Posts Tagged ‘statd’

How much memory users uses in GNU / Linux and FreeBSD – Commands and Scripts to find user memory usage on Linux

Tuesday, February 17th, 2015

 

how-much-memory-users-use-in-gnu-linux-freebsd-command-to-find-and-show-ascending-descending-usage-of-system-memory-tux-memory-logo

 


If you have to administrate a heterogenous network with Linux and FreeBSD or other UNIX like OSes you should sooner or later need for scripting purposes to have a way to list how much memory separate users take up on your system. Listing memory usage per user is very helpful for admins who manager free-shells or for companies where you have developers, developing software directly on the server via ssh. Being able to check which process eats up most memory is essential for every UNIX / Linux sysadmin, because often we as admins setup (daemons) on servers and we forgot about their existence, just to remember they exist 2 years later and see the server is crashing because of memory exhaustion. Tracking server bottlenecks where RAM memory and Swapping is the bottleneck is among the main swiss amry knives of admins. Checking which user occupies all server memory is among the routine tasks we're forced to do as admins, but because nowdays servers have a lot of memory and we put on servers often much more memory than ever will be used many admins forget to routinely track users / daemons memory consumption or even many probably doesn't know how.  Probably all are aware of the easiest wy to get list of all users memory in console non interactively with free command, e.g.:
 

free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:         32236      26226       6010          0        983       8430
-/+ buffers/cache:      16812      15424
Swap:        62959        234      62725

 

but unfortunately free command only shows overall situation with memory and doesn't divide memory usage by user

Thus probably to track memory users the only known way for most pepole is to (interactively) use good old top command or if you like modern (colorful) visualization with htop:

debian:~# top

 

linux-check_memory_usage_by_logged-in-user-with-top-process-command-gnu-linux-freebsd-screenshot

Once top runs interactive press 'm' to get ordered list of processes which occupy most system memory on Linux server.Top process use status statistics will refresh by default every '3.0' seconds to change that behavior to '1' second press  s and type '1.0'. To get Sort by Memory Use in htop also press 'm'
 

[root@mail-server ~]# htop


htop_show_users_memory_usage_order_ascending-gnu-linux-screenshot

 

However if you need to be involved in scripting and setting as a cron job tasks to be performed in case if high memroy consumption by a service you will need to use few lines of code. Below are few examples on how Linux user memory usage can be shown with ps cmd.

Probably the most universal way to see memory usage by users on Debian / Ubuntu / CentOS / RHEL and BSDs (FreeBSD / NetBSD) is with below one liner:

 

server:~# ps hax -o rss,user | awk '{a[$2]+=$1;}END{for(i in a)print i” “int(a[i]/1024+0.5);}' | sort -rnk2
daemon 0
debian-tor 63
dnscache 1
dnslog 0
hipo 21
messagebus 1
mysql 268
ntp 2
privoxy 1
proftpd 1
qmaill 0
qmailq 0
qmailr 0
qmails 0
qscand 291
root 94
shellinabox 1
snmp 1
statd 1
vpopmail 80
www-data 6765

 

Output is in MBs

Below is output from machine where this blog is running, the system runs ( Apache + PHP + MySQL Webserver + Qmail Mail server and Tor) on Debian GNU / Linux.

 To get more human readable (but obscure to type – useful for scripting) output list of which user takes how much memory use on deb / rpm etc. based Linux :

 

server:~# echo "USER                 RSS      PROCS" ; echo "——————– ——– —–" ; \
ps hax -o rss,user | awk '{rss[$2]+=$1;procs[$2]+=1;}END{for(user in rss) printf “%-20s %8.0f %5.0f\n”, user, rss[user]/1024, procs[user];}' | sort -rnk2

 

USER                 RSS      PROCS
——————– ——– —–
www-data                 6918   100
qscand                    291     2
mysql                     273     1
root                       95   120
vpopmail                   81     4
debian-tor                 63     1
hipo                       21    15
ntp                         2     1
statd                       1     1
snmp                        1     1
shellinabox                 1     2
proftpd                     1     1
privoxy                     1     1
messagebus                  1     1
dnscache                    1     1
qmails                      0     2
qmailr                      0     1
qmailq                      0     2
qmaill                      0     4
dnslog                      0     1
daemon                      0     2

 

It is possible to get the list of memory usage listed in percentage proportion, with a tiny for bash loop and some awk + process list command
 

TOTAL=$(free | awk '/Mem:/ { print $2 }')
for USER in $(ps haux | awk '{print $1}' | sort -u)
do
    ps hux -U $USER | awk -v user=$USER -v total=$TOTAL '{ sum += $6 } END { printf "%s %.2f\n", user, sum / total * 100; }'
done

107 1.34
115 2.10
119 1.34
daemon 1.32
dnscache 1.34
dnslog 1.32
hipo 1.59
mysql 4.79
ntp 1.34
privoxy 1.33
proftpd 1.32
qmaill 1.33
qmailq 1.33
qmailr 1.32
qmails 1.33
qscand 4.98
root 1.33
snmp 1.33
statd 1.33
vpopmail 2.35
www-data 86.48

Also a raw script which can be easily extended to give you some custom information on memory use by user list_memory_use_by_user.sh is here.
You can also want to debug further how much memory a certain users (lets say user mysql and my username hipo) is allocating, this can easily be achieved ps like so:
 

root@pcfreak:~# ps -o size,pid,user,command -u mysql –sort -size
 SIZE   PID USER     COMMAND
796924 14857 mysql   /usr/sbin/mysqld –basedir=/usr –datadir=/var/lib/mysql –plugin-dir=/usr/lib/mysql/plugin –user=mysql –pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid –socket=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock –port=3306

 

root@pcfreak~# ps -o size,pid,user,command -u hipo –sort -size|less
 SIZE   PID USER     COMMAND
13408 19063 hipo     irssi
 3168 19020 hipo     SCREEN
 2940  2490 hipo     -bash
 1844 19021 hipo     /bin/bash
 1844 19028 hipo     /bin/bash
 1844 19035 hipo     /bin/bash
 1844 19042 hipo     /bin/bash
 1844 19491 hipo     /bin/bash
 1844 22952 hipo     /bin/bash
  744  2487 hipo     sshd: hipo@pts/0
  744  2516 hipo     sshd: hipo@notty
  524  2519 hipo     screen -r
  412  2518 hipo     /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server

You see from below output user running with www-data (this is Apache Webserver user in Debian) is eating 86.48% of overall system memory and MySQL server user is using only 4.79% of available memory

Output is shown in Megabytes per username memory usage, and user memory usage is ordered (stepping-down / descentive) from top to bottom

Getting more thoroughful and easier to read reporting without beeing a 31337 bash coder you can install and use on Linux smem – memory reporting tool .

SMEM can provide you with following memory info:

  • system overview listing
  • listings by process, mapping, user
  • filtering by process, mapping, or user
  • configurable columns from multiple data sources
  • configurable output units and percentages
  • configurable headers and totals
  • reading live data from /proc
  • reading data snapshots from directory mirrors or compressed tarballs
  • lightweight capture tool for embedded systems
  • built-in chart generation


Installing smem on Debian 6 / 7 / Ubuntu 14.04 / Turnkey Linux etc. servers is done with standard:

 

debian:~# apt-get install –yes smem
….

 

 

To install smem on CentOS 6 / 7:

 

[root@centos ~ ]# yum -y install smem
….


On Slackware and other Linux-es where smem is not available as a package you can install it easily from binary archive with:

 

cd /tmp/
wget http://www.selenic.com/smem/download/smem-1.3.tar.gz
tar xvf smem-1.3.tar.gz
sudo cp /tmp/smem-1.3/smem /usr/local/bin/
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/smem

 


Two most common smem uses are:

 

root@mail:~# smem -u
User     Count     Swap      USS      PSS      RSS
dnslog       1       44       48       54      148
qmaill       4      232      124      145      464
hipo        11    13552     8596     9171    13160
qscand       2     4500   295336   295602   297508
root       188   217312  4521080  4568699  7712776

 

Below command shows (-u – Report memory usage by user, -t – show totals, -k – show unix suffixes)

root@mail:~# smem -u -t -k
User     Count     Swap      USS      PSS      RSS
dnslog       1    44.0K    48.0K    54.0K   148.0K
qmaill       4   232.0K   124.0K   145.0K   464.0K
hipo        11    13.2M     8.4M     9.0M    12.9M
qscand       2     4.4M   288.4M   288.7M   290.5M
root       188   212.2M     4.3G     4.4G     7.4G
—————————————————
           206   230.1M     4.6G     4.6G     7.7G


To get users memory use by percentage with smem:
 

root@mail:~# smem -u -p
User     Count     Swap      USS      PSS      RSS
dnslog       1    0.00%    0.00%    0.00%    0.00%
qmaill       4    0.00%    0.00%    0.00%    0.01%
hipo        11    0.17%    0.11%    0.11%    0.16%
qscand       2    0.05%    3.63%    3.63%    3.66%
root       194    2.64%   56.18%   56.77%   95.56%

It is also useful sometimes when you want to debug system overloads caused by external hardware drivers loaded into kernel causing issues to get list of system wide memory use sorted by user

 

 root@mail:~# smem -w -p
Area                           Used      Cache   Noncache
firmware/hardware             0.00%      0.00%      0.00%
kernel image                  0.00%      0.00%      0.00%
kernel dynamic memory        38.30%     36.01%      2.28%
userspace memory             60.50%      0.98%     59.53%
free memory                   1.20%      1.20%      0.00%


smem is very nice as if you're running it on a Desktop Linux system with Xserver installed you can see also graphical output of memory use by application:
 

root@desktop-pc:~# smem –bar pid -c "pss uss"


smem_graphical_representation-of-which-user-application-is-consuming-most-memory-gnu-linux-kde-screenshot-smem-command-line-tool

smem can even generate graphical pie charts to visualize better memory use
 

root@desktop-pc:~# smem -P '^k' –pie=name

 

generate-graphical-staticstics-linux-memory-use-by-pie-chart

If there is a high percentage shown in firmware/hardware this means some buggy module is loaded in kernel eating up memory, to fix it debug further and remove the problematic module.
userspace memory actually shows the percantage of memory out of all server available RAM that is being consumed by applications (non kernel and other system processes which make the system move). You see in above example the kernel itself is consuming about 40% of system overall available memory. 

We all know the SWAP field stands for hard disk drive used as a memory when system is out, but there are 3 fields which smem will report which will be probably unclear for most here is also explanation on what USS / PSS / RSS means?

RSS is the Resident Set Size and is used to show how much memory is allocated to that process and is in RAM. It does not include memory that is swapped out. It does include memory from shared libraries as long as the pages from those libraries are actually in memory. It does include all stack and heap memory too.

There is also PSS (proportional set size). This is a newer measure which tracks the shared memory as a proportion used by the current process. So if there were two processes using the same shared library from before.

USS stands for Unique set size, USS is just the unshared page count, i.e. memory returned when process is killed 

PSS = Proportional set size, (PSS),  is a more meaningful representation of the amount of memory used by libraries and applications in a virtual memory system.  
Because large portions of physical memory are typically shared among multiple applications, the standard measure of memory usage known as resident set size (RSS) will significantly overestimate memory usage. The parameter PSS instead measures each application’s “fair share” of each shared area to give a realistic measure. For most admins checking out the output from RSS (output) should be enough, it will indicate which user and therefore which daemon is eating up all your memory and will help you to catch problematic services which are cause your server to run out of RAM and start swapping to disk.

How to check what process is listening on network port with: lsof & fuser commands in Linux / BSD

Saturday, March 16th, 2013

It is a common thing for me as a Linux and FreeBSD sysadmin to know what process assignes to which port number? I'm sure many novice system administrators will end up sooner or later with same question. Knowing what kind of processes has listening to TCP and UDP protocol / ports is a must to have a proper configured Linux / BSD system. In Linux there are two commands ( lsof and fuser) with which you can get various extra PID information on running processes (i.e. get information which cannot otherwise be obtained via the usual ps and netstat  To use them on most Linux distributions, you will have to have them installed.

1. Install fuser / lsof on Linux / BSD

a) On RPM based Linux distros – Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, SuSE /sbin/fuser is usually part of base install psmisc rpm package, however /usr/sbin/lsof is not among standard installed rpms, so you have to manually install via yum:

[root@centos ~]# yum install -y lsof
….

b) On Deb based Linuxes (Debian, Ubuntu, Mint, ArchLinux etc.). both lsof and fuser has to be installed via a separate packages non-part of Debian base install packs.

server:~# apt-get --yes install lsof fuser
....

On Debian full path location of both is in /bin/fuser and /usr/bin/lsof.

Two tools are precious swiss army knife outfit to use, whether you doubt someone cracked into a server or in doubt you might have "hidden" cracker processes on server.

c) Install fuser on Free/Net/Open/ BSD

bsd# cd /usr/ports/sysutils/fuser
bsd# make install clean
....
bsd# cd /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof
bsd# make install clean
....

2. Using fuser and lsof to look up process PIDs assigned to port numbers

lsof name is derived from List Open Files, as we know in UNIX, GNU / Linux,  *BSD everything on the system is a file, thus to get all kind of information concerning all active files (i.e. ports, PIDs, procotols and process names;

server:~# lsof +M -i4 | less

COMMAND     PID     USER   FD   TYPE   DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
portmap    1317   daemon    4u  IPv4     3930      0t0  UDP *:sunrpc[portmapper]
portmap    1317   daemon    5u  IPv4     3939      0t0  TCP *:sunrpc[portmapper] (LISTEN)
rpc.statd  1329    statd    4u  IPv4     3974      0t0  UDP *:657
rpc.statd  1329    statd    6u  IPv4     3983      0t0  UDP *:28530[status]
rpc.statd  1329    statd    7u  IPv4     3986      0t0  TCP *:58515[status] (LISTEN)
apache2    1625 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    1625 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
sshd       1918     root    3u  IPv4     4945      0t0  TCP *:ssh (LISTEN)
miniserv.  2155     root    5u  IPv4     5299      0t0  TCP *:20000 (LISTEN)
miniserv.  2155     root    6u  IPv4     5300      0t0  UDP *:20000
miniserv.  2161     root    6u  IPv4     5367      0t0  TCP *:webmin (LISTEN)
miniserv.  2161     root    7u  IPv4     5368      0t0  UDP *:10000
ntpd       2172      ntp   16u  IPv4     5395      0t0  UDP *:ntp
ntpd       2172      ntp   18u  IPv4     5402      0t0  UDP localhost:ntp
ntpd       2172      ntp   19u  IPv4     5403      0t0  UDP iqtest.soccerfame.com:ntp
ntpd       2172      ntp   20u  IPv4    16028      0t0  UDP secure.broomlake.com:ntp
apache2    4505 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    4505 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    4539 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    4539 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    4780 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    4780 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    4900 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    4900 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    4907 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    4907 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    4915 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    4915 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5067 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5067 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5133 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5133 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5134 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5134 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5148 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5148 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5152 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5152 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5259 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5259 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5265 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5265 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5266 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5266 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5346 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5346 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5356 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5356 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5467 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5467 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5523 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5523 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5568 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5568 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5715 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5715 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5716 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5716 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5758 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5758 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    5789 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    5789 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2    6106 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2    6106 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   16608 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   16608 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   16904 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   16904 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   17124 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   17124 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   17280 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   17280 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   20855 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   20855 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   20920 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   20920 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   21023 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   21023 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   22182 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   22182 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23307 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23307 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23366 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23366 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23408 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23408 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23419 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23419 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23428 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23428 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23452 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23452 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23561 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23561 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23579 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23579 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   23851 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   23851 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   24103 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   24103 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   24659 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   24659 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
sshd      25073     root    3u  IPv4 29855891      0t0  TCP iqtest.soccerfame.com:ssh->pc-freak.net:50176 (ESTABLISHED)
sshd      25084     hipo    3u  IPv4 29855891      0t0  TCP iqtest.soccerfame.com:ssh->pc-freak.net:50176 (ESTABLISHED)
apache2   25089 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   25089 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   26737 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   26737 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   27243 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   27243 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   27282 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   27282 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   27633 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   27633 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   28205 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   28205 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   29244 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   29244 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   29372 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   29372 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   29411 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   29411 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   29462 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   29462 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   29548 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   29548 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   30161 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   30161 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   31876 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   31876 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   31958 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   31958 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   32052 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   32052 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   32061 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   32061 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   32143 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   32143 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   32149 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   32149 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   32440 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   32440 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   32635 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   32635 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   32790 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   32790 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   40211 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   40211 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   40309 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   40309 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   40432 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   40432 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   40476 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   40476 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46319     root    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46319     root    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46438 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46438 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46439 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46439 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46440 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46440 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46441 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46441 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46442 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46442 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46443 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46443 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46509     root    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46509     root    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46510     root    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46510     root    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   46515     root    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   46515     root    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   51287 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   51287 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   51485 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   51485 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   51804 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   51804 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
named     54418     bind   20u  IPv4 31298857      0t0  TCP localhost:domain (LISTEN)
named     54418     bind   21u  IPv4 31298859      0t0  TCP iqtest.soccerfame.com:domain (LISTEN)
named     54418     bind   22u  IPv4 31298861      0t0  TCP secure.broomlake.com:domain (LISTEN)
named     54418     bind   23u  IPv4 31298865      0t0  TCP localhost:953 (LISTEN)
named     54418     bind  512u  IPv4 31298856      0t0  UDP localhost:domain
named     54418     bind  513u  IPv4 31298858      0t0  UDP iqtest.soccerfame.com:domain
named     54418     bind  514u  IPv4 31298860      0t0  UDP secure.broomlake.com:domain
named     54418     bind  515u  IPv4 31298864      0t0  UDP *:domain
proftpd   62010  proftpd    1u  IPv4 31306260      0t0  TCP *:ftp (LISTEN)
mysqld    62420    mysql   11u  IPv4 31306903      0t0  TCP *:mysql (LISTEN)
apache2   62582 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   62582 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   62845 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   62845 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)
apache2   64748 www-data    3u  IPv4     5456      0t0  TCP *:www (LISTEN)
apache2   64748 www-data    4u  IPv4     5458      0t0  TCP *:https (LISTEN)

Above lsof command lists all active listening processes port number on UDP and TCP/IP 4 proto with the assigned process PID number (in second column). This is very useful if you find out to have listening service on port number and you cannot figure out what process name exactly is listening.

A classic example, where this is very helpful is if you have a listening process on SMTP port 25 and you cannot identify what kind of mail server is taking up the port? This has happened me many times on Debian Linux based hosts, which by default had priorly installed sendmail and I later removed sendmail to install Postfix or Exim SMTP.
To find out what is assigning port 25, you had to grep the protocol name from all binded host processes, like so:

 

server:~# lsof +M -i4 | grep -i smtp

exim4     17550     root    3u  IPv4 31577966      0t0  TCP localhost:smtp (LISTEN)

Whether you want to get information on Process ID, binding other random port lets say port 10000, following same logic you can grep it:

server:~# lsof +M -i4 |grep -i 10000
miniserv.  2161     root    7u  IPv4     5368      0t0  UDP *:10000

To get rid of a process for which you're unsure what kind of (/etc/init.d/service-name) init script is starting it, you can then use kill cmd to stop it;

server:~# kill -9 2161

Second approach to find out what kind of process is listening on a random port or socket, lets say port num 58515 is by using fuser.

 

 

server:~# netstat -ltn4
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State     
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:111             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:10000           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:58515           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:21              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 77.92.85.71:53          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 109.123.106.44:53       0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:53            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:953           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:443             0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:20000           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN    

Below netstat cmmand, lists all active listening processes on respective IP address and port for protocol TCPIP v.4.

Hence on to get more information on what process is listening on port 58515?

server:~#  fuser -v 58515/tcp

                     USER        PID ACCESS COMMAND
58515/tcp:           statd      1329 F…. rpc.statd

Once you know what is listening, whether you want to kill it this is also possible directly through fuser;

 

server:~# fuser -vk 58515/tcp

As a close-up, I will say fuser and lsof are two must have software tools on any productive server. It is among the critical applications admin has to install during initial server set-up. fuser and lsof helps me often in my sysadmin work, it was more than once I've used them to identify script-kiddies exploit scanners running as a standard process names, as well secretly listening on weird port number  cracker back-doors.

Hopefully this little article, helps someone learn something new. Plenty is written and will be written and if one takes the time to research he can learn much, much more. I'm sure my tiny article is nothing new under the sun for old-school admins, I still hope it will be of use to novice. I'm looking forward to hear if I'm missing some neat use or some interesting case, when lsof or fuser "saved your ass" 🙂