built in data structures, dynamic typing and binding, or to use as glue to connect different components. It’s simple and easy to learn but new Python developers can fall in the trap of missing certain subtleties.

Here are 7 common mistakes that are harder to catch but that even more experienced Python developers have fallen for.

 

1. The misuse of expressions as function argument defaults

Python allows developers to indicate optional function arguments by giving them default values. In most cases, this is a great feature of Python, but it can create some confusion when the default value is mutable. In fact, the common mistake is thinking that the optional argument is set to whatever default value you’ve set every time the function argument is presented without a value. It can seem a bit complicated, but the answer is that the default value for this function argument is only evaluated at the time you’ve defined the function, one time only.  

how-to-avoid-the-7-most-frequent-mistakes-in-python-programming-3

 

2. Incorrect use of class variables

Python handles class variables internally as dictionaries and they will follow the Method Resolution Order (MRO). If an attribute is not found in one class it will be looked up in base classes so references to one part of the code are actually references to another part, and that can be quite difficult to handle well in Python. For class attributes, I recommend reading up on this aspect of Python independently to be able to handle them.

how-to-avoid-the-7-most-frequent-mistakes-in-python-programming-2

 

3. Incorrect specifications of parameters for exception blocks

There is a common problem in Python when except statements are provided but they don’t take a list of the exceptions specified. The syntax except Exception is used to bind these exception blocks to optional parameters so that there can be further inspections. What happens, however, is that certain exceptions are then not being caught by the except statement, but the exception becomes bound to parameters. The way to get block exceptions in one except statement has to be done by specifying the first parameter as a tuple to contain all the exceptions that you want to catch.

how-to-avoid-the-7-most-frequent-mistakes-in-python-programming-1
 

4. Failure to understand the scope rules

The scope resolution on Python is built on the LEGB rule as it’s commonly known, which means Local, Enclosing, Global, Built-in. Although at first glance this seems simple, there are some subtleties about the way it actually works in Python, which creates a more complex Python problem. If you make an assignment to a variable in a scope, Python will assume that variable is local to the scope and will shadow a variable that’s similarly named in other scopes. This is a particular problem especially when using lists.

 

5. Modifying lists during iterations over it

 

When a developer deletes an item from a list or array while iterating, they stumble upon a well known Python problem that’s easy to fall into. To address this, Python has incorporated many programming paradigms which can really simplify and streamline code when they’re used properly. Simple code is less likely to fall into the trap of deleting a list item while iterating over it. You can also use list comprehensions to avoid this problem.

how-to-avoid-the-7-most-frequent-mistakes-in-python-programming-8

       

6. Name clash with Python standard library

 

Python has so many library modules which is a bonus of the language, but the problem is that you can inadvertently have a name clash between your module and a module in the standard library. The problem here is that you can accidentally import another library which will import the wrong version. To avoid this, it’s important to be aware of the names in the standard library modules and stay away from using them.

how-to-avoid-the-7-most-frequent-mistakes-in-python-programming-5

 

7. Problems with binding variables in closures


Python has a late binding behavior which looks up the values of variables in closure only when the inner function is called. To address this, you may have to take advantage of default arguments to create anonymous functions that will give you the desired behavior – it’s either elegant or a hack depending on how you look at it, but it’s important to know.

 

 

how-to-avoid-the-7-most-frequent-mistakes-in-python-programming-6

Python is very powerful and flexible and it’s a great language for developers, but it’s important to be familiar with the nuances of it to optimize it and avoid these errors.

Ellie Coverdale, a technical writer at Essay roo and UK Writings, is involved in tech research and projects to find new advances and share her insights. She shares what she has learned with her readers on the Boom Essays blog.

Upgrade Debian Linux 9 to 10 Stretch to Buster and Disable graphical service load boot on Debian 10 Linux / Debian Buster is out

Tuesday, July 9th, 2019

howto-upgrade-debian-linux-debian-stretch-to-buster-debian-10-buster

I've just took a time to upgrade my Debian 9 Stretch Linux to Debian Buster on my old school Laptop (that turned 11 years old) Lenovo Thinkpad R61 . The upgrade went more or less without severe issues except few things.

The overall procedure followed is described n a few websites out there already and comes up to;

 

0. Set the proper repository location in /etc/apt/sources.list


Before update the sources.list used are:
 

deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ buster main contrib non-free
deb-src [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ buster main contrib non-free

 

deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://security.debian.org/ buster/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src [arch=amd64,i386] http://security.debian.org/ buster/updates main contrib non-free

deb [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ buster-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src [arch=amd64,i386] http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ buster-updates main contrib non-free

deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian buster-backports main


For people that had stretch defined in /etc/apt/sources.list you should change them to buster or stable, easiest and quickest way to omit editting with vim / nano etc. is run as root or via sudo:
 

sed -i 's/stretch/buster/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
sed -i 's/stretch/buster/g' /etc/apt/sources.list.d/*.list

The minimum of config in sources.list after the modification should be
 

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian buster main
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-updates main
deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security buster/updates main

Or if you want to always be with latest stable packages (which is my practice for notebooks):

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stable main
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stable-updates main
deb http://security.debian.org/debian-security stable/updates main

 

1. Getting list of hold packages if such exist and unholding them, e.g.

 

apt-mark showhold


Same could also be done via dpkg

dpkg –get-selections | grep hold


To unhold a package if such is found:

echo "package_name install"|sudo dpkg –set-selections

For those who don't know what hold package is this is usually package you want to keep at certain version all the time even though after running apt-get upgrade to get the latest package versions.
 

2. Use df -h and assure you have at least 5 – 10 GB free space on root directory / before proceed

df -h /

3. Update packages list to set new set repos as default

apt update

 

4. apt upgrade
 

apt upgrade

Here some 10 – 15 times you have to confirm what you want to do with configuration that has changed if you're unsure about the config (and it is not critical service) you're aware as such as Apache / MySQL / SMTP etc. it is best to install the latest maintainer version.

Hopefully here you will not get fatal errors that will interrupt it.

P.S. It is best to run apt-update either in VTTY (Virtual console session) with screen or tmux or via a physical tty (if this is not a remote server) as during the updates your GUI access to the gnome-terminal or konsole / xterm whatever console used might get cut. Thus it is best to do it with command:
 

screen apt upgrade

 

5. Run dist-upgrade to finalize the upgrade from Stertch to Buster

 

Once all is completed of the new installed packages, you will need to finally do, once again it is best to run via screen, if you don't have installed screen install it:

 

if [ $(which screen) ]; then echo 'Installed'; else apt-get install –yes screen ; fi

screen apt dist-upgrade


Here once again you should set whether old configuration to some e services has to stay or the new Debian maintainer package shipped one will overwrite the old and locally modified (due to some reason), here do wisely whatever you will otherwise some configured services might not boot as expected on next boot.

 

6. What if you get packages failed on update


If you get a certain package failed to configure after installed due to some reason, if it is a systemd service use:

 

journalctl -xe |head -n 50


or fully observer output of journalctl -xe and decide on yourself.

In most cases

dpkg-reconfigure failed-package-name


should do the trick or at least give you more hints on how to solve it.

 

Also if a package seems to be in inconsistent or broken state after upgrade  and simple dpkg-reconfigure doesn't help, a good command
that can help you is

 

dpkg-reconfigure -f package_name

 

or you can try to workaround a failed package setup with:
 

dpkg –configure -a

 
If dpkg-reconfigure doesn't help either as I experienced in prior of Debian from Debian 6 -> 7 an Debian 7 ->8 updates on some Computers, then a very useful thing to try is:
 

apt-get update –fix-missing 

apt-get install -f


At certain cases the only work around to be able to complete the package upgrade is to to remove the package with apt remove but due to config errors even that is not possible to work around this as final resort run:
 

dpkg –remove –force-remove-reinstreq

 

7. Clean up ununeeded packages

 

Some packages are left over due to package dependencies from Stretch and not needed in buster anymore to remove them.
 

apt autoremove

 

8. Reboot system once all upgrade is over

 

/sbin/reboot

 

9. Verify your just upgraded Debian is in a good state

 

root@noah:~# uname -a;
Linux noah 4.19.0-5-rt-amd64 #1 SMP PREEMPT RT Debian 4.19.37-5 (2019-06-19) x86_64 GNU/Linux

 

root@noah:~# cat /etc/issue.net
Debian GNU/Linux 10
 

 

root@noah:~# lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID:    Debian
Description:    Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster)
Release:    10
Codename:    buster

 

root@noah:~# hostnamectl
   Static hostname: noah
         Icon name: computer-laptop
           Chassis: laptop
        Machine ID: 4759d9c2f20265938692146351a07929
           Boot ID: 256eb64ffa5e413b8f959f7ef43d919f
  Operating System: Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster)
            Kernel: Linux 4.19.0-5-rt-amd64
      Architecture: x86-64

 

10. Remove annoying picture short animation with debian logo looping

 

plymouth-debian-graphical-boot-services

By default Debian 10 boots up with annoying screen hiding all the status of loaded services state .e.g. you cannot see the services that shows in [ FAILED ] state and  which do show as [ OK ] to revert back the old behavior I'm used to for historical reasons and as it shows a lot of good Boot time debugging info, in previous Debian distributions this was possible  by setting the right configuration options in /etc/default/grub

which so far in my config was like so

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash scsi_mod.use_blk_mq=y dm_mod.use_blk_mq=y zswap.enabled=1 text"


Note that zswap.enabled=1 passed option is because my notebook is pretty old machine from 2008 with 4GB of memory and zswap does accelerate performance when working with swap – especially helpful on Older PCs for more you can read more about zswap on ArchLinux wiki
After modifying this configuration to load the new config into grub the cmd is:
 

/usr/sbin/update-grub

 
As this was not working and tried number of reboots finally I found that annoying animated gif like picture shown up is caused by plymouth below is excerpts from Plymouth's manual page:


       "The plymouth sends commands to a running plymouthd. This is used during the boot process to control the display of the graphical boot splash."

Plymouth has a set of themes one can set:

 

# plymouth-set-default-theme -l
futureprototype
details
futureprototype
joy
lines
moonlight
softwaves
spacefun
text
tribar

 

I tried to change that theme to make the boot process as text boot as I'm used to historically with cmd:
 

update-alternatives –config text.plymouth

 
As after reboot I hoped the PC will start booting in text but this does not happened so the final fix to turn back to textmode service boot was to completely remove plymouth
 

apt-get remove –yes plymouth

Preparing your Linux to work with the Cloud providers – Installing aws , gcloud, az, oc, cf CLI Cloud access command interfaces

Wednesday, October 10th, 2018

howto Install-Cloud-access-tools-for-google-aws-azure-openshift-cloud-foundryCloud_computing-explained-on-linux.svg

If you're a sysadmin / developer whose boss requires a migration of Stored Data, Database structures or Web Objects to Amazon Web Services / Google Clourd or you happen to be a DevOps Engineer you will certainly need to have installed as a minimumum amazon AWS and Google Clouds clients to do daily routines and script stuff in managing cloud resources without tampering to use the Web GUI interface.

Here is how to install the aws, gcloud, oc, az and cf next to your kubernetes client (kubectl) on your Linux Desktop.
 

1. Install Google Cloud  gcloud (to manage Google Cloud platform resources and developer workflow
 

google-cloud-logo

Here is few cmds to run to install  gcloud, gcloud alpha, gcloud beta, gsutil, and bq commands to manage your Google Cloud from CLI

a.) On Debian / Ubuntu / Mint or any other deb based distro

# Create environment variable for correct distribution
export CLOUD_SDK_REPO="cloud-sdk-$(lsb_release -c -s)"

 

# Add the Cloud SDK distribution URI as a package source
# echo "deb http://packages.cloud.google.com/apt $CLOUD_SDK_REPO main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google-cloud-sdk.list

 

# Import the Google Cloud Platform public key
$ sudo curl https://packages.cloud.google.com/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | sudo apt-key add –

 

# Update the package list and install the Cloud SDK
$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install google-cloud-sdk


b) On CentOS, RHEL, Fedora Linux and other rpm based ones
 

$ sudo tee -a /etc/yum.repos.d/google-cloud-sdk.repo << EOM
[google-cloud-sdk]
name=Google Cloud SDK
baseurl=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/repos/cloud-sdk-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
       https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOM

# yum install google-cloud-sdk

 

That's all now the text client to talk to Google Cloud's API gcloud is installed under
/usr/bin/gcloud

Latest install instructions of Google Cloud SDK are here.


2. Install AWS Cloud command line interface tool for managing AWS (Amazon Web Services)
 

AmazonWebservices_Logo.svg

AWS client is dependent on Python PIP so before you proceed you will have to install python-pip deb package if on Debian / Ubuntu Linux use apt:

 

# apt-get install –yes python-pip

 

It is also possible to install newest version of PIP a tiny shell script provided by Amazon get-pip.py

 

# curl -O https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py
# python get-pip.py –user

 

# pip install awscli –upgrade –user

 

3. Install Azure Cloud Console access CLI command interface
 

Microsoft_Azure_Cloud-Logo.svg

On Debian / Ubuntu or any other deb based distro:

# AZ_REPO=$(lsb_release -cs)
# echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/azure-cli/ $AZ_REPO main" | \
$ sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azure-cli.list

# curl -L https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | sudo apt-key add –
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https azure-cli

 

Finaly to check that Azure CLI is properly installed run simple login with:

 

$ az login

 


$ sudo rpm –import https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc
$ sudo sh -c 'echo -e "[azure-cli]\nname=Azure CLI\nbaseurl=https://packages.microsoft.com/yumrepos/azure-cli\nenabled=1\ngpgcheck=1\ngpgkey=https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc" > /etc/yum.repos.d/azure-cli.repo'
$ sudo yum install azure-cli

$ az login


For Latest install instructions check Amazon's documentation here

4. Install OpenShift OC CLI tool to access OpenShift Open Source Cloud

 

OpenShift-Redhat-cloud-platform

Even thought OpenShift has its original Redhat produced package binaries, if you're not on RPM distro it is probably
best to install using official latest version from openshift github repo.


As of time of writting this article this is done with:

 

# wget https://github.com/openshift/origin/releases/download/v1.5.1/openshift-origin-client-tools-v1.5.1-7b451fc-linux-64bit.tar.gz
tar –xvf openshift-origin-client-tools-v1.5.1-7b451fc-linux-64bit.tar.gz

 

# # mv openshift-origin-client-tools-v1.5.1-7b451fc-linux-64bit oc-tool

 

# cd oc-tool
# echo'export PATH=$HOME/oc-tool:$PATH' >> ~/.bashrc

 

To test openshift, try to login to OpenShift cloud:

 

$ oc login
Server [https://localhost:8443]: https://128.XX.XX.XX:8443


Latest install instructions on OC here

5. Install Cloud Foundry cf CLI Cloud access tool

cloud-foundry-cloud-logo

a) On Debian / Ubuntu Linux based distributions, do run:

 

$ wget -q -O – https://packages.cloudfoundry.org/debian/cli.cloudfoundry.org.key | sudo apt-key add –
$ echo "deb https://packages.cloudfoundry.org/debian stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cloudfoundry-cli.list
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install cf-cli

 

b) On RHEL Enterprise Linux / CentOS and Fedoras

 

$ sudo wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/cloudfoundry-cli.repo https://packages.cloudfoundry.org/fedora/cloudfoundry-cli.repo
$ sudo yum install cf-cli


For latest install insructions on cf cli check Cloud Foundry's install site

There plenty of other Cloud providers with the number exponentially growing and most have their own custom cli tools to access but as there use is not so common as the 5 ones mentioned below, I've omited 'em. If you're interested to know the complete list of Cloud Providers providing Cloud Services check here.

6. Install Ruby GEMs RHC tools collection

If you have to work with Redhat Cloud Storage / OpenShift you will perhaps want to install also (RHC) Redhat Collection Tools.

Assuming that the Linux system is running an up2date version of ruby programming language do run:

 

 

root@jeremiah:~# gem install rhc
Fetching: net-ssh-5.0.2.gem (100%)
Successfully installed net-ssh-5.0.2
Fetching: net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0.gem (100%)
Successfully installed net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0
Fetching: net-ssh-multi-1.2.1.gem (100%)
Successfully installed net-ssh-multi-1.2.1
Fetching: minitar-0.7.gem (100%)
The `minitar` executable is no longer bundled with `minitar`. If you are
expecting this executable, make sure you also install `minitar-cli`.
Successfully installed minitar-0.7
Fetching: hashie-3.6.0.gem (100%)
Successfully installed hashie-3.6.0
Fetching: powerbar-1.0.18.gem (100%)
Successfully installed powerbar-1.0.18
Fetching: minitar-cli-0.7.gem (100%)
Successfully installed minitar-cli-0.7
Fetching: archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1.gem (100%)
'archive-tar-minitar' has been deprecated; just install 'minitar'.
Successfully installed archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1
Fetching: highline-1.6.21.gem (100%)
Successfully installed highline-1.6.21
Fetching: commander-4.2.1.gem (100%)
Successfully installed commander-4.2.1
Fetching: httpclient-2.6.0.1.gem (100%)
Successfully installed httpclient-2.6.0.1
Fetching: open4-1.3.4.gem (100%)
Successfully installed open4-1.3.4
Fetching: rhc-1.38.7.gem (100%)
===========================================================================

 

If this is your first time installing the RHC tools, please run 'rhc setup'

===========================================================================
Successfully installed rhc-1.38.7
Parsing documentation for net-ssh-5.0.2
Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-5.0.2
Parsing documentation for net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0
Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0
Parsing documentation for net-ssh-multi-1.2.1
Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-multi-1.2.1
Parsing documentation for minitar-0.7
Installing ri documentation for minitar-0.7
Parsing documentation for hashie-3.6.0
Installing ri documentation for hashie-3.6.0
Parsing documentation for powerbar-1.0.18
Installing ri documentation for powerbar-1.0.18
Parsing documentation for minitar-cli-0.7
Installing ri documentation for minitar-cli-0.7
Parsing documentation for archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1
Installing ri documentation for archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1
Parsing documentation for highline-1.6.21
Installing ri documentation for highline-1.6.21
Parsing documentation for commander-4.2.1
Installing ri documentation for commander-4.2.1
Parsing documentation for httpclient-2.6.0.1
Installing ri documentation for httpclient-2.6.0.1
Parsing documentation for open4-1.3.4
Installing ri documentation for open4-1.3.4
Parsing documentation for rhc-1.38.7
Installing ri documentation for rhc-1.38.7
Done installing documentation for net-ssh, net-ssh-gateway, net-ssh-multi, minitar, hashie, powerbar, minitar-cli, archive-tar-minitar, highline, commander, httpclient, open4, rhc after 10 seconds
13 gems installed
root@jeremiah:~#

To start with rhc next do:
 

rhc setup
rhc app create my-app diy-0.1


and play with it to install software create services on the Redhat cloud.

 

 

Closure

This are just of the few of the numerous tools available and I definitely understand there is much more to be said on the topic.
If you can remember other tools tor interesting cloud starting up tips about stuff to do on a fresh installed Linux PC to make life easier with Cloud / PaaS / SaaS / DevOps engineer please drop a comment.

Virtualbox Shared folder set up on Linux between Host and Guest OS – Set up Virtualbox shared folder to Copy files from PC Host to Guest

Wednesday, September 12th, 2018

mount-shares-between-host-OS-and-guest-virtual-machine-howto-virtualbox-vbox-logo

How to set-up Virtualbox shared folder to Copy files from PC Host  and Guest Virtualized OS?

Running VirtualBox Host is an easy thing to set-up across all Operating Systems.  Once you have it sooner or later you will need to copy files from the VM Host OS (that in my case is GNU / Linux) to the virtualized Guest operating system (again in my case that's again another Linux ISO running indide the Virtual Machine).

Below are steps to follow To use Virtualbox Shared Folder functionality to copy files between VBox and your Desktop / server Linux install.

1. Install Virtualbox Guest Additions CD Image ISO

I've explained how to add the Guest Additions CD image thoroughfully in my previous article Howto enable Copy / Paste Virtualbox betwen Linux guest and Host OS
Anyways I'll repeat myself below for sake of clarity:

To do so use Oracle VBox menus (on the booted virtualized OS VBox window):

 

Devices -> Insert Guest additions CD Image

 

Mount the ISO inside the Linux Virtual Machine:

root@debian:~# mount /media/cdrom1/
 

If the mount fails and there are no files inside the mount point it might be because the virtualbox-dkms and virtualbox-guest-dkms packages might be missing on the Host OS.

To install them (on Debian GNU / Linux) assuming that you're using virtualbox default distro packages /etc/apt/sources.list :
 

apt-get install –yes -qq virtualbox-dkms virtualbox-guest-dkms


and run:

 

root@debian:/media/cdrom1# cd /media/cdrom1; sh VBoxLinuxAdditions.run


2. Create directory for Shared Folder that will be used to access Host / OS files from the Guest Virtualized OS
 

root@debian:~# mkdir /mnt/shared_folder

 

3. Map from VBox program interface Shared folder settings and Mount /mnt/shared_folder location

virtualbox-virtual-machine-devices-shared-folders-shared-folder-settings-linux-screenshot

 

Devices -> Shared Folder -> Shared Folder settings -> Transient Folders (click blue folder add small button right)

 

From Transient Folders add whatever directory you want to be shared from your local notebook / PC to the VM.

virtualbox-devices-Shared-Folder-Add-Shared-Folder-add-share-linux-screenshotDepending on whether you would like to mount the shared folder only for reading files (choose Read Only) to make it a permanent shared folder (and not just for the one session of current running Virtual Machine until its killed use Make Permanent) or check Auto-Mount tick if you want the shared_folder mapping to be mounted on every VM boot.

Once the shared_folder directory location is set-up from GUI menu click OK and in order for the settings to take effect, you'll need to restart the VM Guest with Linux (use halt command from terminal) or Power Off the Machine via the VBox menus.

To mount use command like:

mount -t vboxsf name_of_folder_linked_from_vbox  /mnt/name_folder_guest_os/


mount-vboxsf-shared-folder-mnt-shared-linux-guest-screenshot

In my case I wanted to share home folder /home so the command I used is:

root@debian:~# mount -t vboxsf  shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder


If everything is fine your Host OS file content from /home will be visible (for read and write if you Mapped it so) 
under /mnt/shared_folder …

And as Turtles Ninja used to heavily say Cowabunga !!! 🙂
You have it mounted and ready for file share between Desktop -> Virtualized OS.

 

Bear in mind that above mount command has to run as root (superuser) to succeed.

You now could copy files from your Host OS (running the Virtual Machine) and the Guest OS (Virtualized OS) using /mnt/shared_folder mount point without problems.

The example is if you want to share files between VirtualBox installed Linux and the Guest (Desktop / server) OS, however at many cases mounting your Host OS directory for root users might be not very practical but, instead you might prefer to do the mount for specific non admin user, for example I prefer to do the shared folder mount with my pointed non-root username hipo.

Here is how to do above VM shared_folder mount for non-root user:

First you need to know the exact UID / GID (User ID / Group ID) of user, you can get that with id command:

 

hipo@linux:~$  id
uid=1000(hipo) gid=1000(hipo) groups=1000(hipo),24(cdrom),25(floppy),29(audio),30(dip),44(video),46(plugdev),108(netdev),114(bluetooth),115(lpadmin),119(scanner)

 

As you see UID / GID in my case are 1000 / 1000

hipo@linux:~$ sudo mount -t vboxsf -o rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder

 

mount-virtual-box-shared_folder-with-non-administration-permissions-non-root-permissions-id-and-mount-command-screenshot-linux


4. Mounting configured shared_folder to automatically mount into the Guest OS Linux on every boot

a) Configuring shared_folder auto-mount using /etc/rc.local

If you need the shared_folder to automatically mount next-time you boot the virtual machine quickest way is to add the mount command to /etc/rc.local (on Debian 8 and Debian 9 and newer Ubuntu Linuxes rc.local is missing by default to enable it to work like it worked before read follow my previous article ).

b) Configuring auto-mount for shared_folder through /etc/fstab

The more professional way to auto-mount on emulated OS VM boot time,  you could add the vboxsf mount definitions to /etc/fstab with your favourite text-editor mcedit, nano, joe etc. … (for me that's vim).

Syntax of /etc/fstab is as follows:
 

<Device> <Mount Point> <Type> <Options> <Dump> <Pass>

root@linux:~# vim /etc/fstab

 

shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 0 0

Note that you will want to change 1000 / 1000, id / gid with the ones of the non-admin user you would like to add to mount it for.

A quick way to add it to /etc/fstab with a shell one-liner is with command
 

root@linux:~# echo 'shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 0  0' >> /etc/fstab

An alternative way to add a user to have permissions for vboxsf file system (without specifying the long -o uid=1000,gid=1000 options is to simply add the username in question to group vboxsf like so:

c) Adding non super user username to vboxsf group

root@linux:~# usermod -G vboxsf hipo
root@linux:~# grep -i vboxsf /etc/group
vboxsf:x:999:hipo

 

hipo@linux:~$ sudo mount -t vboxsf  shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder

 

without the extra arguments and the options to pass to /etc/fstab (for eventual requirement to auto mount the shared_folder) would be more simple e.g.:

 

echo 'shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf ' >> /etc/fstab

 

One note to make here is if the uesr is added to vboxsf the line for /etc/fstab to auto mount to mount for root user and non-root will be identical.

Then you can get the /etc/fstab auto-mount configured tested by running:

c) Checking auto-mount is working

hipo@linux:~# mount -a
hipo@linux:~# mount |grep -i vboxsf
shared_folder on /mnt/shared_folder type vboxsf (rw,nodev,relatime)


5. What if you end up with mounting failed errors ? – What might be causing the mounting failed Protocol error (a few things to check to solve)


In case of troubles with the mount you might get an error like:

hipo@linux:~# mount -t vboxsf  share_folder /mnt/shared_folder

/sbin/mount.vboxsf: mounting failed with the error: Protocol error


This error might be caused because of Insert Guest Additions CD Image might be not properly enabled and installed using the ISO provided VBoxLinuxAdditions.sh shell script.
Other common reason you might get this error if you have mistyped the Folder name: given in Shared Folders -> Folder Path -> Add Share for example I have given shared_folder as a Map name but as you can see in above mount -t vboxsf, I've mistyped share_folder instead of the correct one shared_folder inserted.
In some VBox releases this error was caused by bugs in the Virtual Machine.
 

virtualbox-virtual-machine-shared-folder-transient-folder-add-folder-linux-VM-guest-linux

One useful tip is to be able to check whether a Virtualbox Virtual Machine has a configured shared_folder (if you're logging to manage the machine on remote server – nomatter whether you have logged in with VNC / Teamviewer / Citrix etc. or via SSH session.

To do so use VBoxControl as of time of writting usually located on most distributions under (/usr/bin/VBoxControl)
 

 

hipo@linux:~# VBoxControl sharedfolder list -automount
Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions Command Line Management Interface Version 5.2.18
(C) 2008-2018 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

 

Auto-mounted Shared Folder mappings (0):

No Shared Folders available.

You can use VBoxControl command to get set and list a number of settings on the VBox VM, here is an useful example with it where you get information about numerous VBox info values:

 

root@linux:~# VBoxControl guestproperty enumerate
Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions Command Line Management Interface Version 5.2.18
(C) 2008-2018 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

 

Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Product, value: Linux, timestamp: 1536681633430852000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/IP, value: 10.0.2.15, timestamp: 1536681633438717000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/GUI/LanguageID, value: en_US, timestamp: 1536697521395621000, flags: RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/MAC, value: 08002762FA1C, timestamp: 1536681633442120000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/ServicePack, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681633431259000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxVerExt, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681619002646000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/Netmask, value: 255.255.255.0, timestamp: 1536681633440157000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Version, value: #1 SMP Debian 4.9.110-3+deb9u2 (2018-08-13), timestamp: 1536681633431125000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/VersionExt, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681633431582000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/Revision, value: 124319, timestamp: 1536681633432515000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostGuest/SysprepExec, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681619002355000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/LoggedInUsers, value: 1, timestamp: 1536681673447293000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/Status, value: Up, timestamp: 1536681633443911000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/Name, value: enp0s3, timestamp: 1536681633445302000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostGuest/SysprepArgs, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681619002387000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/Version, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681633431419000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxRev, value: 124319, timestamp: 1536681619002668000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/Broadcast, value: 10.0.2.255, timestamp: 1536681633439531000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxVer, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681619002613000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/LoggedInUsersList, value: hipo, timestamp: 1536681673446498000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/Count, value: 1, timestamp: 1536698949773993000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Release, value: 4.9.0-7-amd64, timestamp: 1536681633431001000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/NoLoggedInUsers, value: false, timestamp: 1536681673447965000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/HostVerLastChecked, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681702832389000, flags: <NULL>

Hope you enjoyed ! Have phun! 🙂

The Best Most Effective Search Engine Optimization SEO tips or how to stay ahead of your competitors

Friday, October 27th, 2017

 

The 16 most effective search engine optimization tips

I've found an infogram that is showing the best practices of Search Engine Optimization as today SEO has been dependent strongly on this factors I suggest you closely check your site, whether all of the 16 pinpointed tips are already implemented in your site if not you better implement them before the robots (Machine Learning), Cloud Computing and the rest of the modern tech savy mambo jambo stuff modern technology takes over SEO ranking in Google. If you run a start up business like me this tips will definitely help you to keep up in the list of Google, Bing and Yahoo ahead of your competitors.

Enjoy Learning and please share anything you find missing on the diagram which you already do to Boost Up your SEO!

List of vulnerable wordpress plugins. Hacked, dangerous, vulnerable

Tuesday, October 17th, 2017

list-of-vulnerable-wordpress-pluginshacked-dangerous-vulnerable-wp

 

Have your wordpress has been hacked recently? Mine has Don't despair, below is a list of famous WordPress Plugins for its hackability.
Hope this helps you prevent your self on time and wipe out all the unnecessery plugins.
Double check the version number of Vulnerable plugins, and remove it only when you're sure its hackable. If you're sure you happen to run on your WordPress Blog or site one of the below plugins immediately deactivate and delete it.

 

Vulnerability types

A quick reminder of the most common security holes and issues WordPress plugins face. Please note that most problems are a combination of two or more types listed below.

Arbitrary file viewing
Instead of allowing only certain file source to be viewed (for example plugin templates) the lack of checks in the code allows the attacker to view the source of any file, including those with sensitive information such as wp-config.php

Arbitrary file upload
Lack of file type and content filtering allows for upload of arbitrary files that can contain executable code which, once run, can do pretty much anything on a site

Privilege escalation
Once the attacker has an account on the site, even if it’s only of the subscriber type, he can escalate his privileges to a higher level, including administrative ones.

SQL injection
By not escaping and filtering data that goes into SQL queries, malicious code can be injected into queries and data deleted, updated or inserted into the database. This is one of the most common vulnerabilities.

Remote code execution (RCE)
Instead of uploading and running malicious code, the attacker can run it from a remote location. The code can do anything, from hijacking the site to completely deleting it.

Plugin Name Vulnerability Type Min / Max Versions Affected
1 Flash Gallery arbitrary file upload 1.3.0 / 1.5.6
360 Product Rotation arbitrary file upload 1.1.3 / 1.2.0
Tevolution arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.2.9
Addblockblocker arbitrary file upload 0.0.1
Ads Widget remote code execution (RCE) 2.0 / n/a
Advanced Access Manager privilege escalation 3.0.4 / 3.2.1
Advanced Ajax Page Loader arbitrary file upload 2.5.7 / 2.7.6
Advanced Video Embed Embed Videos Or Playlists arbitrary file viewing n/a / 1.0
Analytic remote code execution (RCE) 1.8
Analytics Counter PHP object injection 1.0.0 / 3.4.1
Appointments PHP object injection 1.4.4 Beta / 2.2.0
Asgaros Forum settings change 1.0.0 / 1.5.7
Aspose Cloud Ebook Generator arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Aspose Doc Exporter arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Aspose Importer Exporter arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Aspose Pdf Exporter arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Attachment Manager arbitrary file upload 1.0.0 / 2.1.1
Auto Attachments arbitrary file upload 0.2.7 / 0.3
Bbpress Like Button SQL injection 1.0 / 1.5
Bepro Listings arbitrary file upload 2.0.54 / 2.2.0020
Blaze Slide Show For WordPress arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.7
Brandfolder local file inclusion (LFI) 2.3 / 3.0
Breadcrumbs Ez remote code execution (RCE) n/a
Candidate Application Form arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Category Grid View Gallery arbitrary file upload 0.1.0 / 0.1.1
Cherry Plugin arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 1.2.6
Chikuncount arbitrary file upload 1.3
Cip4 Folder Download Widget arbitrary file viewing 1.4 / 1.10
Cms Commander Client PHP object injection 2.02 / 2.21
Contus Video Gallery arbitrary file viewing 2.2 / 2.3
Cookie Eu remote code execution (RCE) 1.0
Cp Image Store arbitrary file viewing 1.0.1 / 1.0.5
Cross Rss arbitrary file viewing 0.5
Custom Content Type Manager remote code execution 0.9.8.8
Custom Lightbox possible remote code execution (RCE) 0.24
Cysteme Finder arbitrary file viewing 1.1 / 1.3
Db Backup arbitrary file viewing 1.0 / 4.5
Delete All Comments arbitrary file upload 2.0
Developer Tools arbitrary file upload 1.0.0 / 1.1.4
Disclosure Policy Plugin remote file inclusion (RFI) 1.0
Display Widgets remote code execution 2.6
Dop Slider arbitrary file upload 1.0
Download Zip Attachments arbitrary file viewing 1
Downloads Manager arbitrary file upload 1.0 Beta / 1.0 rc-1
Dp Thumbnail arbitrary file upload 1.0
Dropbox Backup PHP object injection 1.0 / 1.4.7.5
Dukapress arbitrary file viewing 2.3.7 / 2.5.3
Ebook Download arbitrary file viewing 1.1
Ecstatic arbitrary file upload 0.90 (x9) / 0.9933
Ecwid Shopping Cart PHP Object Injection 3.4.4 / 4.4.3
Enable Google Analytics remote code execution (RCE) n/a
Estatik arbitrary file upload 1.0.0 / 2.2.5
Event Commerce Wp Event Calendar persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 1.0
Filedownload arbitrary file viewing 0.1
Flickr Gallery PHP object injection 1.2 / 1.5.2
Form Lightbox option update 1.1 / 2.1
Formidable information disclosure 1.07.5 / 2.0.07
Fresh Page arbitary file upload .11 / 1.1
Front End Upload arbitrary file upload 0.3.0 / 0.5.3
Front File Manager arbitrary file upload 0.1
Fs Real Estate Plugin SQL injection 1.1 / 2.06.03
G Translate remote code execution (RCE) 1.0 / 1.3
Gallery Objects SQL injection 0.2 / 0.4
Gallery Slider remote code execution (RCE) 2.0 / 2.1
Genesis Simple Defaults arbitrary file upload 1.0.0
Gi Media Library arbitrary file viewing 1.0.300 / 2.2.2
Google Analytics Analyze remote code execution (RCE) 1.0
Google Document Embedder SQL injection 2.5 / 2.5.16
Google Maps By Daniel Martyn remote code exection (RCE) 1.0
Google Mp3 Audio Player arbitrary file viewing 1.0.9 / 1.0.11
Grapefile arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 1.1
Gravityforms reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) 1.7 / 1.9.15.11
Hb Audio Gallery Lite arbitrary file viewing 1.0.0
History Collection arbitrary file viewing 1.1. / 1.1.1
Html5avmanager arbitrary file upload 0.1.0 / 0.2.7
I Dump Iphone To WordPress Photo Uploader arbitrary file upload 1.1.3 / 1.8
Ibs Mappro arbitrary file viewing 0.1 / 0.6
Image Export arbitrary file viewing 1.0.0 / 1.1.0
Image Symlinks arbitrary file upload 0.5 / 0.8.2
Imdb Widget arbitrary file viewing 1.0.1 / 1.0.8
Inboundio Marketing arbitrary file upload 1.0.0 / 2.0
Infusionsoft arbitrary file upload 1.5.3 / 1.5.10
Inpost Gallery local file inclusion (LFI) 2.0.9 / 2.1.2
Invit0r arbitrary file upload 0.2 / 0.22
Is Human remote code execution 1.3.3 / 1.4.2
Iwp Client PHP object injection 0.1.4 / 1.6.0
Jssor Slider arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 1.3
Like Dislike Counter For Posts Pages And Comments SQL injection 1.0 / 1.2.3
Mac Dock Gallery arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 2.7
Magic Fields arbitrary file upload 1.5 / 1.5.5
Mailchimp Integration remote code execution (RCE) 1.0.1 / 1.1
Mailpress local file inclusion (LFI) 5.2 / 5.4.6
Mdc Youtube Downloader arbitrary file viewing 2.1.0
Menu Image malicious JavaScript loading 2.6.5 / 2.6.9
Miwoftp arbitrary file viewing 1.0.0 / 1.0.4
Mm Forms Community arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 2.2.6
Mobile App Builder By Wappress arbitrary file upload n/a / 1.05
Mobile Friendly App Builder By Easytouch arbitrary file upload 3.0
Multi Plugin Installer arbitrary file viewing 1.0.0 / 1.1.0
Mypixs local file inclusion (LFI) 0.3
Nmedia User File Uploader arbitrary file upload 1.8
Option Seo remote code execution (RCE) 1.5
Page Google Maps remote code execution (RCE) 1.4
Party Hall Booking Management System SQL injection 1.0 / 1.1
Paypal Currency Converter Basic For Woocommerce arbitrary file viewing 1.0 / 1.3
Php Analytics arbitrary file upload n/a
Pica Photo Gallery arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Pitchprint arbitrary file upload 7.1 / 7.1.1
Plugin Newsletter arbitrary file viewing 1.3 / 1.5
Post Grid file deletion 2.0.6 / 2.0.12
Posts In Page authenticated local file inclusion (LFI) 1.0.0 / 1.2.4
Really Simple Guest Post local file inclusion (LFI) 1.0.1 / 1.0.6
Recent Backups arbitrary file viewing 0.1 / 0.7
Reflex Gallery arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 3.0
Resume Submissions Job Postings arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.5.3
Return To Top remote code execution (RCE) 1.8 / 5.0
Revslider arbitrary file viewing 1.0 / 4.1.4
S3bubble Amazon S3 Html 5 Video With Adverts arbitrary file viewing 0.5 / 0.7
Sam Pro Free local file inclusion (LFI) 1.4.1.23 / 1.9.6.67
Se Html5 Album Audio Player arbitrary file viewing 1.0.8 / 1.1.0
Sell Downloads arbitrary file viewing 1.0.1
Seo Keyword Page remote code execution (RCE) 2.0.5
Seo Spy Google WordPress Plugin arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.6
Seo Watcher arbitrary file upload 1.3.2 / 1.3.3
Sexy Contact Form arbitrary file upload 0.9.1 / 0.9.8
Share Buttons Wp remote code execution (RCE) 1.0
Showbiz arbitrary file viewing 1.0 / 1.5.2
Simple Ads Manager information disclosure 2.0.73 / 2.7.101
Simple Download Button Shortcode arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Simple Dropbox Upload Form arbitrary file upload 1.8.6 / 1.8.8
Simple Image Manipulator arbitrary file viewing 1.0
Simplr Registration Form privilege escalation 2.2.0 / 2.4.3
Site Import remote page inclusion 1.0.0 / 1.2.0
Slide Show Pro arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.4
Smart Slide Show arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.4
Smart Videos remote code execution (RCE) 1.0
Social Networking E Commerce 1 arbitrary file upload 0.0.32
Social Sharing possible arbitrary file upload 1.0
Social Sticky Animated remote code execution (RCE) 1.0
Spamtask arbitrary file upload 1.3 / 1.3.6
Spicy Blogroll local file inclusion (LFI) 0.1 / 1.0.0
Spotlightyour arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 4.5
Stats Counter PHP object injection 1.0 / 1.2.2.5
Stats Wp remote code execution 1.8
Store Locator Le unrestricted email sending 2.6 / 4.2.56
Tera Charts reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) 0.1 / 1.0
The Viddler WordPress Plugin cross-site request forgery (CSRF)/cross-site scripting (XSS) 1.2.3 / 2.0.0
Thecartpress local file inclusion (LFI) 1.1.0 / 1.1.5
Tinymce Thumbnail Gallery arbitrary file viewing v1.0.4 / v1.0.7
Ultimate Product Catalogue arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 3.1.1
User Role Editor privilege escalation 4.19 / 4.24
Web Tripwire arbitrary file upload 0.1.2
Webapp Builder arbitrary file upload 2.0
Website Contact Form With File Upload arbitrary file upload 1.1 / 1.3.4
Weever Apps 20 Mobile Web Apps arbitrary file upload 3.0.25 / 3.1.6
Woocommerce Catalog Enquiry arbitrary file upload 2.3.3 / 3.0.0
Woocommerce Product Addon arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 1.1
Woocommerce Products Filter authenticated persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 1.1.4 / 1.1.4.2
Woopra arbitrary file upload 1.4.1 / 1.4.3.1
WordPress File Monitor persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 2.0 / 2.3.3
Wp Appointment Schedule Booking System persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 1.0
Wp Business Intelligence Lite arbitrary file upload 1.0 / 1.0.7
Wp Crm arbitrary file upload 0.15 / 0.31.0
Wp Custom Page arbitrary file viewing 0.5 / 0.5.0.1
Wp Dreamworkgallery arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.3
Wp Easybooking reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) 1.0.0 / 1.0.3
Wp Easycart authenticated arbitrary file upload 1.1.27 / 3.0.8
Wp Ecommerce Shop Styling authenticated arbitrary file viewing 1.0 / 2.5
Wp Editor authenticated arbitrary file upload 1.0.2 / 1.2.5.3
Wp Filemanager arbitrary file viewing 1.2.8 / 1.3.0
Wp Flipslideshow persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 2.0 / 2.2
Wp Front End Repository arbitrary file upload 1.0.0 / 1.1
Wp Handy Lightbox remote code execution (RCE) 1.4.5
Wp Homepage Slideshow arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.3
Wp Image News Slider arbitrary file upload 3.0 / 3.5
Wp Levoslideshow arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.3
Wp Miniaudioplayer arbitrary file viewing 0.5 / 1.2.7
Wp Mobile Detector authenticated persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 3.0 / 3.2
Wp Mon arbitrary file viewing 0.5 / 0.5.1
Wp Online Store arbitrary file viewing 1.2.5 / 1.3.1
Wp Piwik persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 0.10.0.1 / 1.0.10
Wp Popup remote code execution (RCE) 2.0.0 / 2.1
Wp Post Frontend arbitrary file upload 1.0
Wp Property arbitrary file upload 1.20.0 / 1.35.0
Wp Quick Booking Manager persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 1.0 / 1.1
Wp Royal Gallery persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) 2.0 / 2.3
Wp Seo Spy Google arbitrary file upload 3.0 / 3.1
Wp Simple Cart arbitrary file upload 0.9.0 / 1.0.15
Wp Slimstat Ex arbitrary file upload 2.1 / 2.1.2
Wp Superb Slideshow arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.4
Wp Swimteam arbitrary file viewing 1 / 1.44.1077
Wp Symposium arbitrary file upload 13.04 / 14.11
Wp Vertical Gallery arbitrary file upload 2.0 / 2.3
Wp Yasslideshow arbitrary file upload 3.0 / 3.4
Wp2android Turn Wp Site Into Android App arbitrary file upload 1.1.4
Wpeasystats local file inclusion (LFI) 1.8
Wpmarketplace arbitrary file viewing 2.2.0 / 2.4.0
Wpshop arbitrary file upload 1.3.1.6 / 1.3.9.5
Wpstorecart arbitrary file upload 2.0.0 / 2.5.29
Wptf Image Gallery arbitrary file viewing 1.0.1 / 1.0.3
Wsecure remote code execution (RCE) 2.3
Wysija Newsletters arbitrary file upload 1.1 / 2.6.7
Xdata Toolkit arbitrary file upload 1.6 / 1.9
Zen Mobile App Native arbitrary file upload 3.0
Zingiri Web Shop arbitrary file upload 2.3.6 / 2.4.3
Zip Attachments arbitrary file viewing 1.0 / 1.4

 

Have your WordPress site been hacked?

Don’t despair; it happens to the best of us. It’s tough to give generic advice without having a look at your site.

How to fix unfixable broken package dependencies on Debian GNU / Linux – Fix package mismatch

Wednesday, September 27th, 2017

how-to-fix-unfixable-broken-package-dependency-on-debian-ubuntu-linux-icon

I just tried to upgrade my Debian Wheezy 7 to the latest stable Debian Stretch 9 by not thinking too much and just changing the word wheezy with stretch in /etc/apt/sources.list so onwards on it looked like so:
 

cat /etc/apt/sources.list

 

deb http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ stretch main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ stretch main

deb http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ stretch/updates main 

# stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
##deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ stretch-updates main

 

I also make sure all the defined Google Chrome / Opera / Skype and Squeeze Backports repositories existent in /etc/apt/sources.list.d directory files which in my case were like so;

 

root@noah:/etc/apt/sources.list.d# ls
google-chrome.list  opera-stable.list  squeeze-backports.list
opera.list          skype-stable.list


 were commented out because they were producing extra apt update errors …

And afterwards ran as usual:

 

apt-get update
apt-get –yes upgrade


The upgrade command executed fine and a lot of packages got downloaded and reinstalled without much issue, so I thought everything would be fine and just proceeded with the attempt to finalize the distribution major release 7 to major release 9 by running:

 

apt-get –yes dist-upgrade


But guess what now I got some dependency errors with cron and other installed packages that depend on package versions that are not going to be installed as the apt-get tool informed me.

I tried to out-smart the dpkg dependency system and removed all the packages reporting to have a missing dependencies with a short for bash loop after duming all the problematic packages showing dependency issues with commands such as:

apt-get -f dist-upgrade >> out.txt
for i in $(cat out.txt); awk '{ print $1 }' >> to_delete.txt; done


Before proceeding further I had to manually edit few lines in a text editor to remove some of the junk left from apt-get too.

So i was brave and just removed the dependency missing packages with following other for loop:

 

for i in $(cat to_delete.txt); do dpkg -r –force-all $i; done


Now I was hoping that rerunning:

 

apt-get autoremove

dpkg --configure -a

apt-get update -f
apt-get dist-upgrade -f


would no longer complain and I would just install the removed packages in another for shell loop once every other packages gets installed.

But guess what I was wrong … the system entered into another bunch of depedency terribly issues and messed up so badly that there were at least 50 packages reporting to have a missing / broken or uninstallable deb version depedency …

I got totally Angry, I knew already from experience that just trying to jump over while skipping a major release e.g. upgrade Debian 7 to Debian 9, instead of first upgrading to Debian 8 Linux and then upgrading Debian 8 to Debian 9 have always produced the same mess but I was lame and stupid again to f**k it up and I was out of mind swearing (a truly bad habid I'm not proud of) …

So as the notebook with Linux so far was perfectly working with Debian 7 and had a tons of old installed software and I was in a state where if I restart the system it was very likely my Thinkpad r61 laptop won't boot at all, I googled around to find a solution unfortunately without any luck, so finally I used the good old and tested method to DO IT MYSELF and Find the Fix without Uncle Google's help and by God's grace I did, after experimenting a while with the aptitude package / install / remove update tool without much success, finally I find the solution to the totally messed up Debian package dependencies and it all came to a simply reverting back my /etc/apt/source.list to look like following:

 

# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0.0 _Wheezy_ – Official amd64 CD Binary-1 20130504-14:44]/ wheezy main

##deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.0.0 _Wheezy_ – Official amd64 CD Binary-1 20130504-14:44]/ wheezy main

deb http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.bg.debian.org/debian/ wheezy main

deb http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main

# wheezy-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
##deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ wheezy-updates main
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ wheezy-updates main
##deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org wheezy main non-free
#deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ wheezy-backports main
###deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ wheezy-backports main contrib non-free
##deb http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ wheezy main
#deb http://ftp2.de.debian.org/debian-volatile wheezy/volatile main
###deb http://www.deb-multimedia.org wheezy main non-free


run of the following two depedency fix commands !!!!

 

aptitude upgrade –full-resolver

aptitude full-upgrade –full-resolver


After a while a Debian LinuxOS system downgrade was initated and the missing packages were found, downloaded from the correct wheezy repositories and all broken and missing dependencies packages were fixed !!! HOORAY IT WORKS AGAIN!!

 

Install JBL Go Bluetooth Speaker on Debian GNU / Linux and Ubuntu

Thursday, August 24th, 2017

jbl-go-on-gnu-how-to-install-on-debian-and-ubuntu-linux

Here is how to configure a JBL Go Bluetooth (Wireless) speaker and presumably other Bluetooth external speakers to Debian GNU / Linux Wheezy 7 and Ubuntu 14.04 . 1. Install following bunch of deb packages

debian:~# apt-get install pulseaudio pulseaudio-module-bluetooth pavucontrol bluez-firmware

Here it is notable to mention pavucontrol if you have previously played more extensively on GNU / Linux you should have already used if not it is really cozy volume control tool with a lot of tuning options regarding pulseaudio stream server. Considering that like me you're using a GNOME as a desktop environment you will also need gnome-bluetooth package, e.g.:

debian:~# apt-get install gnome-bluetooth

As Pulseaudio is used as a sound streaming server in GNU / Linux (assuming your Debian version is using it you'll also need to have installed pulseaudio-module-bluetooth)

debian:~# apt-get install pulseaudio-module

For Ubuntu 14.04 GNU / Linux users the list of necessery bluetooth packages is a bit longer, if you're on this OS go and install:

debian:~# apt-get install bluez bluez-alsa bluez-audio bluez-btsco bluez-compat bluez-cups bluez-dbg bluez-gstreamer bluez-hcidump bluez-pcmcia-support bluez-tools bluez-utils python-bluez bluewho indicator-bluetooth libbluetooth-dev libgnome-bluetooth11 libbluetooth3 python-gobject python-dbus

Moreover you will need pulseaudio-module-bluetooth deb package installed in order to be able to select the desired sound output.

Next it is time to restart Bluetooth service

debian:~# service bluetooth restart
[ ok ] Stopping bluetooth: rfcomm /usr/sbin/bluetoothd.
[ ok ] Starting bluetooth: bluetoothd rfcomm.

It is also a good idea to restart pulseaudio snd streaming server in order to load the newly installed pulseaudio bluetooth module settings, to do so issue:

debian:~# killall pulseaudio

And try to establish connection from Gnome-Bluetooth to the JBL Go (press the JBL Go bluetooth button) and search from the Linux bluetooth interface, once founded connect it.

bluetooth-new-device-setup

jbl-go-connected-screenshot

Before JBL Go appears to list listable blootooth devices you will also need to run following command:

debian:~# pactl load-module module-bluetooth-discover
26

This command is to connect bluetooth discovered JBL Go device to the audio sink interface.

It is generally idea to add this line also to /etc/rc.local to make the setting permanently executed on every Linux boot.

Now you can launch pavucontrol and hopefully the JBL GO bluetooth speaker should be visible as an option, check out my below screenshot:

 


In case you further experience issues connecting the Bluetooth Speaker I would recommend to check out this Debian a2dp page at the end of the page are troubleshooting suggestions.

Troubleshooting

Refused to switch profile to a2dp_sink: Not connected

Bluetooth headset is connected, but ALSA/PulseAudio fails to pick up the connected device or there's no device to pick. This happens because GDM captures A2DP sink on session start, as GDM needs pulseaudio in the gdm session for accessibility. For example, the screen reader requires it. See 805414 for some discussion.

 

Workaround 1: disable pulseaudio in gdm

In order to prevent GDM from capturing the A2DP sink on session start, edit /var/lib/gdm3/.config/pulse/client.conf (or create it, if it doesn't exist):

 

autospawn = no
daemon-binary = /bin/true

After that you have to grant access to this file to Debian-gdm user:

 

chown Debian-gdm:Debian-gdm /var/lib/gdm3/.config/pulse/client.conf

You will also need to disable pulseaudio startup:

 

rm /var/lib/gdm3/.config/systemd/user/sockets.target.wants/pulseaudio.socket

In order to auto-connect a2dp for some devices, add this to /etc/pulse/default.pa:

 

load-module module-switch-on-connect

Logout your Desktop environment and restart gdm3 /etc/init.d/gdm3 restart or Reboot the PC and then it should be fine.

 

Now the sound device (bluetooth headset) should be accessible through pavucontrol and standard audio device manager.

 

Workaround 2: disable pulseaudio's bluetooth in gdm

The actual solution package maintainers are looking into next is to simply disable the bluetooth sink in the gdm pulseaudio daemon so that it doesn't take over the device. Add this to /var/lib/gdm3/.config/pulse/default.pa:

 

#!/usr/bin/pulseaudio -nF
#

# load system wide configuration
.include /etc/pulse/default.pa

### unload driver modules for Bluetooth hardware
.ifexists module-bluetooth-policy.so
  unload-module module-bluetooth-policy
.endif

.ifexists module-bluetooth-discover.so
  unload-module module-bluetooth-discover
.endif

Though this article explains how to connect a bluetooth speaker connecting Bluetooth Speaker to GNU / Linux is done in analogous way

 

Show directory structure bash script on Linux howto – See hierarchical directory tree structure one liner shell script

Friday, February 24th, 2017

show-directory-structure-see-hierarchical-directory-tree-structure-on-linux-with-tree-command-and-with-bash-shell-scripts

If you have Sys Adminned Linux or *Nix OS like, whether for some shell scripting purpose or just for sake of keeping a backup you should have definitely come
into some need to list a tree of a directories content in a hierarchical order.

The most obvious way to do that on Linux is by simply using:

1.  "tree" command (not installed by default on most Linux distributions so in order to have it on Deb / Debian based Linux do:
 

# apt-get install –yes tree


On Fedora / CentOS Redhat Linux (RHEL) etc. install with:

# yum –yes install tree

 

By the way for those that needs tree on FreeBSD / BSD UNIX, tree is also available on that platform you can install it with:
 

pkg_add -vr tree


Then simply check man tree to get idea on how to use it, the easiest way to use the command tree once package is installed is to run tree inside directory of choice, i.e.

 

$ cd /somedir
$ tree -a

.
├── acpi
│   ├── events
│   │   └── powerbtn-acpi-support
│   └── powerbtn-acpi-support.sh
├── adduser.conf
├── adjtime
├── aliases
├── alternatives
│   ├── ABORT.7.gz -> /usr/share/postgresql/9.5/man/man7/ABORT.7.gz
│   ├── aclocal -> /usr/bin/aclocal-1.11
│   ├── aclocal.1.gz -> /usr/share/man/man1/aclocal-1.11.1.gz
│   ├── ALTER_AGGREGATE.7.gz -> /usr/share/postgresql/9.5/man/man7/ALTER_AGGREGATE.7.gz
│   ├── ALTER_COLLATION.7.gz -> /usr/share/postgresql/9.5/man/man7/ALTER_COLLATION.7.gz
│   ├── ALTER_CONVERSION.7.gz -> /usr/share/postgresql/9.5/man/man7/ALTER_CONVERSION.7.gz
 

 

To get a list of only directories with tree use:
 

$ tree -d /

 

  │   ├── bin
│   │   ├── boot
│   │   │   └── grub
│   │   │       └── locale
│   │   ├── disk
│   │   │   ├── Books
│   │   │   │   ├── 200 E-BOOKS
│   │   │   │   │   ├── McGraw-Hill – Windows Server 2003
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.Access.Cookbook.2nd.Edition-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.ActionScript.Cookbook.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── OReilly.ActionScript.The.Definative.Guide.WinAll.Retail-EAT
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.Active.Directory.2nd.Edition.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.Active.Directory.Cookbook.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.ADO.Dot.NET.Cookbook.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.Amazon.Hacks.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── OREILLY.ANT.THE.DEFINITIVE.GUIDE-JGT
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.Apache.Cookbook.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.AppleScript.The.Definitive.Guide.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.ASP.Dot.NET.In.A.Nutshell.2nd.Edition.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── OReilly.Better.Faster.Lighter.Java.Jun.2004.eBook-DDU
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.BLAST.eBook-LiB
│   │   │   │   │   ├── OReilly.BSD.Hacks.May.2004.eBook-DDU
│   │   │   │   │   ├── Oreilly.Building.Embedded.Linux.Systems.eBook-LiB

If you have a colorful terminal and you like colors for readability the -C option is quite handy

 

$ tree -C /

 

tree-command-linux-hierarchical-structure-directory-tree
 

To list the directory tree with permissions included use tree cmd like so:

 

$ tree -L 2 -p /usr

/usr/
├── [drwxr-xr-x]  bin
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  [
│   ├── [lrwxrwxrwx]  2to3 -> 2to3-2.6
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  2to3-2.6
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  411toppm
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  7z
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  7za
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  a2p
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  ab
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  ac
│   ├── [lrwxrwxrwx]  aclocal -> /etc/alternatives/aclocal
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  aclocal-1.11
│   ├── [-rwxr-xr-x]  acpi


Another truly handy option of tree is to list the directory structure index with included file sizes information

 

$ tree -L 2 -sh /bin

/bin
├── [903K]  bash
├── [147K]  bsd-csh
├── [ 30K]  bunzip2
├── [681K]  busybox
├── [ 30K]  bzcat
├── [   6]  bzcmp -> bzdiff
├── [2.1K]  bzdiff
├── [   6]  bzegrep -> bzgrep
├── [4.8K]  bzexe
├── [   6]  bzfgrep -> bzgrep
├── [3.6K]  bzgrep
├── [ 30K]  bzip2
├── [ 14K]  bzip2recover
├── [   6]  bzless -> bzmore
├── [1.3K]  bzmore
├── [ 51K]  cat
├── [ 59K]  chgrp
├── [ 55K]  chmod
├── [ 63K]  chown
├── [ 10K]  chvt
├── [127K]  cp
├── [134K]  cpio
├── [  21]  csh -> /etc/alternatives/csh
├── [104K]  dash


To list a directory tree of a search pattern, lets say all files with .conf extensions use:
 

$ tree -P *.conf

/etc/ca-certificates.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/dante.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/debconf.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/deluser.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/discover-modprobe.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/fuse.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/gai.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/gpm.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/gssapi_mech.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/hdparm.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/host.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/idmapd.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/inetd.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/insserv.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/irssi.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/kernel-img.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/ld.so.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/libao.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/libaudit.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/logrotate.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/memcached.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/mke2fs.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/mongodb.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/mtools.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/multitail.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/nsswitch.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/ntp.conf [error opening dir]
/etc/ocamlfind.conf [error opening dir]

 

 

tree -I option does exclude all petterns you don't want tree to list

Here are few other tree useful options:

  • tree -u /path/to/file – displays the users owning the files
  • tree -g /path/to/file – display the groups owning the files
  • tree -a /path/to/file – display the hidden files/folders
  • tree -d /path/to/file – display only the directories in the hierarchy


However there might be some cases where you have to support a Linux server or you just have to write a script for a non-root user and you might not have the permissins to install the tree command to make your life confortable. If that's the case then you can still use a couple of command line tools and tricks (assuming you have permissions) to list a log a directory / files and subdirectories tree structure in a hierarchical tree like command order

2. Print a list of all sub-directories and files within a directory tree

To print all directories within any path of choise on a server use
 

$ find /path/ -type d -print

 

To print all files within a root filesystem hierarchically with find command

Another way to do it in a more beautiful output is by using find in conjunction with awk
 

$ find . -type d -print 2>/dev/null|awk '!/\.$/ {for (i=1;i<NF;i++){d=length($i);if ( d < 5  && i != 1 )d=5;printf("%"d"s","|")}print "—"$NF}'  FS='/'

 

|—bashscripts
|          |—not-mine
|          |—various
|          |—output
|          |—examples
|          |—fun
|          |—educational
|          |—backdoor-cgi
|          |—fork-bombs
|          |—tmp
|          |    |—old
|          |—bullshits
|—packages
|       |—ucspi-ssl-0.70.2
|       |               |—package
|       |               |—compile
|       |               |      |—rts-tmp
|       |               |—command
|       |               |—src
|—bin
|—package
|      |—host
|      |    |—superscript.com
|      |    |              |—command
|—mnt
|    |—tmpfs
|    |—disk
|    |—flash_drive
|    |—ramfs
|    |—cdrom

3. Get a list of the directories on filesystem structure with one-liner ls + sed script
 

$ ls -R | grep ":$" | sed -e 's/:$//' -e 's/[^-][^\/]*\//–/g' -e 's/^/ /' -e 's/-/|/'

 

 |-bin
 |-boot
 |-dev
 |—net
 |—pts
 |-downloads
 |—autorespond-2.0.5
 |—–debian
 |—deb-packages
 |—–IP-Country-2.28
 |——-bin
 |——-blib
 |———arch
 |———–auto

….
 

4. Print all files within root filesystem and issue any command on each of the files
 

ls -R1 / |    while read l; do case $l in *:) d=${l%:};; "") d=;; *) echo "$d/$l";; esac; done


Above command just prints all the found files with full-path if you want to check the file size or file type you just check echo command with any command you need to execute on each of the listed file

5. Get a list hierarchical directory Linux tree with bash shell scripts: Assuming that the server where you need to have a list of the directory filesystem structure in a tree fashion has bash you could use this little script called tree.sh to do the job or for a full filesystem hierarchical tree like directory structure use fulltree.sh

Install postgresql on Debian Squeeze / How to install PostGreSQL on Obsolete Debian installation

Friday, June 10th, 2016

how-to-install-postgresql-on-obsolete-old-debian-squeeze-tutorial

If you're in position like me to be running an old version of Debian (Squeeze) and you need to install PostgreSQL you will notice that the Debian 6.0 standard repositories are no longer active and apt-get update && apt-get upgrade are returning errors, thus because this Debian release is already too old and even the LTS repositories are inactive it is impossible to install postgresql with the usual.

To get around the situation first thing I did was to try to add followin Debian  repositories. to /etc/apt/sources.list
 

deb http://ftp.debian.net/debian-backports squeeze-backports-sloppy main
deb http://archive.debian.org/debian-archive/debian/ squeeze main contrib non-free
deb http://archive.debian.org/debian-archive/debian/ squeeze-lts main contrib non-free

After adding it I continued getting missing package errors while trying:
 

# apt-get update && apt-get install postgresql postgresql-client
….
…..

 

E: Some index files failed to download. They have been ignored, or old ones used instead.


Thus I googled a bit and I found the following PostgreSQL instructions working Debian 7.0 Wheeze and decided to try it 1 in 1 just changing the repository package wheezy word with squeeze
in original tutorial postgre's deb repositories are:

 

deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ wheezy-pgdg main


I've only changed that one with:

 

deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ squeeze-pgdg main

 

I guess though this worked for Debian Squeeze installing current versions such as Debian 8.0 Jessis and newer wouldn't be a prolem if you just change the debian version keyword witht he distribution for which you need the postgresql package


Here is all the consequential steps I took to make the PostgreSQL 9.5 running on my old and unsupported Debian 6.0 Squeeze

Create /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list. The distributions are called codename-pgdg. In the example, replace wheezy with the actual distribution you are using:

# vim /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pgdg.list

 

deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ squeeze-pgdg main

debian:~# apt-get –yes install wget ca-certificates debian:~# wget –quiet -O – https://www.postgresql.org/media/keys/ACCC4CF8.asc | sudo apt-key add – debian:~# apt-get update debian:~# apt-get upgrade debian:~# apt-get –yes install postgresql-9.5 pgadmin3

Next step is to connect to PostGreSQL and create database user and a database # su – postgres $ psql

Create a new database user and a database:

postgres=# CREATE USER mypguser WITH PASSWORD 'mypguserpass'; postgres=# CREATE DATABASE mypgdatabase OWNER mypguser;

 

or

# createuser mypguser #from regular shell # createdb -O mypguser mypgdatabase

Quit from the database

postgres=# q

Connect as user mypguser to new database

# su – mypguser $ psql mypgdatabase

or

# psql -d mypgdatabase -U mypguser

If you get errors like:

psql: FATAL: Ident authentication failed for user "mypguser"

edit pg_hba.conf in /etc/postgresql/9.5.Y/main/pg_hba.conf

 

local all all trust # replace ident or peer with trust

reload postgresql

/etc/init.d/postgresql reload …

 


To make sure that PostGreSQL is running on the system check the following processes are present on the server:

 

 

 

root@pcfreak:/var/www/images# ps axu|grep -i post postgres 9893 0.0 0.0 318696 16172 ? S 15:20 0:00 /usr/lib/postgresql/9.5/bin/postgres -D /var/lib/postgresql/9.5/main -c config_file=/etc/postgresql/9.5/main/postgresql.conf postgres 9895 0.0 0.0 318696 1768 ? Ss 15:20 0:00 postgres: checkpointer process postgres 9896 0.0 0.0 318696 2700 ? Ss 15:20 0:00 postgres: writer process postgres 9897 0.0 0.0 318696 1708 ? Ss 15:20 0:00 postgres: wal writer process postgres 9898 0.0 0.0 319132 2564 ? Ss 15:20 0:00 postgres: autovacuum launcher process postgres 9899 0.0 0.0 173680 1652 ? Ss 15:20 0:00 postgres: stats collector process root 14117 0.0 0.0 112404 924 pts/1 S+ 16:09 0:00 grep -i post

 

 


Well that's all folks now you will have the postgresql running on its default port 5433:

 

debian:/etc/postgresql/9.5/main# grep -i port postgresql.conf
port = 5433 # (change requires restart)
# supported by the operating system:
# supported by the operating system:
# ERROR REPORTING AND LOGGING # %r = remote host and port

 

 


Well that's it folks thanks The Lord Jesus Christ grace by the prayers of John The Baptist and Saint Sergij Radonezhki it works 🙂