Posts Tagged ‘proxy server’

How to use wget and curl via HTTP Proxy server / How to set a HTTPS proxy server on a bash shell on Linux

Wednesday, January 27th, 2016

linux-ssl-proxy-configuration-from-command-line-with-wget-and-curl-howto

I've been working a bit on a client's automation, the task is to automate process of installations of Apaches / Tomcats / JBoss and Java servers, so me and colleagues don't waste too
much time in trivial things. To complete that I've created a small repository on a Apache with a WebDav server with major versions of each general branch of Application servers and Javas.
In order to access the remote URL where the .tar.gz binaries archives reside, I had to use a proxy serve as the client runs all his network in a DMZ and all Web Port 80 and 443 HTTPS traffic inside the client network
has to pass by the network proxy.

Thus to make the downloads possible via the shell script, writting I needed to set the script to use the HTTPS proxy server. I've been using proxy earlier and I was pretty aware of the http_proxy bash shell
variable thus I tried to use this one for the Secured HTTPS proxy, however the connection was failing and thanks to colleague Anatoliy I realized the whole problem is I'm trying to use http_proxy shell variable
which has to only be used for unencrypted Proxy servers and in this case the proxy server is over SSL encrypted HTTPS protocol so instead the right variable to use is:
 

https_proxy


The https_proxy var syntax, goes like this:

proxy_url='http-proxy-url.net:8080';
export https_proxy="$proxy_url"

how-to-set-https_proxy_url-on-linux-freebsd-openbsd-bsd-and-unix-from-terminal-console

Once the https_proxy variable is set  UNIX's wget non interactive download tool starts using the proxy_url variable set proxy and the downloads in my script works.

Hence to make the different version application archives download work out, I've used wget like so:
 

 wget –no-check-certificate –timeout=5 https://full-path-to-url.net/file.rar


For other BSD / HP-UX / SunOS UNIX Servers where  shells are different from Bourne Again (Bash) Shell, the http_proxy and  https_proxy variable might not be working.
In such cases if you have curl (command line tool) is available instead of wget to script downloads you can use something like:
 

 curl -O -1 -k –proxy http-proxy-url.net:8080 https://full-path-to-url.net/file.rar

The http_proxy and https_proxy variables works perfect also on Mac OS X, default bash shell, so Mac users enjoy.
For some bash users in some kind of firewall hardened environments like in my case, its handy to permanently set a proxy to all shell activities via auto login Linux / *unix scripts .bashrc or .bash_profile that saves the inconvenience to always
set the proxy so lynx and links, elinks text console browsers does work also anytime you login to shell.

Well that's it, my script enjoys proxying traffic 🙂
 

Creating Dynamic SSH Tunnel on Windows with Plink – Scriptable SSH Tunnels on Windows

Friday, July 4th, 2014

creating-ssh-tunnel-on-windows-with-plink-ssh-tunnel-diagram-tunnel-email-traffic

In my earlier articles I've explained about Creating SSH Tunnels on Linux and BSD and how to create SSH Tunnels with Putty Terminal client on Windows.

Creating SSH Tunnels is a precious knowledge every advanced computer user, a system administrator or security expert should be well aware of.

Probably still there are plenty of people for which the SSH Tunnelling is something never heard of or even if heard it is a mythical term covered by ancient shadows 🙂

So What is an SSH Tunnel? – SSH Tunnels shortly explained.

A SSH tunnel consists of an encrypted tunnel created through a SSH protocol
connection
.

An SSH tunnel can be used to transfer unencrypted traffic over a
network through an encrypted channel
between two hosts (host A and Host B) usually using remote and local port.

Requirements for SSH tunnel

Where Host B has to be running a version of OpenSSH server on some reachable port from Host B, (lets say 22).
Host B OpenSSH server has to be with (enabled X11Forwarding X11Forwarding yes in /etc/ssh/sshd_config) and Host A needs to have some SSH client supporting port forwarding (ssh command on Linux – part of (openssh-client package) and on Windows – Putty / Plink or any other of the many available ssh tunneling clients).

Probably most common SSH Tunnel use is to bypass firewalls that prohibits or filter certain internet services.
In other words SSH Tunnels can be used to get around firewall filtering. If you never heard of Bypassing firewalls with port forwarding I recommend to check this article

We can use a ssh tunnel to securely transfer files between a FTP server and a client even though the FTP
protocol itself is not encrypted
, Tnnel traffic to an SQL server, Tunnel traffic from your Desktop PC to a Proxy
SSH tunnels can be used to tunnel outbound E-mail traffic back to your work PC to avoid having to change SMTP servers etc.

A very common SSH Tunnel use is by office workers who don't want their Custom Web browsing habbits and Web history be tracked,

For people who has to travel a lot tunneling SSH traffic from notebook to your home based SMTP is mandatory, otherwise your e-mail passwords, might end up captured by someone who manages the Free WI-FI used by you somewhere on the road or cafeteria. Another good case use of SSH Tunnel is to tunnel VNC traffic.

SSH Tunneling was historically very famous in days where IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and used to be common way (for people who want to prevent their real IP address from publicly visible) on the Internet.
SSH Tunneling is great way to maintain high communication security, however because it requires some basic technical knowledge most people neglect it or never heard of it, so I hope this article will give at least basic ideas to people new to tunneling.

How to create SSH Tunnels on Microsoft Windows

SSH Tunneling has been originally invented on UNIX / Linux platform, luckily nowdays it is easily possible to create SSH tunnels on almost any moden OS (including Mac OS X and M$ Windows).

Using Plink it is possible to create easily (batch) scriptable SSH tunnels on Windows

Generally here is example of basic plink use syntax:
 

plink.exe {remote-host} -P 22 -C -D 10080 -l username -pw password
 

To make a Tunnel with Plink to remote SSH Server (remote-ssh-server.com) listening for connections on port 22 on localhost 10022

"C:Program Files (x86)PuTTYplink.exe" -ssh remote-username@tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com -pw PASSWORD123 -C -T -D 127.0.0.1:10022 -N

-D – option instructs Plink to make "Dynamic SOCKS-based port forwarding"
Dynamic Socks-based port forwarding will make your ssh client a simple socks server which listen to port 10022 for incoming connections.
-Ttells plink not to open interactive shell on remote server (disable pty allocation)
-Cenables traffic compression

Using the -D option you can prepare tunnel to traffic all your outgoing server traffic via the SSH tunneling host.

E. g. -D allows you to use the remote ssh server as a proxy server with no need for remote server to run anything except SSH service and have Internet connection.

-N – stands for "don't start shell/command SSH-2 only"

On success of SSH Tunnel establishing you will get a pop-up window similar to below screenshot (note that some of the messages in cmd line are from a batch script – if no batch script is used you wil only get a window with "Using Username":

plink_establishing_ssh_tunnel-on-microsoft-windows-screenshot

Note: That if you're about to be using Plink command frequently add it to your Windows SYSTEM PATH (check my previous article – how to add Putty to System PATH) to enable it invokable without writting the full command path location.

Once this Window is open if you still have doubt, where the tunnel is established, the quickest way to test whether tunnel is working is to open telnet to localhost port 10022.

In Windows command prompt type:
 

C:> telnet localhost 10022

 

You will get a remote server SSH version printed, like on below shot:

windows-testing-whether-ssh-tunnel-is-working-with-telnet-screenshot-black-screen

Now lets say now you would like to access the internet via just created SSH tunnel.
You can do it by simply setting Socks Proxy in your Firefox / Opera (or whatever browser you use).

Whether you want to run the SSH Tunnel permanent and periodically check whether tunnel is allve and respawn it in case plink quit, you can use a very simple batch script like one below:
 

@ECHO OFF
tasklist /FI "IMAGENAME eq plink.exe" 2>NUL | find /I /N "plink.exe">NUL

if "%ERRORLEVEL%"=="0"  ( echo Programm is running exiting
exit
)
echo "Not Running"
start /b "C:Program Files (x86)PuTTYplink.exe" -ssh remote-username@tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com -pw Password123 -T -C -D 127.0.0.1:10022 -N"


If you're a Linux guy and you don't want to mess around with Plink but still want to create your SSH tunnels following SSH client UNIX command line syntax, setup the Cygwin port of OpenSSH for Windows.

Or if you're unsure whether remote server is always reachable (you're moving with your notebook from (Country) network to network), you can use also portqry – windows port scanner to check whether remote ssh server port is opened:
 

@ECHO OFF
tasklist /FI "IMAGENAME eq plink.exe" 2>NUL | find /I /N "plink.exe">NUL
if "%ERRORLEVEL%"=="0"  ( echo Programm is running exiting
pause
exit
)
portqry -n tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com -p tcp -e 22
if %ERRORLEVEL%==0 echo tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com Reachable Connecting ..
if NOT %ERRORLEVEL%==0 (echo tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com.com Unreachable
exit)
echo "Not Running. Starting"
"C:Program Files (x86)PuTTYplink.exe" -ssh remote-username@tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com -pw Password123 -T -C -D 127.0.0.1:10080 –N


Here is another sample use of Plink to create tunnel via SSH host tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com  to listen for connections on localhost port 1234 and forward all incoming traffic to squid proxy server on 192.168.1.5 on port 3128.
 

C:Usersgeorgi>plink.exe -v -x -a -T -C -noagent -ssh -L 127.0.0.1:1234:192.168.1.5:3128 remote-username@tunnel-to-ssh-server-host.com

Setting then 127.0.0.1:1234 in  Firefox Proxy browser settings will make all traffic from your browser to flow securily to your own proxy server (letting you hide your "custom traffic" from company Web sniffers (Proxying) and Web filtering.
A remark to make here is 192.168.1.5 is (a internal server with Squid Proxy, configured to pass traffic to the internet ).

Here is a way to make tunnel between your remote SSH server and local Desktop PC to make Google queries without being logged by your ISP or company where you're working:

plink.exe "-v -x -a -T -C -noagent -ssh -L 127.
0.0.1:1234:95.158.130.242:443 -pw SecretPassword123 -l hipo pc-freak.net"

95.158.130.242 – is one of the IPs www.google.com resolves to
pc-freak.net – is name of my home router.

To make tunneled queries to Google then open in browser https://127.0.0.1:1234

using_localhost_ssh_tunnel_to_anonymously-search-in-google-plink-tunnel-for-security

 

If you're a lazy windows user and don't want to bother to make your tunnels from command line and you want need nice gui way to manage multiple tunnels – check out putty-tunnel-manager.

I myself am not a SSH Tunnel expert and thus Iwould be happy to learn further from people for some interesting cases and custom ways to do  SSH Tunnels. If you know of better advantageous ways to tunnel traffic, please share.

Happy tunneling ! 🙂

How to disable / block sites with Squid Proxy ACL rules on Debian GNU / Linux – Setup Transparent Proxy

Wednesday, October 16th, 2013

Squid transparant proxy disabling blocking websites with Squid proxy

Often when configuring new Firewall router for a network its necessary to keep log on HTTP (Web) traffic passing by the router. The best way to do this in Linux is by using Proxy server. There are plenty of different Proxy (Caching) servers for GNU / Linux. However the most popular one is Squid (WWW Proxy Cache). Besides this its often a requirement in local office networks that Proxy server is transparent (invisible for users) but checking each and every request originating from the network. This scenario is so common in middle sized and small sized organizations that its a must that every Linux admin is ready to easily configure it. In most of my experience so far I used Debian Linux, so in this post I will explain how to configure Transparent Squid Proxy with configured ACL block rules for employee's time wasting services like facebook / youtube / vimeo etc.

Here is diagram I found on a skullbox.net showing graphically below Squid setup:

Squid as transparent proxy behind nat firewall diagram

1. Install Squid Proxy Server

Squid is available as Debian package since a long time, so on Deb Linux installing Squid is a piece of cake.

debian-server:~# apt-get install --yes squid
...
 

 

2. Create /var/cache/proxy directory and set proper permissions necessary for custom config

debian-server:~# mkdir /var/cache/proxy
debian-server:~# chown -R proxy:proxy /var/cache/proxy

3. Configure Squid Caching Server

By default debian package extract script does include default squid.conf which should be substituted with my custom squid.conf. A Minor user changes has to be done in config, download my squid.conf from here and overwrite default squid.conf in /etc/squid/squid.conf. Quickest way to do it is through:

debian-server:~# cd /etc/squid
debian-server:/etc/squid# mv /etc/squid/squid.conf /etc/squid/squid.conf.orig
debian-server:/etc/squid# wget -q http://www.pc-freak.net/files/squid.conf
debian-server:/etc/squid# chown -R root:root squid.conf

Now open squid.conf and edit lines:

http_port 192.168.0.1:3128

Change 192.168.0.1 which is IP assigned to eth1 (internal NAT-ted interface) with whatever IP of local (internal network) is. Some admins prefer to use 10.10.10.1 local net addressing.
Below in configuration, there are some IPs from 192.168.0.1-255 network configured through Squid ACLs to have access to all websites on the Internet. To tune such IPs you will have to edit lines after (1395) after comment

# allow access to filtered sites to specific ips


4. Disabling sites that pass through the proxy server

Create file /etc/disabled-sites i.e.:

debian-server:~# touch /etc/disabled-sites

and place inside all siles that would like to be inaccessible for local office network either through text editor (vim / pico etc.) or by issuing:

debian-server:~# echo 'facebook.com' >> /etc/disabled-sites
debian-server:~# echo ''youtube.com' >> /etc/disabled-sites
debian-server:~# echo 'ask.com' >> /etc/disabled-sites

5. Restart Squid to load configs

debian-server:~# /etc/init.d/squid restart
[ ok ] Restarting Squid HTTP proxy: squid.

6. Making Squid Proxy to serve as Transparent proxy through iptables firewall Rules

Copy paste below shell script to lets say /etc/init.d/squid-transparent-fw.sh
 

#!/bin/bash
IPT=/sbin/iptables;

IN=INPUT;
OUT=OUTPUT;
FORW=FORWARD;

AC=ACCEPT;
REJ=REJECT;
DRP=DROP;
RED=REDIRECT;
MASQ=MASQUERADE;
POSTR=POSTROUTING;
PRER=PREROUTING;
OUT_IFACE=eth2;
OUT_B_IFACE=eth0;
IN_IFACE=eth1;
MNG=mangle;

ALL_NWORKS='0/0';
LOCALHOST='127.0.0.1';

# forward to squid.
$IPT -t nat -I $PRER -p tcp -s 192.168.0.0/24 -d ! 192.168.0.1 –dport www -j $RED –to 3128
$IPT -t nat -I $PRER -p tcp -s 192.168.0.0/24 -d ! 192.168.0.1 –dport 3128 -j $RED –to 3128

# Reject connections to squid from the untrusted world.
# rules for order.
$IPT -A $IN -p tcp -s 83.228.93.76 -d $ALL_NWORKS –dport 65221 -j $AC

$IPT -A $IN -p tcp -s $ALL_NWORKS –dport 65221 -j $REJ
$IPT -A $IN -i $OUT_B_IFACE -p tcp -s $ALL_NWORKS –dport 3128 -j $REJ

Easiest way to set up squid-transparent-fw.sh firewall rules is with:

debian-server:~# cd /etc/init.d/
debian-server:/etc/init.d# wget -q http://www.pc-freak.net/files/squid-transparent-fw.sh
debian-server:/etc/init.d# chmod +x squid-transparent-fw.sh
debian-server:/etc/init.d/# bash squid-transparent-fw.sh
Then place line /etc/init.d/squid-transparent-fw.sh into /etc/rc.local before exit 0
 

That's all now Squid Transparent Proxy will be up and running and the number of sites listed in disabled-sites will be filtered for Office employees returning a status of Access Denied.

Access Denied msg

Gets logged in /var/log/squid/access.log example of Denied access for Employee with IP 192.168.0.155 is below:

192.168.0.155 - - [16/Oct/2013:16:50:48 +0300] "GET http://youtube.com/ HTTP/1.1" 403 1528 TCP_DENIED:NONE

Various other useful information on what is cached is also available via /var/log/squid/cache.log and /var/log/squid/store.log

Another useful thing of using Transparent Squid Proxy is that you can always keep track on exact websites opened by Employees in Office so you can easily catch people trying to surf p0rn websites or some obscenity.

Hope this post helps some admin out there 🙂 Enjoy

How to harden Linux Security and imprpove network efficiency on Kernel sysctl Level to Stop SYN flood

Friday, July 8th, 2011

Power up Linux and protect against DDoS with sysctl var optimization

Some long time ago I’ve written an article Optimizing Linux tcp/ip networking

In the article I’ve examined a number of Linux kernel sysctl variables, which significantly improve the way TCP/IP networking is handled by a non router Linux based servers.

As the time progresses I’ve been continuing to read materials on blogs and internet sites on various tips and anti Denial of Service rules which one could apply on newly installed hosting (Apache/MySql/Qmail/Proxy) server to improve webserver responce times and tighten the overall security level.

In my quest for sysctl 😉 I found a few more handy sysctl variables apart from the old ones I incorporate on every Linux server I adminstrate.
The sysctl variables improves the overall network handling efficiency and protects about common SYN/ACK Denial of service attacks.

Here are the extra sysctl variables I started incorporating just recently:

############ IPv4 Sysctl Settings ################
#Enable ExecShield protection (randomize virtual assigned space to protect against many exploits)
kernel.randomize_va_space = 1
#Increase the number of PIDs processes could assign this is very needed especially on more powerful servers
kernel.pid_max = 65536
# Prevent against the common 'syn flood attack'
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
# Controls the use of TCP syncookies two is generally a better idea, though you might experiment
#net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
##################################################
#
############## IPv6 Sysctl Settings ################
# Number of Router Solicitations to send until assuming no routers are present.
net.ipv6.conf.default.router_solicitations = 0
# Accept Router Preference in RA? Again not necessery if the server is not a router
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_rtr_pref = 0
# Learn Prefix Information in Router Advertisement (Unnecessery) for non-routers
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_pinfo = 0
# disable accept of hop limit settings from other routers (could be used for DoS)
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_defrtr = 0
# disable ipv6 global unicasts server assignments
net.ipv6.conf.default.autoconf = 0
# neighbor solicitations to send out per address (better if disabled)
net.ipv6.conf.default.dad_transmits = 0
# disable assigning more than 1 address per network interface
net.ipv6.conf.default.max_addresses = 1
#####################################################

 

To use this settings paste the above sysctl variables in /etc/sysctl.conf and ask sysctl command to read and apply the newly added conf settings:

server:~# sysctl -p
...

Hopefully you should not get errors while applying the sysctl settings, if you get some errors, it’s possible some of the variable is differently named (depending on the Linux kernel version) or the Linux distribution on which sysctl’s are implemented.

For some convenience I’ve created unified sysctl variables /etc/sysct.conf containing the newly variables I started implementing to servers with the ones I already exlpained in my previous post Optimizing Linux TCP/IP Networking

Here is the optimized / hardened sysctl.conf file for download

I use this exact sysctl.conf these days on both Linux hosting / VPS / Mail servers etc. as well as on my personal notebook 😉

Here is also the the complete content of above’s sysctl.conf file, just in case if somebody wants to directly copy/paste it in his /etc/sysctl.conf

# Sysctl kernel variables to improve network performance and protect against common Denial of Service attacks
# It's possible that not all of the variables are working on all Linux distributions, test to make sure
# Some of the variables might need a slight modification to match server hardware, however in most cases it should be fine
# variables list compiled by hip0
### http://www.pc-freak.net
#### date 08.07.2011
############ IPv4 Sysctl Kernel Settings ################
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
# ( Turn off IP Forwarding )
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
# ( Control Source route verification )
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0
# ( Disable ICMP redirects )
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
# ( same as above )
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
# ( Disable IP source routing )
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
# ( - || - )net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 40
# ( Decrease FIN timeout ) - Useful on busy/high load server
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 4000
# ( keepalive tcp timeout )
net.core.rmem_default = 786426
# Receive memory stack size ( a good idea to increase it if your server receives big files )
##net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = "4096 87380 4194304"
net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
#( Reserved Memory per connection )
net.core.wmem_max = 8388608
net.core.optmem_max = 40960
# ( maximum amount of option memory buffers )
# tcp reordering, increase max buckets, increase the amount of backlost
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 360000
net.ipv4.tcp_reordering = 5
##net.core.hot_list_length = 256
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 1024
#Enable ExecShield protection (randomize virtual assigned space to protect against many exploits)
kernel.randomize_va_space = 1
#Increase the number of PIDs processes could assign this is very needed especially on more powerful servers
kernel.pid_max = 65536
# Prevent against the common 'syn flood attack'net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
# Controls the use of TCP syncookies two is generally a better idea, though you might experiment
#net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
###################################################
############## IPv6 Sysctl Settings ################
# Number of Router Solicitations to send until assuming no routers are present.
net.ipv6.conf.default.router_solicitations = 0
# Accept Router Preference in RA? Again not necessery if the server is not a router
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_rtr_pref = 0
# Learn Prefix Information in Router Advertisement (Unnecessery) for non-routersnet.
ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_pinfo = 0
# disable accept of hop limit settings from other routers (could be used for DoS)
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_defrtr = 0
# disable ipv6 global unicasts server assignmentsnet.
ipv6.conf.default.autoconf = 0
# neighbor solicitations to send out per address (better if disabled)
net.ipv6.conf.default.dad_transmits = 0
# disable assigning more than 1 address per network interfacenet.
ipv6.conf.default.max_addresses = 1
#####################################################
# Reboot if kernel panic
kernel.panic = 20

These sysctl settings will tweaken the Linux kernel default network settings performance and you will notice the improvements in website responsiveness immediately in some cases implementing this kernel level goodies will make the server perform better and the system load might decrease even 😉

This optimizations on a kernel level are not only handy for servers, their implementation on Linux Desktop should also have a positive influence on the way the network behaves and could improve significantly the responce times of opening pages in Firefox/Opera/Epiphany Torrent downloads etc.

Hope this kernel tweakenings are helpful to someone.
Cheers 😉

How to generate user password for digest_pw_auth SQUID digest authentication

Wednesday, July 6th, 2011

Squid Proxy pass prompt / real squid fun picture

I needed to generate new password for proxy user configured on SQUID proxy server configured with digest user authentication.
My dear colleague was kind to provide me with the below script, which generates the one line string which needs to go to the squid user password file:

#!/bin/sh
user="$1";
realm="$2";
pass="$3";
if [ -z "$1" -o -z "$2" -o -z "$3" ] ; then
echo "Usage: $0 user password 'realm'";
exit 1
fi
ha1=$(echo -n "$user:$realm:$pass"|md5sum |cut -f1 -d' ')
echo "$user:$realm:$ha1"

You can alternatively download the squid_generate_pass.sh script here

The script accepts three arguments;
proxy-server:~# ./squid_generate_pass.sh
Usage: ./squid_generate_pass.sh user password 'realm'

Thus to generate a new user and password and insert it immediately into let’s say a squid configured user/pass file in /etc/squid3/users execute command:

proxy-server:~# ./squid_generate_pass.sh admin_user MySecretPassword 'Squid_Configured_Realm'
>> /etc/squid3/users

Where Squid_Configured_Realm depends on the realm name configured in squid.conf, for example if squid.conf includes some auth configuration similar to:

auth_param digest program /usr/lib/squid3/digest_pw_auth -c /etc/squid3/users
auth_param digest children 2
auth_param digest realm My_Proxy_Realm
acl localusers proxy_auth REQUIRED

The realm script argument should be My_Proxy_realm . If squid_generate_pass does completes without errors, it should add a line to /etc/squid3/users file similar to:

proxy-server:~# cat /etc/squid3/users
admin_user:My_Proxy_realm:3bbcb35e505c52a0024ef2e3ab1910b0

Cheers 😉