Posts Tagged ‘type’

Skype remove word completion / Howto Disable spellcheck autocorrect on Mac OS X, Android Phones Tablets and IPhone iOS

Tuesday, March 14th, 2017

How-to-disable-auto-correct-on-MacOS-X-android-and-iphone

I've recently upgraded my wife's Mac Book Air Mac OS X release from Mountain Lion to latest available OS X release Yosemite and after upgrade the old version of Skype used for about 3 years without any problems (except camera issues due to mac OS X bug the old post is here) stopped working (did crashed) on Skype launch so I took few minutes to upgrade Skype as well from Skype.com Skype for Mac official download page after the quick and unproblematic Skype re-install, Skype client was back to normal with a shiny new outlook and on a first glimpse all worked like a charm but …

On the next day when I took use of temporary the upgraded Mac Book Air with the fresh new OS X Yosemite and Skype's latest app to to do a quick login with my Skype credentials noticed a very annoying autocorrect (auto spelling)  Skype behavior on any new input text message.

I have to admit the idea of autocorrect feature on a system wide scale is great however quick keyboard typers like me who are used to type more than a letter per second use to type so quickly that occasinally you do errors which you're quick to fix but anyhow errors are automatically corrected in a way that you have to retype the whole word quite often which makes your typing a hellish experience. Then the same auto-correct feature becomes a terrible experience and on any device I notice this behavior I tend to remove it immediately.

I remember  the same dictionary auto-spell check / corect behavior was present on my Android run ZTE blade 3 mobile after first Mobile boot and also present on my current iPhone 5 iOS and thus the first thing I did once I start using it is to remove autocorrect (auto spelling) feature and relax the irritation of it.

Just in case if you need to disable Spellcheck auto-correct on Android Phone or Tablet do it from

Settings -> Language & input

android-phone-tablet-disable-autocorrect-spell-check

If you happen to be using also IPhone 5 as me or  Iphone 6 / 7 to disable AutoCorrect feature on SMSes / Skype / Viber and other applications do it from Phone's:

Settings -> General

disable_Turn_off_AutoCorrect_in_IPhone_iOS

Shortly I've noticed that the auto-correct feature does not only mess up your typing in Skype but also in Mail and TweetDeck and generally any open application where you can type on Yosemite.


I've took the time to investigate quickly what was causing the new feature that bugged me so much online and came to this nice little article How to turnoff autocorrect on Mac OS X 10.11 El Captain

As the article revealed to Turn off the autocorrect Mac OS X feature you I have to go:

Finder -> System Preferences

 

stop-skype-autocorrect-annoying-macosx-yosemite-system-preferences-menu-screenshot

Click on Keyboard -> Text
and turn  Autocorrect off by unchecking Correct spelling automatically

stop-skype-autocorrect-annoying-macosx-yosemite-system-preferences-keyboard-menu-screenshot

By doing this autocorrect spelling is disabled for all applications, however for some people it might be handy to leave the correct feature for Mail app or Microsoft Office (Microsoft Word / Excel) etc. and only turn off (disable) the autorrect feature per application side.

You can  do this in the separate Applications (of choise where you need auto spelling) from  Edit Menu under Spelling and Grammer and enable / disableCheck Spelling While Typing

stop-skype-autocorrect-annoying-macosx-yosemite-spelling-and-grammar-menu-screenshot


Tadam Enjoy ! 🙂

 

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Thursday, July 14th, 2016

use-remote-dns-on-mozilla-firefox-howto-windows-linux-logo.svg

If you're using Mozilla Firefox browser to browse the Web with Traffic Tunneling via SSH Tunnel to your own Linux server like I do in order to prevent yourself traffic to be sniffed from your Work corporate computer (as most of the corporations such as IBM / Hewlett Packard / Concentrix etc. are forcing all employee PC traffic to be  to be transported via default set Windows Corporate Proxy active for all browsers.

Then you will certainly also want to prevent the DNS requests to be not logged somewhere in your Corporate IT department thus the question arises:

How to force DNS requests to be made through the Proxy server (SSH host)?

Nomatter where you're using Firefox browser with advanced proxying plugin such as FoxyProxy FF add-on or the default Proxy FF features the DNS lookups might end up in Corporate set DNS servers often forced for the computer / notebook and impossible to be changed to a custom ones as many of the Corporation internal Sharepoints and domains are only visible from their internal networks.

Thanksfully in newer versions there is an easy way to do it directly from Visual menus via:

Tools -> Options -> Advanced -> Network -> Settings

You will get a screen like below:
 

firefox-use-proxy-remote-dns-howto-screenshot

Just tick the Remote DNS and that will force Firefox to query remote Proxy server proxy DNS

 

If you happen to be running older Firefox which doesn't have the Remote DNS tick you can also try to set the setting manually:

 

  1. In firefox type this in your address bar:

    about:config

  2. Click I'll be careful I  promise.

  3. In the filter textbox, type: proxy

  4. Find the preference name called *network.proxy.socks_remote_dns*. Double click it to set it to true.

    i-will-be-careful-i-promise-firefox-windows-screenshot-warranty


network-proxy-socks-remote_dns-firefox-screenshot

Enjoy ! 🙂

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How to mount NFS network filesystem to remote server via /etc/fstab on Linux

Friday, January 29th, 2016

mount-nfs-in-linux-via--etc-fstab-howto-mount-remote-partitions-from-application-server-to-storage-server
If you have a server topology part of a project where 3 (A, B, C) servers need to be used to deliver a service (one with application server such as Jboss / Tomcat / Apache, second just as a Storage Server holding a dozens of LVM-ed SSD hard drives and an Oracle database backend to provide data about the project) and you need to access server A (application server) to server B (the Storage "monster") one common solution is to use NFS (Network FileSystem) Mount. 
NFS mount is considered already a bit of obsoleted technology as it is generally considered unsecre, however if SSHFS mount is not required due to initial design decision or because both servers A and B are staying in a serious firewalled (DMZ) dedicated networ then NTS should be a good choice.
Of course to use NFS mount should always be a carefully selected Environment Architect decision so remote NFS mount, imply  that both servers are connected via a high-speed gigabyte network, e.g. network performance is calculated to be enough for application A <-> to network storage B two sides communication not to cause delays for systems end Users.

To test whether the NFS server B mount is possible on the application server A, type something like:

 

mount -t nfs -o soft,timeo=900,retrans=3,vers=3, proto=tcp remotenfsserver-host:/home/nfs-mount-data /mnt/nfs-mount-point


If the mount is fine to make the mount permanent on application server host A (in case of server reboot), add to /etc/fstab end of file, following:

1.2.3.4:/application/local-application-dir-to-mount /application/remote-application-dir-to-mount nfs   rw,bg,nolock,vers=3,tcp,timeo=600,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,hard,intr 1 2


If the NTFS server has a hostname you can also type hostname instead of above example sample IP 1.2.3.4, this is however not recommended as this might cause in case of DNS or Domain problems.
If you want to mount with hostname (in case if storage server IP is being commonly changed due to auto-selection from a DHCP server):

server-hostA:/application/local-application-dir-to-mount /application/remote-application-dir-to-mount nfs   rw,bg,nolock,vers=3,tcp,timeo=600,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,hard,intr 1 2

In above example you need to have the /application/local-application-dir-to-mount (dir where remote NFS folder will be mounted on server A) as well as the /application/remote-application-dir-to-mount
Also on server Storage B server, you have to have running NFS server with firewall accessibility from server A working.

The timeou=600 (is defined in) order to make the timeout for remote NFS accessibility 1 hour in order to escape mount failures if there is some minutes network failure between server A and server B, the rsize and wsize
should be fine tuned according to the files that are being red from remote NFS server and the network speed between the two in the example are due to environment architecture (e.g. to reflect the type of files that are being transferred by the 2)
and the remote NFS server running version and the Linux kernel versions, these settings are for Linux kernel branch 2.6.18.x which as of time of writting this article is obsolete, so if you want to use the settings check for your kernel version and
NTFS and google and experiment.

Anyways, if you're not sure about wsize and and rise, its perfectly safe to omit these 2 values if you're not familiar to it.

To finally check the NFS mount is fine,  grep it:

 

# mount|grep -i nfs
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw)
server-hostA:/application/remote-application-dir-to-mount on /application/remote-application-dir-to-mount type nfs (rw,bg,nolock,nfsvers=3,tcp,timeo=600,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,hard,intr,addr=1.2.3.4)


That's all enjoy 🙂

 

 

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Windows add / delete services command sc.exe create/delete – Create or Delete services

Thursday, April 9th, 2015

sc-exe-command-line-program-to-create-delete--service-start-stop-service-on-ms-windows
If you end up in situation where you need to delete or create services from current existing ones with a batch script because it is existing on multiple servers and you want to automate / deploy it via batch (.bat) script you will have to use sc.exe tool – Service Controller Command Tool

SC.EXE command  is standard windows console tool to create and delete services. If you want to create a new service, you can use the "create" parameter.

1. Deleting Service with Windows Service Controller Tool

Deleting service is very easy to do you just have to know the service you like to remove not to be listed or Automatically start

sc delete SERVICE_NAME_TO_BE_REMOVED


Below is a real time example on how to remove Apache webserver configured to auto-start

 

sc.exe delete ApacheService

[SC] DeleteService SUCCESS

2. Create / Add service to existing to auto start on Windows

Before running sc.exe create command with arguments for service you will need to know following info:

  • What will be the Service Name: A single word to name the new service.
  • Full Binary Path: The path name where the executable program for new service is currently located.
  • Dispaly Name for service: A short name for the new service.

 

C:\Windows>sc.exe create ApacheService 
   binPath= "C:\local\apache\bin\httpd.exe -k runservice" 
   DisplayName= "Apache Server"

 

[SC] CreateService SUCCESS


Once service is added to be showing in services.msc GUI  you can start the newly added Apache service with:

 

C:\Windows>sc.exe start ApacheService

 

SERVICE_NAME: ApacheService
   TYPE               : 10  WIN32_OWN_PROCESS
   STATE              : 2  START_PENDING
                      (NOT_STOPPABLE,NOT_PAUSABLE,IGNORES_SHUTDOWN)
   WIN32_EXIT_CODE    : 0  (0x0)
   SERVICE_EXIT_CODE  : 0  (0x0)
   CHECKPOINT         : 0x2
   WAIT_HINT          : 0x7530
   PID                : 2552
   FLAGS              :


To stop the ApacheService or any other service:

 

C:\Windows>sc.exe stop ApacheService

SERVICE_NAME: ApacheService
   TYPE               : 10  WIN32_OWN_PROCESS
   STATE              : 3  STOP_PENDING
                      (NOT_STOPPABLE,NOT_PAUSABLE,IGNORES_SHUTDOWN)
   WIN32_EXIT_CODE    : 0  (0x0)
   SERVICE_EXIT_CODE  : 0  (0x0)
   CHECKPOINT         : 0x4
   WAIT_HINT          : 0x7530


To get the status of a running service lets say the recently ran ApacheService:

C:\Windows>sc.exe query ApacheService

 

SERVICE_NAME: ApacheService
   TYPE               : 10  WIN32_OWN_PROCESS
   STATE              : 4  RUNNING
                      (STOPPABLE,NOT_PAUSABLE,IGNORES_SHUTDOWN)
   WIN32_EXIT_CODE    : 0  (0x0)
   SERVICE_EXIT_CODE  : 0  (0x0)
   CHECKPOINT         : 0x0
   WAIT_HINT          : 0x0


As you see from above output the STATE of service is RUNNING. If Apache Webserver was not running you will get an error like:

[SC] EnumQueryServicesStatus:OpenService FAILED 1060:
The specified service does not exist as an installed service.

 

Enjoy sc-ing 🙂

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Speed up WordPress / Joomla CMS and MySQL server on Linux with tmpfs ram file system / Decrease Website pageload times with RAM caching

Wednesday, March 4th, 2015

speed-up-accelerate-wordpress-joomla-drupal-cms-and-mysql-server-with-tmpfs_ramfs_decrease-pageload-times-with-ram-caching
As a WordPress blog owner and an sys admin that has to deal with servers running a lot of WordPress / Joomla / Droopal and other custom CMS installed on servers, performoing slow or big enough to put a significant load on servers
and I love efficiency and hardware cost saving is essential for my daily job, I'm constantly trying to find new ways to optimize Customer Website (WordPress) and rest of sites in order to utilize better our servers and improve our clients sites speed (and hence satisfaction). 

There is plenty of little things to do on servers but probably among the most crucial ones which we use nowadays that save us a lot of money is tmpfs, and earlier (ramfs) – previously known as shmfs).
TMPFS is a (Temporary File Storage Facility) Linux kernel technology based on ramfs (used by Linux kernel initrd / initramfs on boot time in order to load and store the Linux kernel in memory, before system hard disk partition file systems are mounted) which is heavily used by virtually all modern popular Linux distributions. 

Using ramfs (cramfs variation – Compressed ROM filesystem) has been used to store different system environment kernel and Desktop components of many Linux environment / applications and used by a lot of the Linux BootCD such as the most famous (Klaus Knopper's) KNOPPIX LiveCD and Trinity Rescue Kit Linux (TRK uses /dev/shm which btw can be seen on most modern Linux distros and is actually just another mounted tmpfs).
If you haven't tried Live Linux yet try it out as me and a lot of sysadmins out there use some kind of LiveLinux at least few times on yearly basis  to Recover Unbootable Linux servers after some applied remote Updates as well as for Rescuing (Save) Data from Linux server failing to properly boot because of hard disk (bad blocks) failures. As I said earlier TMPFS is also used on almost any distribution for the /dev/ filesystem which is kept in memory.

You can see which tmpfs partitions is used on your Linux server with:

 

debian-server:~# mount |grep -i tmpfs
tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)

 

Above is an output from a standard Debian Linux server. On CentOS 7 standard mounted tmpfs are as follows:

 

[root@centos ~]# mount |grep -i tmpfs
devtmpfs on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,nosuid,seclabel,size=1016332k,nr_inodes=254083,mode=755)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,mode=755)
tmpfs on /sys/fs/cgroup type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,seclabel,mode=755)

 

[root@centos ~]# df -h|grep -i tmpfs
devtmpfs                 993M     0  993M   0% /dev
tmpfs                   1002M   92K 1002M   1% /dev/shm
tmpfs                   1002M  8.8M  993M   1% /run
tmpfs                   1002M     0 1002M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup

The /run tmpfs mounted directory is also to be seen also on latest Ubuntus and Fedoras and is actually the good old /var/run ( where applications keep there pids and some small app related files) stored in tmpfs filesystem stored in memory.

If you're wondering what is /dev/shm and why it appears mounted on every single Linux Server / Desktop you've ever used this is a special filesystem shared memory which various running programs (processes) can use to transfer data quick and efficient between each other to preven the slow disk swapping. People using Linux for the rest 15 years should remember /dev/shm has been a target of a lot of kernel exploits as historically it had a lot of security issues.

While writting this article I've just checked about KNOPPIX developed amd just for info as of time of writting this distro has already 1000+ programs on CD version and 2600+ packages / application on DVD version.
Nowadays Knoppix is mostly used mostly as USB Live Flash drive as a lot of people are dropping CD / DVD use (many servers doesn't have a CD / DVD Drive) and for USB Live Flash Linux distros tmpfs is also key technology used as this gives the end user an amazing fast experience (Desktop applications run much fasten on Live USBs when tmpfs is used than when the slow 7200 RPM HDDs are used).

Loading big parts of the distribution within RAM (with tmpfs from Linux Kernel 2.4+ onwards) is also heavily used by a lot of Cluster vendors in most of Clustered (Cloud) Linux based environemnts, cause TMPFS gives often speeds up improvements to x30 times and decreases greatly I/O HDD. FreeBSD users will be happy to know that TMPFS is already ported and could be used on from FreeBSD 7.0+ onward.

In this small article I will give you example use on how I use tmpfs to speed up our WordPress Websites which use WP Caching plugins such as W3 Total Cache and WP Super Cache
and Hyper Cache / WP Super Cache disk caching and MySQL server as a Database backend.
Below example is wordpress specific but since it can be easily applied to JoomlaDrupal or any other CMS out there that uses mySQL server to make a lot of CPU expensive memory hungry (LEFT JOIN) queries which end up using a slow 7200 RPM hard disk.


 

1. Preparing tmpfs partitions for WordPress File Cache directory
 

If you want to give tmpfs a test drive, I recommend you try to create / mount a 20 Megabyte partition. To create a tmpfs partition you don't need to use a tool like mkfs.ext3 / mkfs.ext4 as TMPFS is in reality a virtual filesystem that is mapped in the server system physical RAM (volatile memory). TMPFS is very nice because if you run out of free RAM system starts a combination of RAM use + some Hard disk SWAP 
The great thing about TMPFS is it never uses all of the available RAM and SWAP, which would not halt your server if TMPFS partition gets filled, but instead you will start getting the usual "Insufficient Disk Space", just like with a physical HDD parititon. RAMFS cares much less about server compared to TMPFS, because if RAMFS is historically older.

ramfs file systems cannot be limited in size like a disk base file system which is limited by it’s capacity, thus ramfs will continue using memory storage until the system runs out of RAM and likely crashes or becomes unresponsive. This is a problem if the application writing to the file system cannot be limited in total size, so in my opinion you better stay away from RAMFS except you have a good idea what you're doing. Another disadvantage of RAMFS compared to TMPFS is you cannot see the size of the file system in df and it can only be estimated by looking at the cached entry in free.

Note that before proceeding to use TMPFS or RAMFS you should know besides having advantages, there are certain serious disadvantage that if the server using tmpfs (in RAM) to store files crashes the customer might loose his data, therefore using RAM filesystems on Production servers is best to be used just for caching folders which are regularly synchronized with (rsync) to some folder to assure no data will be lost on server reboot or crash.

Memory of fast storage areas are ideally suited for applications which need repetitively small data areas for caching or using as temporary space such as Jira (Issue and Proejct Tracking Software) Indexing  As the data is lost when the machine reboots the tmpfs stored data must not be data of high importance as even scheduling backups cannot guarantee that all the data will be replicated in the even of a system crash.

To test mounting a tmpfs virtual (memory stored) filesystem issue:
 

mount -t tmpfs tmpfs -o size=256m /mnt/tmpfs


If you want to test mount a ramfs instead:

 

 mount -t ramfs -o size=256m ramfs /mnt/ramfs

 

debian-server:~#  mount |grep -i -E "ramfs|tmpfs"
tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
tmpfs on /mnt/tmpfs type tmpfs (rw,size=256m)
ramfs on /mnt/ramfs type tmpfs (rw,size=256m)

 

Once mounted tmpfs can be used in the same way as any ext4 / reiserfs filesystem. In the same way to make mounts permanent, its necessery to add a line to /etc/fstab

To illustrate better a tmpfs use case on my blog running WordPress with W3TotalCache (W3TC) plugin cache folder in /var/www/blog/wp-content/w3tc to get advantage of tmpfs to store w3tc files.

a) Stop Apache

On Debian
 

debian-server:~# /etc/init.d/apache stop


On CentOS 
 

[root@centos ~]# /etc/init.d/httpd stop


b) Move w3tc dir to w3tc-bak

 

debian-server:~# cd /var/www/blog/wp-content/
debian-server:~# mv w3tc w3tc-bak

 

c) Create w3tc directory
 

debian-server:/var/www/blog/wp-content# mkdir w3tc
debian-server:/var/www/blog/wp-content# chown -R www-data:www-data w3tc


d) Add tmpfs record to /etc/fstab

My W3TC Cache didn't grow bigger than 2Gigabytes so I create a 2Giga directory for it by adding following in /etc/fstab 
 

debian-server:~# vim /etc/fstab

 

tmpfs /var/www/blog/wp-content/w3tc tmpfs defaults,size=2g,noexec,nosuid,uid=33,gid=33,mode=1755 0 0


You might also want to add the nr_inodes (option) to tmpfs while mounting. nr_inodes is the maximum inode for instance. Default is half the number of your physical RAM pages, (on a machine with highmem) the number of lowmem RAM page, some common option that should work is nr_inodes=5k, if you're unsure what this option does you can safely skip it 🙂

e) Mount new added tmpfs folder

Then to mount the newly added filesystem issue:
 

mount -a


Or if you're on a CentOS / RHEL server use httpd Apache user instead and whenever you have docroot and wordpress installed.

 

[root@centos ~]# chown -R apache:apache: w3tc


If you're using Apache SuPHP use whatever the UID / GID is proper.

On CentOS you will need to set proper UID and GID (UserID / GroupID), to find out which ones to to use check in /etc/passwd:
 

[root@centos ~]# grep -i apache /etc/passwd
apache:x:48:48:Apache:/var/www:/sbin/nologin


f) Move old w3tc cache from w3tc-bak to w3tc

 

debian-server:/var/www/blog/wp-content# mv w3tc-bak/* w3tc/

 

g) Start again Apache

On Debian:

 

debian-server:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 start

 


On CentOS:
 

[root@centos~]# /etc/init.d/httpd start

h) Keeping w3tc cache site folder synced

As I said earlier the biggest problem with caching (the reason why many hosting providers) and site admins refuse to use it is they might loose some data, to prevent data loss or at least mitigate the data loss to few minutes intervals it is a good idea to synchronize tmpfs kept folders somewhere to disk with rsync.

To achieve that use a cronjob like this:
 

debian-server:~# crontab -u root -e
*/5 * * * * /usr/bin/ionice -c3 -n7 /usr/bin/nice -n 19 /usr/bin/rsync -ah –stats –delete /var/www/blog/wp-content/w3tc/ /backups/tmpfs/cache/ 1>/dev/null


Note that you will need to have the /backups/tmpfs/cache folder existing, create it with:

 

debian-server:~# mkdir -p /backups/tmpfs/cache


You will also need to add a rsync synchronization from backupped folder to tmpfs (in case if the server gets accidently rebooted because it hanged or power outage), place in

/etc/rc.local

 

ionice -c3 -n7 nice -n 19 rsync -ahv –stats –delete /backups/tmpfs/cache/ /var/www/blog/wp-content/w3tc/ 1>/dev/null


(somewhere before exit 0) line
 

0 05 * * * /usr/bin/ionice -c3 -n7 /bin/nice -n 19 /usr/bin/rsync -ah –stats –delete /var/www/blog/wp-content/w3tc/ /backups/tmpfs/cache/ 1>/dev/null

 

 

2. Preparing tmpfs partitions for MySQL server temp File Cache directory


Its common that MySQL servers had to serve a lot of long and heavy SQL JOIN Queries mostly by related posts WP plugins such as (Zemanta Related Posts) and Contextual Related posts though MySQLs are well optimized  to work as much as efficient using mysql tuner (tuning primer) still often SQL servers get a lot of temp tables created to disk (about 25% to 30%) of all SQL queries use somehow HDD to serve queries and as this is very slow and there is file lock created the overall MySQL performance becomes sluggish at times to fix (resolve) that without playing with SQL code to optimize the slow queries the best way I found is by using TMPFS as MySQL temp folder.

To do so I create a TMPFS usually the size of 256 MB because this is usually enough for us, but other hosting companies might want to add bigger virtual temp disk:

a) Add tmpfs new dir to /etc/fstab

In /etc/fstab add below record with vim editor:
 

debian-server:~# vim /etc/fstab

 

tmpfs /var/mysqltmp tmpfs rw,gid=111,uid=108,size=256M,nr_inodes=10k,mode=0700 0 0

 

Note that the uid / and gid 105 and 114 are taken again from /etc/passwd

On Debian

debian-server:~# grep -i mysql /etc/passwd
mysql:x:108:111:MySQL Server,,,:/var/lib/mysql:/bin/false


On CentOS
 

[root@centos ~]# grep -i mysql /etc/passwd
mysql:x:27:27:MySQL Server:/var/lib/mysql:/bin/bash


b) Create folder /var/mysqltmp or whenever you want to place the tmpfs memory kept SQL folder

 

debian-server:~# mkdir /var/mysqltmp
debian-server:~# chown mysql:mysql /var/mysqltmp

 

debian-server:~# mount|grep -i tmpfs
tmpfs on /lib/init/rw type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,mode=0755)
udev on /dev type tmpfs (rw,mode=0755)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
tmpfs on /var/www/blog/wp-content/w3tc type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,size=2g,uid=33,gid=33,mode=1755)
tmpfs on /var/mysqltmp type tmpfs (rw,gid=108,uid=111,size=256M,nr_inodes=10k,mode=0700)


c) Add new path to tmpfs created folder in my.cnf 

Then  edit /etc/mysql/my.cnf

 

debian-server:~# vim /etc/mysql/my.cnf

[mysqld]
#
# * Basic Settings
#
user        = mysql
pid-file    = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
socket      = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
port        = 3306
basedir     = /usr
datadir     = /var/lib/mysql
tmpdir      = /var/mysqltmp

 

On CentOS edit and change tmpdir in same way within /etc/my.cnf


d) Finally Restart Apache and MySQL to make mysql start using new set tmpfs memory kept folder

On Debian:
 

debian-server:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 stop; /etc/init.d/mysql restart; /etc/init.d/apache2 start

On CentOS:
 

[root@centos ~]# /etc/init.d/httpd stop; /etc/init.d/mysqld restart; /etc/initd/httpd start


Now monitor your server and check your pagespeed increase for me such an optimization usually improves site performance so site becomes +50% faster, to see the difference you can test your website before applying tmpfs caching for site and after that by using Google PageInsight (PageSpeed) Online Test. Though this example is for MySQL and WordPress you can easily adopt the same for Joomla if you have Joomla Caching enabled to some folder, same goes for any other CMS such as Drupal that can take use of Disk Caching. Actually its a small secret of many Hosting providers that allow clients to create sites via CPanel and Kloxo this tmpfs optimizations are already used for sites and by this the provider is able to offer better website service on lower prices. VPS hosting providers also use heavy caching. A lot of people are using TMPFS also to accelerate Sites that have enabled Google Pagespeed as Cacher and accelerator, as PageSpeed module puts a heavy HDD I/O load that can easily stone the server. Many admins also choose to use TMPFS for  /tmp, /var/run, and /var/lock directories as this leads often to significant overall server services operations improvement.
Once you have tmpfs enabled, It is a good idea to periodically monitor your SWAP used space with (df -h), because if you allocate bigger tmpfs partitions than your physical memory and tmpfs's full size starts to be used your machine will start swapping heavily and this could have a very negative performance affect.
 

debian-server:~# df -h|grep -i tmpfs
tmpfs            3,9G     0   3,9G   0% /lib/init/rw
tmpfs            3,9G     0   3,9G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs            2,0G  1,4G   712M  66% /var/www/blog/wp-content/w3tc
tmpfs            256M     0   256M   0% /mnt/tmpfs
tmpfs            256M  236K   256M   1% /var/mysqltmp

The applications of tmpfs to accelerate services is up to your imagination, so I will be glad to hear from other admins on any interesting other application or problems faced while using TMPFS.

 Enjoy! 🙂

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How to check Windows server installed Tomcat and Java version

Tuesday, August 19th, 2014

how-to-check-get-java_and-tomcat-version-on-windows-java-and-tomcat-logo
I'm filling up a TOP (Turn to Production) form for a project where my part as Web and Middleware Engineer included install of Tomcat 7 and Java 1.7 on Windows server 2008 R2 standard. TOP is required Excel sheet standard document used by many large companies to fill in together with Project Manager before the server is to be launched into Production mode.

Therefore I needed to find out previously installed Tomcat and Java version, here is how:

1. Go to Tomcat install directory and (click twice) run twice Tomcat7w

As tomcat is installed in Custom location in D:webdienste in this case I had to run:
 
D:webdiensteapplication-jsptomcatapplication-namecurrentbinTomcat7w.exe

I run it using command line (cmd.exe), however you can run it via Windows Explorer, if you're lazy typing.
You will get a window pop up like on below screenshot:

In this case Installed Tomcat version was 7.0.55

If you need to check the version on older Tomcat application server install you can run instead Tomcat6w – whether its Tomcat version 6 or Tomcat5w – for Tomcat ver. 5

In order to Check the java version the quickest way is via command line, again run cmd.exe from

Start -> Run -> cmd.exe

how-to-see-find-get-check-tomcat-version-on-windows-server-install-screenshot

Then cd to whenever is Java VM installed the usual location where it gets installed for Java 1.7 on Windows is:

C:Program FilesJavajre7bin

Java 8 common location is:

C:Program FilesJavajre8bin

Java would automatically add PATH to Windows default PATH definitions during install, hence to find out exactly where java is installed on Windows server, type in cmd:

where java

Then to check the exact installed Java version on Win host is by invoking java (jre) cli with -version parameter:

java -version

how-to-check-get-java-version-info-on-windows-server-screenshot

If you're lazy to type in commands, you can also check Java version in Windows from GUI by using:

Java Control Panel

To launch it in:

Start -> (Search Program and Files)

field type:

Java Conf and click on Java Control Panel

Then click on

General (tab) -> About

java-control-panel-gui-about-version-windows-server-screenshot

 

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Windows add command to PATH variable – Adding (Putty, VIM) new binaries folder to windows %PATH%

Friday, June 27th, 2014

windows-add-to-path-location-of-new-binaries-putty-vim-etc-system-properties-environment-variable-screenshot
I want to use vim (text editor) on my Windows 7 work computer and hence installed VIM (VI Improved) port for Windows GVim.
VIM works perfect on Windows and for those coming from UNIX background having it installed is a must, however vim doesn't include a PATH location to its (vim) executable in Windows %PATH%.
PATH command line variable stores path locations to all binaries that could be executed directly from cmd line with no need to type full directory path to binary.

To illustrate what PATH is lets say you want to make Putty accessible straight from Windows command line (cmd.exe), you can add Putty's installation Path Folder to global Windows %PATH%. On my 64-bit Windows PC Putty binary is installed in C:Program Files (x86)PuTTY.

echo %PATH%
 

C:Perl64sitebin;C:Perl64bin;C:Program FilesRA2HP;C:Windowssystem32;C:
Windows;C:WindowsSystem32Wbem;C:WindowsSystem32WindowsPowerShellv1.0;C:
Program FilesWIDCOMMBluetooth Software;C:Program FilesWIDCOMMBluetooth Sof
twaresyswow64;C:Program Files (x86)Hewlett-PackardHP ProtectTools Security M
anagerBin;C:Program FilesActivIdentityActivClient;C:Program Files (x86)A
ctivIdentityActivClient;C:Program Files (x86)QuickTimeQTSystem


To make Putty accessible only by typing Putty instead of typing C:Program Files (x86)PuTTYPutty.exe, it has to be included in PATH, normally from Win command line (cmd.exe). This is done with:

 

set PATH=%PATH%;C:Program Files (x86)PuTTY

 

echo %PATH%

 

C:Usersggeorgi7Desktop>echo %PATH%
C:Perl64sitebin;C:Perl64bin;C:Program FilesRA2HP;C:Windowssystem32;C:
Windows;C:WindowsSystem32Wbem;C:WindowsSystem32WindowsPowerShellv1.0;C:
Program FilesWIDCOMMBluetooth Software;C:Program FilesWIDCOMMBluetooth Sof
twaresyswow64;C:Program Files (x86)Hewlett-PackardHP ProtectTools Security M
anagerBin;C:Program FilesActivIdentityActivClient;C:Program Files (x86)A
ctivIdentityActivClient;C:Program Files (x86)QuickTimeQTSystem;C:Program
Files (x86)PuTTY

To check all the exported variables, use SET command, here is my default SET variables:

C:> SET
 

ALLUSERSPROFILE=C:ProgramData
APPDATA=C:UsersgeorgiAppDataRoaming
CLASSPATH=.;C:Program Files (x86)Javajre6libextQTJava.zip
CommonProgramFiles=C:Program FilesCommon Files
CommonProgramFiles(x86)=C:Program Files (x86)Common Files
CommonProgramW6432=C:Program FilesCommon Files
COMPUTERNAME=GEORGI
ComSpec=C:Windowssystem32cmd.exe
DEFLOGDIR=C:ProgramDataMcAfeeDesktopProtection
FP_NO_HOST_CHECK=NO
HOMEDRIVE=C:
HOMEPATH=Usersggeorgi7
LOCALAPPDATA=C:Usersggeorgi7AppDataLocal
LOGONSERVER=G1W4730
NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS=4
OS=Windows_NT

To make inclusion of VIM, Putty or other binary directory) into PATH variable permanent:


From Windows desktop, right-click My Computer and click Properties.
In the Advanced system settings click on Properties window, click on the Advanced tab.
In the Advanced System section, click the Environment Variables button.


windows-add-command-to-path-variable-adding-new-folder-to-windows-path-add-putty-vim-to-easy-execute
Finally, in the Environment Variables window, search for the Path variable in Systems Variable section and click the Edit button.
Add or modify the path lines including the paths to binaries you wish to be easy access.
Note that each different directory should be separated with a semicolon (;), e.g.
 

C:Program Files;C:Winnt;C:WinntSystem32; C:Perl64bin

 

 

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Check your Joomla Security with OWASP Joomla Vulnerability Scanner

Wednesday, June 25th, 2014

check-joomla-security-owasp-vulnerability-scanner-tool

If you working in field of Computer Security you should have definitely heard of OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project).
OWASP is very much like MetaSploit – Penetration Testing Framework except it is focusing mostly on web security.
As of time of wrtitting this post OWASP Project is probably the largest contributor in Web Security tools. If you're somehow in the field of Web and Middleware (Security team) or writting Web Application software (with security in mind) OWASP is definitely a project you should study well and the provided tools can help you develop your web services server infrastructure or application design with top security in mind.

One of the famous OWASP tools is Joomla Security Scanner – a toll that can scan and find all potential and present vulnerability in a Joomla (Pure Joomla or Joomla Based  website). OWASP Joomla Security Scanner script is written in Perl, making it possible to run on any OS Platform that can run Perl and CPAN modules. Thus Joomla Security Scanner is running on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

  • To use OWASP Joomla Security scanner on Linux (depending on Linux distribution install perl via deb or rpm package manager – most Linux distributions have it already pre-installed).
     
  • For Joomla Security scanner on Windows you will have to install one of Perl Windows ports either Active Perl or Strawberry Perl.

Once perl interpreter is up installed, e.g. test it with:
 

# perl --version

This is perl, v5.10.1 (*) built for x86_64-linux-gnu-thread-multi
(with 61 registered patches, see perl -V for more detail)

Copyright 1987-2009, Larry Wall

Perl may be copied only under the terms of either the Artistic License or the
GNU General Public License, which may be found in the Perl 5 source kit.

Complete documentation for Perl, including FAQ lists, should be found on
this system using "man perl" or "perldoc perl".  If you have access to the
Internet, point your browser at http://www.perl.org/, the Perl Home Page.

 

C:Usersggeorgi>perl --version

This is perl 5, version 16, subversion 3 (v5.16.3) built for MSWin32-x64-multi-t
hread
(with 1 registered patch, see perl -V for more detail)

Copyright 1987-2012, Larry Wall

Binary build 1604 [298023] provided by ActiveState http://www.ActiveState.com
Built Apr 14 2014 15:29:45

Perl may be copied only under the terms of either the Artistic License or the
GNU General Public License, which may be found in the Perl 5 source kit.

Complete documentation for Perl, including FAQ lists, should be found on
this system using "man perl" or "perldoc perl".  If you have access to the
Internet, point your browser at http://www.perl.org/, the Perl Home Page.

 

Download Latest Joolma Vulnerability Scanner (here), in case if tool disappears in future a mirrored version for download of Joomla Vulnerability Scanner is (here)
UnZIP the scanner in new created directory start it run Windows command line (I use ConEmu) – Press Windows button + R (and type ConEmu) – or if you don't have conemu cmd.exe, go to whenever the archive was dearchived:

cd UsersgeorgiDownloadsJoomla-scanner

Install all required CPAN perl modules for Joomla Scanner

cpan

This will launch perl cpan installation console, you will see a prompt:

cpan>

The console is a front end which uses Perl's Cpan modules site to download libraries, CPAN is doing quite a good job as it also downloads dependencies if installed perl module has such.

Inside CPAN console type:

install local::lib

Answer any further prompts by simply pressing Enter a lot of times.
Next install App::cpanminus:

install App::cpanminus

Then Exit CPAN, type:

exit

This should have installed cpanminus to test it run in Linux shell / win command prompt:

cpanm

 

Usage: cpanm [options] Module [...]
Try `cpanm --help` or `man cpanm` for more options.

 


As a last step install Switch from cpanminus:

cpanm -f install Switch


Run Joomla Scanner

/images/joomla-vulnerability-scanner-scanning-host-in-action-check-for-joomla-vulnerabilities-tool1
 

perl joomscan.pl

/images/joomla-vulnerability-scanner-scanning-host-in-action-check-for-joomla-vulnerabilities-tool1

 

 

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Find all hidden files in Linux, Delete, Copy, Move all hidden files

Tuesday, April 15th, 2014

search-find-all-hidden-files-linux-delete-all-hidden-files
Listing hidden files is one of the common thing to do as sys admin. Doing manipulations with hidden files like copy / delete / move is very rare but still sometimes necessary here is how to do all this.

1. Find and show (only) all hidden files in current directory

find . -iname '.*' -maxdepth 1

maxdepth – makes files show only in 1 directory depth (only in current directory), for instance to list files in 2 subdirectories use -maxdepth 3 etc.

echo .*;

Yeah if you're Linux newbie it is useful to know echo command can be used instead of ls.
echo * command is very useful on systems with missing ls (for example if you mistakenly deleted it 🙂 )

2. Find and show (only) all hidden directories, sub-directories in current directory

To list all directories use cmd:

find /path/to/destination/ -iname ".*" -maxdepth 1 -type d

3. Log found hidden files / directories

find . -iname ".*" -maxdept 1 -type f | tee -a hidden_files.log

find . -iname ".*" -maxdepth 1 type d | tee -a hidden_directories.log
4. Delete all hidden files in current directory

cd /somedirectory
find . -iname ".*" -maxdepth 1 -type f -delete

5. Delete all hidden files in current directory

cd /somedirectory
find . -iname ".*" -maxdepth 1 -type d -delete

6. Copy all hidden files from current directory to other "backup" dir

find . -iname ".*" -maxdepth 1 -type f -exec cp -rpf '{}' directory-to-copy-to/ ;

7. Copy and move all hidden sub-directories from current directory to other "backup" dir

find . -iname ".*" -maxdepth 1 -type d -exec cp -rpf '{}' directory-to-copy-to/ ;

– Moving all hidden sub-directories from current directory to backup dir

find . -iname ".*" -maxdepth 1 -type d -exec mv '{}' directory-to-copy-to/ ;

 

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