Posts Tagged ‘mirror’

How to synchronize with / from Remote FTP server using LFTP like with rsync

Sunday, October 15th, 2017

how-to-synchronize-from-remote-ftp-server-easily-like-rsync.jpg

Have you ever been in a need to easily synchronize with a remote host which only runs FTP server?

Or are you in a local network and you need to mirror a directory or a couple of directories in a fast and easy to remember way?

If so then you'll be happy to use below LFTP command that is doing pretty much the same as Rsync, with only difference that it can mirror files over FTP (old but gold File Transfer Protocol).
 

lftp -u FTP_USERNAME,FTP_PASSWORD -e 'mirror REMOTE_DIRECTORY LOCAL_DIRECTORY' FTP_SERVER_HOSTNAME


Enjoy and thanks to my dear friend Amridikon for the tip ! 🙂

Fixing Shellshock new critical remote bash shell exploitable vulnerability on Debian / Ubuntu / CentOS / RHEL / Fedora / OpenSuSE and Slackware

Friday, October 10th, 2014

Bash-ShellShock-remote-exploitable-Vulnerability-affecting-Linux-Mac-OSX-and-BSD-fixing-shellshock-bash-vulnerability-debian-redhat-fedora-centos-ubuntu-slackware-and-opensuse
If you still haven’t heard about the ShellShock Bash (Bourne Again) shell remote exploit vulnerability and you admin some Linux server, you will definitely have to read seriously about it. ShellShock Bash Vulnerabily has become public on Sept 24 and is described in details here.

The vulnerability allows remote malicious attacker to execute arbitrary code under certain conditions, by passing strings of code following environment variable assignments. Affected are most of bash versions starting with bash 1.14 to bash 4.3.
Even if you have patched there are some reports, there are other bash shell flaws in the way bash handles shell variables, so probably in the coming month there will be even more patches to follow.

Affected bash flaw OS-es are Linux, Mac OS and BSDs;

• Some DHCP clients

• OpenSSL servers that use ForceCommand capability in (Webserver config)

• Apache Webservers that use CGi Scripts through mod_cgi and mod_cgid as well as cgis written in bash or launching bash subshells

• Network exposed services that use bash somehow

Even though there is patch there are futher reports claiming patch ineffective from both Google developers and RedHat devs, they say there are other flaws in how batch handles variables which lead to same remote code execution.

There are a couple of online testing tools already to test whether your website or certain script from a website is vulnerable to bash remote code executions, one of the few online remote bash vulnerability scanner is here and here. Also a good usable resource to test whether your webserver is vulnerable to ShellShock remote attack is found on ShellShocker.Net.

As there are plenty of non-standard custom written scripts probably online and there is not too much publicity about the problem and most admins are lazy the vulnerability will stay unpatched for a really long time and we’re about to see more and more exploit tools circulating in the script kiddies irc botnets.

Fixing bash Shellcode remote vulnerability on Debian 5.0 Lenny.

Follow the article suggesting how to fix the remote exploitable bash following few steps on older unsupported Debian 4.0 / 3.0 (Potato) etc. – here.

Fixing the bash shellcode vulnerability on Debian 6.0 Squeeze. For those who never heard since April 2014, there is a A Debian LTS (Long Term Support) repository. To fix in Debian 6.0 use the LTS package repository, like described in following article.

If you have issues patching your Debian Wheezy 6.0 Linux bash, it might be because you already have a newer installed version of bash and apt-get is refusing to overwrite it with an older version which is provided by Debian LTS repos. The quickest and surest way to fix it is to do literally the following:


vim /etc/apt/sources.list

Paste inside to use the following LTS repositories:

deb http://http.debian.net/debian/ squeeze main contrib non-free
deb-src http://http.debian.net/debian/ squeeze main contrib non-free
deb http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ squeeze/updates main contrib non-free
deb http://http.debian.net/debian squeeze-lts main contrib non-free
deb-src http://http.debian.net/debian squeeze-lts main contrib non-free

Further on to check the available installable deb package versions with apt-get, issue:



apt-cache showpkg bash
...
...
Provides:
4.1-3+deb6u2 -
4.1-3 -
Reverse Provides:

As you see there are two installable versions of bash one from default Debian 6.0 repos 4.1-3 and the second one 4.1-3+deb6u2, another way to check the possible alternative installable versions when more than one version of a package is available is with:



apt-cache policy bash
...
*** 4.1-3+deb6u2 0
500 http://http.debian.net/debian/ squeeze-lts/main amd64 Packages
100 /var/lib/dpkg/status
4.1-3 0
500 http://http.debian.net/debian/ squeeze/main amd64 Packages

Then to install the LTS bash version on Debian 6.0 run:



apt-get install bash=4.1-3+deb6u2

Patching Ubuntu Linux supported version against shellcode bash vulnerability:
A security notice addressing Bash vulnerability in Ubuntus is in Ubuntu Security Notice (USN) here
USNs are a way Ubuntu discloses packages affected by a security issues, thus Ubuntu users should try to keep frequently an eye on Ubuntu Security Notices

apt-get update
apt-get install bash

Patching Bash Shellcode vulnerability on EOL (End of Life) versions of Ubuntu:

mkdir -p /usr/local/src/dist && cd /usr/local/src/dist
wget http://ftpmirror.gnu.org/bash/bash-4.3.tar.gz.sig
wget http://ftpmirror.gnu.org/bash/bash-4.3.tar.gz
wget http://tiswww.case.edu/php/chet/gpgkey.asc
gpg --import gpgkey.asc
gpg --verify bash-4.3.tar.gz.sig
cd ..
tar xzvf dist/bash-4.3.tar.gz
cd bash-4.3
mkdir patches && cd patches
wget -r --no-parent --accept "bash43-*" -nH -nd
ftp.heanet.ie/mirrors/gnu/bash/bash-4.3-patches/ # Use a local mirror
echo *sig | xargs -n 1 gpg --verify --quiet # see note 2

cd ..
echo patches/bash43-0?? | xargs -n 1 patch -p0 -i # see note 3 below

./configure --prefix=/usr --bindir=/bin
--docdir=/usr/share/doc/bash-4.3
--without-bash-malloc
--with-installed-readline

make
make test && make install

To solve bash vuln in recent Slackware Linux:

slackpkg update
slackpkg upgrade bash

For old Slacks, either download a patched version of bash or download the source for current installed package and apply the respective patch for the shellcode vulnerability.
There is also a GitHub project “ShellShock” Proof of Concept code demonstrating – https://github.com/mubix/shellshocker-pocs
There are also non-confirmed speculations for bash vulnerability bug to impact also:

Speculations:(Non-confirmed possibly vulnerable common server services):

• XMPP(ejabberd)

• Mailman

• MySQL

• NFS

• Bind9

• Procmail

• Exim

• Juniper Google Search

• Cisco Gear

• CUPS

• Postfix

• Qmail

Fixing ShellShock bash vulnerability on supported versions of CentOS, Redhat, Fedora

In supported versions of CentOS where EOL has not reached:

yum –y install bash

In Redhat, Fedoras recent releases to patch:

yum update bash

To upgrade the bash vulnerability in OpenSUSE:

zipper patch –cve=CVE-2014-7187

Shellcode is worser vulnerability than recent SSL severe vulnerability Hearbleed. According to Redhat and other sources this new bash vulnerability is already actively exploited in the wild and probably even worms are crawling the net stealing passwords, data and building IRC botnets for remote control and UDP flooding.

Linux: How to change recursively directory permissions to executable (+x) flag

Monday, September 2nd, 2013

change recursively permissions of directories and subdirectories Linux and Unix with find command
I had to copy large directory from one Linux server to windows host via SFTP proto (with WinSCP). However some of directories to be copied lacked executable flag, thus WinSCP failed to list and copy them.

Therefore I needed way to set recursively, all sub-directories under directory /mirror (located on Linux server) to +x executable flag.

There are two ways to do that one is directly through find cmd, second by using find with xargs
Here is how to do it with find:

# find /mirror -type d -exec chmod 755 {} + Same done with find + xargs:

# find /path/to/base/dir -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 755
To change permissions only to all files under /mirror server directory with find

# find /path/to/base/dir -type f -exec chmod 644 {} +

Same done with find + xargs:
# find /path/to/base/dir -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 644

Also, tiny shell script that recursively changes directories permissions (autochmod_directories.sh) is here

Clean disk space, fix broken shortcuts and delete old restore points on Windows 98,XP, 2000 with Free Spacer

Thursday, February 28th, 2013

 

freespacer perfect clean disk space on Windows 98 XP 2000 russian software

If you end up with a low disk space, or a lot of broken shorcuts without knowing how this exaclty happened  on  Windows XP and you need to free some disk space on OS without manually bothering to delete Windows Temporary files. Check out a tiny Russian Program called Free Spacer. The program is a good substitute for the inefficient windows default app Disk Cleaner. Free Spacer is FreeWare and it can be just used "as it is" but unfortunately access to source code is unavailable as well as use for commercial purposes is prohibited.

I've used Free Spacer multiple times on messed up PCs and always it does good, it is an excellent piece of software. Any Windows-Admin knows  Cleaning some disk space from unnecessary junk files, makes PC work faster. Free Spacer is very useful to run on Virus infested PCs, together with SpyBot , Malware Bytes and some AV soft like Avira.

As software is Russian, unfortunately menu buttons are in Russian too. Even non-russians can easily orientate as the most important buttons are first two from up to bottom and the last which is exit. The first button on from top onwards starts searching for garbage and obsolete and temporary files you can afterwards delete with the second button Удалить – meaning Delete in Russian). A note to make here is on newer Windows than XP Pro or XP Home FreeSpacer does not work well; even though it installs and runs on x86 Windows Vista and Win 7 it hangs up during scan.

For latest version of FreeSpacer check Free Spacer's Official version here, only available in Russian. As of time of writting this post FreeSpacer's latest version is 1.67, I've created mirror of FreeSpcer 1.67 here.

Here is description of what FreeSpacer "features" translated to English:

  • Powerful cleaner drive of unnecessary files.
  • Cleans efficient found "garbage." files
  • A large number of masks for the detection of unnecessary files / folders.
  • Cleanup folders with temporary files, not only Windows / Internet, but about 30 popular programs.
  • Search for invalid shortcuts.
  • Search system restore points.
  • Search for missing files and folders.
  • Support Exclude files and folders.
     

How to find fastest RPM ( yum ) mirror on Fedora, CentOS and RHEL Linux

Wednesday, November 14th, 2012

Something very useful Fedora or RHEL users in terms is to configure YUM, download from quickest network speed package repository. On RHEL and Fedora developers made it be a piece of cake.

All you have to do is run command:

[root@centos]# yum install yum-fastestmirror

 

That's it the package installs one python script which, takes care of finding the closest RPM repository for your distro as well as check among a list of RPM mirrors which one is fastest and has lesser hosts ( hops ) to your system. It is pretty much like Debian's netselect (the tool on Debian which finds nearast fastest deb repository), except it is much simplistic. Once yum-fastestmirror package is installed you don't need to do nothing else, the script is loaded as a YUM plugin so it does all work on finding closest repository by itself. The list of all mirrors, among yum-fastestmirror will evaluate is: [root@centos ]# grep -i host /etc/yum/pluginconf.d/fastestmirror.conf
hostfilepath=/var/cache/yum/timedhosts.txt
maxhostfileage=10
[root@centos ]# wc -l /var/cache/yum/timedhosts.txt 50 /var/cache/yum/timedhosts.txt

The whole list of RPM package mirrors as of time of writing as taken from CentOS 5.6 is here

How to run your Own / Personal Domain Web WHOIS service in a minute with SpeedyWHOIS

Thursday, April 5th, 2012

Running your own personal WHOIS service speedy whois in browser screenshot

I've been planning to run my own domain WHOIS service, for quite sime time and I always postpone or forgot to do it.
If you wonder, why would I need a (personal) web whois service, well it is way easier to use and remember for future use reference if you run it on your own URL, than wasting time in search for a whois service in google and then using some other's service to get just a simple DOMAIN WHOIS info.

So back to my post topic, I postpopned and postponed to run my own web whois, just until  yesterday, whether I have remembered about my idea to have my own whois up and running and proceeded wtih it.

To achieve my goal I checked if there is free software or (open source) software that easily does this.
I know I can write one for me from scratch, but since it would have cost me some at least a week of programming and testing and I didn't wanted to go this way.

To check if someone had already made an easy to install web whois service, I looked through in the "ultimate source for free software" sourceforge.net

Looking for the "whois web service" keywords, displayed few projects on top. But unfortunately many of the projects sources was not available anymore from http://sf.net and the project developers pages..
Thanksfully in a while, I found a project called SpeedyWhois, which PHP source was available for download.

With all prior said about project missing sources, Just in case if SpeedyWhois source  disappears in the future (like it probably) happened with, some of the other WHOIS web service projects, I've made SpeedyWhois  mirror for download here

 
Contrary to my idea that installing the web whois service might be a "pain in the ass", (like is the case  with so many free software php scripts and apps) – the installation went quite smoothly.
 
To install it I took the following 4 steps:
 
1. Download the source (zip archive) with wget 
 
# cd /var/www/whois-service;
/var/www/whois-service# wget -q http://www.pc-freak.net/files/speedywhois-0.1.4.zip
 
2. Unarchive it with unzip command 
 
 
/var/www/whois-service# unzip speedywhois-0.1.4.zip
3. Set the proper DNS records

My NS are using Godaddy, so I set my desired subdomain record from their domain name manager.
 

4. Edit Apache httpd.conf to create VirtualHost
 
This step is not mandatory, but I thought it is nice if I put the whois service under a subdomain, so add a VirtualHost to my httpd.conf
 
The Virtualhost Apache directives, I used are:
 
<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerAdmin hipo_aT_pc-freak.net
        DocumentRoot /var/www/whois-service
        ServerName whois.pc-freak.net
        &lt;Directory /var/www/whois-service
        AllowOverride All
        Order Allow,Deny
        Allow from All
        </Directory>
</VirtualHost>
 
Onwards to take effect of new Webserver configs, I did Apache restart
 
# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache2 restart
 
Further on You can test whois a domain using my new installed SpeedyWHOISWeb WHOIS service  on http://whois.pc-freak.net
Whenever I have some free time, maybe I will work on the code, to try to add support for logging of previous whois requests and posting links pointing to the previous whois done via the web WHOIS service on the main whois page.
 
One thing that I disliked about how SpeedyWHOIS is written is, if there is no WHOIS information returned for a domain request (e.g.) a:
 
# whois domainname.com
 
returns an empty information, the script doesn't warn with a message there is no WHOIS data available for this domain or something.
 
 
This is not so important as this kind of behaviour of 'error' handling can easily be changed with minimum changes in the php code.
If you wonder, why do I need the web whois service, the answer is it is way easier to use.
I don't have more time to research a bit further on the alternative open source web whois services, so I would be glad to hear from anyone who tested other web whois service that is free comes under a FOSS license.
In the mean time, I'm sure people with a small internet websites like mine who are looking to run their OWN (personal) whois service SpeedyWHOIS does a great job.

How to show country flag, web browser type and Operating System in WordPress Comments

Wednesday, February 15th, 2012

!!! IMPORTANT UPDATE COMMENT INFO DETECTOR IS NO LONGER SUPPORTED (IS OBSOLETE) AND THE COUNTRY FLAGS AND OPERATING SYSTEM WILL BE NOT SHOWING INSTEAD,

!!!! TO MAKE THE COUNTRY FLAGS AND OS WP FUNCTIONALITY WORK AGAIN YOU WILL NEED TO INSTALL WP-USERAGENT !!!

I've come across a nice WordPress plugin that displays country flag, operating system and web browser used in each of posted comments blog comments.
Its really nice plugin, since it adds some transperancy and colorfulness to each of blog comments 😉
here is a screenshot of my blog with Comments Info Detector "in action":

Example of Comments Info Detector in Action on wordpress blog comments

Comments Info Detector as of time of writting is at stable ver 1.0.5.
The plugin installation and configuration is very easy as with most other WP plugins. To install the plugin;

1. Download and unzip Comments Info Detector

linux:/var/www/blog:# cd wp-content/plugins
linux:/var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins:# wget http://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/comment-info-detector.zip
...
linux:/var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins:# unzip comment-info-detector.zip
...

Just for the sake of preservation of history, I've made a mirror of comments-info-detector 1.0.5 wp plugin for download here
2. Activate Comment-Info-Detector

To enable the plugin Navigate to;
Plugins -> Inactive -> Comment Info Detector (Activate)

After having enabled the plugin as a last 3rd step it has to be configured.

3. Configure comment-info-detector wp plugin

By default the plugin is disabled. To change it to enabled (configure it) by navigating to:

Settings -> Comments Info Detector

Next a a page will appear with variout fields and web forms, where stuff can be changed. Here almost all of it should be left as it is the only change should be in the drop down menus near the end of the page:

Display Country Flags Automatically (Change No to Yes)
Display Web Browsers and OS Automatically (Change No to Yes

Comments Info Detector WordPress plugin configuration Screenshot

After the two menus are set to "Yes" and pressing on Save Changes the plugin is enabled it will immediately start showing information inside each comment the GeoIP country location flag of the person who commented as well as OS type and Web Browser 🙂

How to add multi language support to wordpress with qTranslate

Monday, October 3rd, 2011

QTRanslate WordPress Language Translate Screenshot 1

Lately, I have to deal with some wordpress based installs in big part of my working time. One of the wordpress sites needed to have added a multi language support.

My first research in Google pointed me to WPML Multilingual CMS The WordPress Multilingual Plugin
WPML Multilingual CMS looks nice and easy to use but unfortunately its paid, the company couldn’t afford to pay for the plugin so I looked forward online for a free alternative and stumbled upon QTranslate

QTranslate is free and very easy to install. Its installed the wordpress classic way and the installation went smoothly, e.g.:

1. Download and unzip QTranslate

# cd /var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins
/var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins# wget http://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/qtranslate.2.5.24.zip
...
/var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins# unzip qtranslate.2.5.24.zip
...

Just for fun and in case the plugin disappears in future, a mirror of Qtranslate 2.5.24 is found here

2. Enable QTranslate from wordpress admin

Plugins -> Inactive -> qTranslate (Activate)

After activating the plugin, there is a Settings button from which qTranslate‘s various plugin parameteres can be tuned.

qTranslate WordPress translate screenshot 2

In my case my site had to support both English and Arabic, so from the settings I added support for Arabic translation to the wordpress install.

Adding Arabic is done in the following way:

a. From the Language Management (qTranslate Configuration) from the Languages menu and the Languages (Add Languages) I had to choose a language code (in my case a language code of ar – for Arabic). Next I had to choose the Arabic flag from the follow up flag list.

In next text box Name , again I had to fill Arabic, for Locale en_US.UTF-8
The following Date Format and Time Format text boxes are optional so I left them blank.
To complete the process of adding the Arabic as a new language wordpress should support I pressed the Add Language button and the Arabic got added as a second language.

Afterwards the Arabic was added as second language, on the bottom of the left wordpress menu pane a button allowing a switch between English, Arabic appeared (see below screenshot):

MultiLingual WordPress with qTranslate

Finally to make Arabic appear as a second language of choice on the website I added it as a Widget in the Widgets menu from the AWidgets menu:

Appearance -> Widgets

In widgets I added qTranslate Language Chooser to the Sidebar without putting any kind of Title for qtranslate widget .
I found it most helpful to choose the Text and Image as an option on how to display the Language switching in the wp.

Two wordpress plugins to accelerate wordpress opening times and decrease server load time

Thursday, September 22nd, 2011

A Comparison of wordpress webpage responce with and without wp dbcache

A combination of two wordpress caching plugins (Hyper Cache and Db Cachesignificantly improves the access times of a wordpress based blogs and websites.

Installing the two websites has drastically improved my blog opening times, so in my view having the two plugins on every wordpress install out there is a must! 🙂
The plugins installation is straight forward, here is how I installed them.

1. Installing Hyper Cache on WordPress

To install Hyper Cache all I had to do is download and enable the plugin, the plugin doesn’t require any configuration. I always love it when I don’t have to bother with reading configuration options and pondering for some 20 minutes on the plugin features, so in that perspective Hyper Cache in my view is a good alternative to WordPress Super Cache

Besides that WordPress Super Cache was having issues when enabled on few wordpress based websites I manage these days. For comparison Hyper Cache worked just great on all wordpress install I tried the plugin so far.

To install all I had to do is download the plugin unzip and enable it:

a. Download and unzip it

debian:/var/www/blog# wget http://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/hyper-cache.zip
...
debian:/var/www/blog# cd wp-content/plugins
debian:/var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins# unzip hyper-cache.zip

b. Enable Hyper Cache plugin

To enable the plugin follow to standard plugin location;

Plugins -> Inactive -> Hyper Cache (Enable)

To enable the plugin follow to standard plugin location;

Plugins -> Inactive -> Hyper Cache (Enable)

 

A  mirror of current version of hyper-cache.zip plugin is here 

2. Installing Wodpress Db Cache

What Db Cache, does it does caching of last queries made to MySQL for specified time, so if the query has to be refetched again from wordpress’s php frontend the queries results are fetched straight for the memory. This decreases the load towards the MySQL server and increases the webpages loading time.

As the plugin page suggests it’s way faster than other html caching-plugins like WP-Cache  or WP Super Cache

However, I think its still slower than using a combination of WP Super Cache’s alternative Hyper Cache  and  Db Cache . Combining this two could rise the webpage opening times according to some statisticonline at best cases up to 830% !! 😉 Let me proceed with how I did the install of  Db Cache .

a. Download and Install Db Cache

 

debian:/var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins# wget http://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/db-cache.0.6.zip

...

debian:/var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins# unzip db-cache.0.6.zip

 

b. Enable the plugin 

 

Plugins -> Inactive -> Db Cache (Enable)

 

c. Make sure the permissions for Db Cache are correct

On Debian to enable Db Cache, the permissions should be changed for Apache to have a read/write permissions to plugin directory, on Debian to fix the permissions I used the commands:

debian:/var/www/blog# chown www-data:www-data wp-content

debian:/var/www/blog# chown -R www-data:www-data wp-content/plugins/db-cache

On other GNU/Linux distributions the above commands (user and group) www-data:www-data, should be set to whatever user/group Apache is running with, on Slackware this would be nobody:nobody, on CentOS and RHEL it would be apache:apache.

Finally to enable Db Cache go to

Settings -> Db Cache -> (Tick Enable) -> Save

I’ve also made a mirror of Db Cache plugin here

Enjoy the speed boost 😉

Adding a nice advanced text editor to make wordpress wp-admin have Microsoft Word like edit functionality

Friday, September 16th, 2011

By the default wordpress does not have support for changing the exact font, therefore copying and pasting a text made in Open Office or MS Word often places in the Post or Page wp edit fonts different from the default one set for articles.
Hence some articles after being published on a wordpress blog show up with improper font and the only way to fix that is to change the font first in Open Office and then copy back to wordpress instead of simply being able to change the font from within the wordpress article.

To get around this problem, there is a nice plugin fckeditor-for-wordpress-plugin which aids wordpress with an awesome Word like edit functionalities.
, downhload location for FCKEdit for WordPress is here

Here is a screenshot of the extra nice functionality the FCKEditor for wordpress providces.

FCKEDitor for wordpress extra functionality screenshot

Installing the plugin is like installing any other wordpress plugin and comes easily to:

debian:/~# cd /var/www/blog/wp-content/plugins
debian:/plugins# wget http://downloads.wordpress.org/plugin/fckeditor-for-wordpress-plugin.3.3.1.zip
...
debian:/plugins# unzip fckeditor-for-wordpress-plugin.3.3.1.zip
...
debian:/plugins# cd fckeditor-for-wordpress-plugin/

And further enabling the plugin from:

Plugins -> Inactive -> (Dean's FCKEditor For WordPress) Enable

fckeditor for wordpress will replace the default wordpress editor TinyMCE straight after being enabled.
 I’ve done also a mirror of the current version as of time of writting of this article, one can  download the fckeditor for wordpress mirrored here 
Now really file editting inside wordpress admin panel is way easier and convenient 😉 Cheers