Posts Tagged ‘web content’

Fiddler – Windows web debugging proxy for any browser – Linux web debugging applications

Thursday, May 29th, 2014

Earlier I've blogged about helpful web developer or a web hosting system administrator Web Browser plugins . Among the list of useful plugins for debugging sent / received web content on your desktop (HTTPWatchm, HTTPFox, Yslow etc.), I've found another one called Fiddler.

Telerik's Fiddler is a Browser plugin  and a Windows Desktop application to monitor HTTP and HTTPS outbound web traffic and report and provide you with various information useful for:


  • Performance Testing
  • Traffic recording
  • Security Testing
  • Web Session Manipulation
  • Encode Decode web traffic
  • Convert strings from / to Base64, Hex, DeflatedSAML etc.
  • Log all URL requests originating from all opened browsers on your Desktop
  • Decrypt / encrypt HTTPS traffic using man in the middle techniques
  • Show tuning details for accessed web pages

Fiddler is available to install and use as a desktop application (requires .NET 2) or install as a browser plugin. Perhaps the coolest  Fiddler feature from my perspective is its decrypt / encrypt in Base64 and Hex available from TextWizard menu. The tool is relatively easy to use for those who have experience in web debugging, for novice here is a video explaining tool's basics.

Fiddler doesn't have a Linux build yet but it is possible to run it also on Linux using Mono Framework and a few hacks.

A good native Linux / UNIX alternatives to Fiddler are Nettool, Charles Proxy, Paros Proxy and Web Scarab.

Maldetect – Malware web content file scanner for GNU / Linux – Keep your hosting servers Malware clean

Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

Linux malware detect scan for malware from commandline / Fedora, CentOS, Debian, Ubuntu 

It is so common nowadays that Shared hosting clients upload PHP / Javascript / Ajax scripts carelessly downloaded from somewhere containing malicious features or infected by third party script kiddie tools which replicate themselves after succesfully exploit some common PHP or Perl vulnerability. I'm sure even as time of writing this post probably millions of old un-updated Hosting Linux servers are silent Malware hives.
Therefore For Shared Hosting server servers it is useful to know about the existence of Maldetect – Linux Malware scanner also known under the name LMD.

Linux Maldetect – in what it does is very similar to Windows good Spyware Detect and Clean tool Malware Bytes. LMD uses Spyware definition database collected from network edge Intrusion detection systems who caught Web bugs commonly exploited as well as from custom user submissions of Malicious stuff. Maldetect's database can easily be exported and plays well together with ClamAV antivirus. LMD is very precious and is one of the must have outfits for hosting admins, as its use allows you to determine succesful cracking before system is rootkited and you have to audit for Backdoors or Rookit with rkhunter and chkroot

1. Install Linux MalDetect

LMD is young project so it does not still have a package deb and rpm package builds. Installation is done from source;

debian:~# wget
debian:~# tar -xzf maldetect-current.tar.gz
debian:~# cd maldetect-*
debian:~# ./

Linux Malware Detect v1.4.1
            (C) 2002-2013, R-fx Networks <>
            (C) 2013, Ryan MacDonald <>
inotifywait (C) 2007, Rohan McGovern <>
This program may be freely redistributed under the terms of the GNU GPL

installation completed to /usr/local/maldetect
config file: /usr/local/maldetect/conf.maldet
exec file: /usr/local/maldetect/maldet
exec link: /usr/local/sbin/maldet
exec link: /usr/local/sbin/lmd
cron.daily: /etc/cron.daily/maldet

maldet(3143): {sigup} performing signature update check…
maldet(3143): {sigup} local signature set is version 201205035915
maldet(3143): {sigup} new signature set (2013060217799) available
maldet(3143): {sigup} downloaded
maldet(3143): {sigup} downloaded
maldet(3143): {sigup} downloaded
maldet(3143): {sigup} downloaded
maldet(3143): {sigup} downloaded
maldet(3143): {sigup} signature set update completed
maldet(3143): {sigup} 11509 signatures (9641 MD5 / 1868 HEX)

2. Maldetect configs and binaries

Config is default installed in –  /usr/local/maldetect/conf.maldet
Main executed binary is placed in –  /usr/local/maldetect/maldet
There is a cron skele file placed in /etc/cron.daily/maldet. Its useful to run maldet via cron to check all sites on server and get e-mail reports.

3. Keep maldet up2date

debian:~# maldet --update-ver

Linux Malware Detect v1.4.2
            (C) 2002-2013, R-fx Networks <>
            (C) 2013, Ryan MacDonald <>
inotifywait (C) 2007, Rohan McGovern <>
This program may be freely redistributed under the terms of the GNU GPL v2

maldet(3511): {update} checking for available updates...
maldet(3511): {update} hashing install files and checking against server...
maldet(3511): {update} latest version already installed.

4. Update Maldetect definitions manually

Maldetect Malware definitions are designed to auto-update via cron. For people who don't like to waste CPU time and scrape on HDD with cronjob;

debian:~# maldet --update

5. Configure LMD

Tune according to your needs in config (/usr/local/maldetect/conf.maldet)

email_subj="Attention Malware found! Check your server!"

6. Scanning for Malware manually

debian:~# maldet -a /home,/var/www/blog,/sbin,/opt
Linux Malware Detect v1.4.2
(C) 2002-2013, R-fx Networks <>
(C) 2013, Ryan MacDonald <>
inotifywait (C) 2007, Rohan McGovern <>
This program may be freely redistributed under the terms of the GNU GPL v2

maldet(21709): {scan} signatures loaded: 11509 (9641 MD5 / 1868 HEX)
maldet(21709): {scan} building file list for /var/www/blog, this might take awhile...
maldet(21709): {scan} file list completed, found 6814 files...
maldet(21709): {scan} found ClamAV clamscan binary, using as scanner engine...
maldet(21709): {scan} scan of /var/www/blog (6814 files) in progress...

maldet(21709): {scan} scan completed on /var/www/blog: files 6814, malware hits 0, cleaned hits 0
maldet(21709): {scan} scan report saved, to view run: maldet --report 062813-1012.21709

As you see from above output  you can view Maldet report by issuing:

debian:~# maldet --report 062813-1012.21709

malware detect scan report for pcfreak:

SCAN ID: 070113-1223.7481

TIME: Jul  1 12:24:20 +0300





NOTE: quarantine is disabled! set quar_hits=1 in conf.maldet or to quarantine results run:

debian:~# maldet -q 070113-1223.7481


{CAV}Exploit.SafariCrash-1 : ./osX/dos/1715.html

{CAV}Exploit.PPC : ./osX/local/

{CAV}Exploit.Perl.Sadmin : ./solaris/remote/

{CAV}Exploit.FirefoxCrash : ./multiple/dos/1716.html

{HEX}exp.linux.setuid.13 : ./multiple/local/

{CAV}HTML.Shellcode : ./multiple/remote/2082.html


In case some badware is captured by Maldet to quarantine files run suggested command:

debian:~# maldet -q 070113-1223.7481

Linux Malware Detect v1.4.2

            (C) 2002-2013, R-fx Networks <>

            (C) 2013, Ryan MacDonald <>

inotifywait (C) 2007, Rohan McGovern <>

This program may be freely redistributed under the terms of the GNU GPL v2


maldet(21341): {quar} malware quarantined from './php/remote/2008.php' to '/usr/local/maldetect/quarantine/2008.php.19608'

maldet(21341): {clean} restoring /usr/local/maldetect/quarantine/2008.php.19608 for cleaning attempt

maldet(21341): {clean} trying to clean ./php/remote/2008.php with base64.inject.unclassed rule

maldet(21341): {clean} rescanning ./php/remote/2008.php for malware hits

maldet(21341): {clean} clean successful on ./php/remote/2008.php


Just for a close up below is a list of common 60 Malwares found on Hosting servers (taken from Maldetect Website);

base64.inject.unclassed     perl.ircbot.xscan
bin.dccserv.irsexxy         perl.mailer.yellsoft
bin.ircbot.php3             php.cmdshell.c100
bin.ircbot.unclassed        php.cmdshell.c99
bin.pktflood.ABC123         php.cmdshell.cih
bin.pktflood.osf            php.cmdshell.egyspider
bin.trojan.linuxsmalli      php.cmdshell.fx29
c.ircbot.tsunami            php.cmdshell.ItsmYarD
exp.linux.rstb              php.cmdshell.Ketemu
exp.linux.unclassed         php.cmdshell.N3tshell
exp.setuid0.unclassed       php.cmdshell.r57
gzbase64.inject             php.cmdshell.unclassed
html.phishing.auc61         php.defash.buno          php.exe.globals
perl.connback.DataCha0s     php.include.remote
perl.connback.N2            php.ircbot.InsideTeam
perl.cpanel.cpwrap          php.ircbot.lolwut
perl.ircbot.atrixteam       php.ircbot.sniper
perl.ircbot.bRuNo           php.ircbot.vj_denie
perl.ircbot.Clx             php.mailer.10hack
perl.ircbot.devil           php.mailer.bombam
perl.ircbot.fx29            php.mailer.PostMan
perl.ircbot.magnum          php.phishing.AliKay
perl.ircbot.oldwolf         php.phishing.mrbrain
perl.ircbot.putr4XtReme     php.phishing.ReZulT
perl.ircbot.rafflesia       php.pktflood.oey


How to convert file content encoded in windows-cp1251 charset to UTF-8 (with iconv) to be delivered properly encoded to browsing end clients

Wednesday, May 16th, 2012

windows-cp1251 bulgarian to UTF-8 / Encoding Communication Decoding Communication Funny Picture

I have a bunch of old html files all encoded in the historically obsolete Windows-cp1251. Windows-CP1251 used to be common used 7 years ago and therefore still big portions of the web content in Bulgarian / Russian Cyrillic is still transferred to the end users in this encoding.

This was just before the "UTF-8 revolution", where massively people started using UTF-8,
Well it was clear the specific national country text encoding standards will quickly be moved by to UTF-8 – Universal Encoding format which abbreviation stands for (Unicode Transformation Format).

Though UTF-8 was clear to be "the future", many web developers mostly because of their incompetency or using an old sources of learning how to writen in HTML continued to use windows-cp1251 in HTMLs. I'm even convinced, there are still developers out there who are writting websites for Bulgarian / Russian / Macedonian customers using obsolete encodings …

The smarter developers of those accustomed to windows-cp1251, KOI-8R etc. etc., were using the meta tag to specify the type of charset of the web page content with:

<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=windows-cp1251">


<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=koi-8r">

Anyhow, still many devs even didn't placed the windows-cp1251 in the head of the HTML …

The result for the system administrator is always a mess – a lot of webpages that are showing like unreadable signs and tons of unhappy customers.
As always the system administrator is considered responsible, for the programmer mistakes :). So instead of programmers fix their bad cooking, the admin has to fix it all!

One quick work around me as admin has applied to failing to display pages in Cyrillic using the Windows-cp1251 character encoding was to force windows-cp1251 as a default encoding for the whole virtualhost or Apache directory with Apache directives like:

<VirtualHost *:80>
DocumentRoot /var/www/html
AddDefaultCharset windows-cp1251
AddDefaultCharset windows-cp1251

Though this mostly would, work there are some occasions, where only a particular html files from all the content served by Apache is encoded in windows-cp1251, if most of the content is already written in UTF-8, this could be a big issues as you cannot just change the UTF-8 globally to windows-cp1251, just because few pages are written in archaic encoding….
Since most of the content is displayed to the client by Apache (as prior explained) just fine, only particular htmls lets's ay single.html, single2.html etc. etc. are displayed with some question marks or some non-human readable "hieroglyphs".

Below is a screenshot from two pages returned to my browser in wrongly set htmls charset:

Improper Windows CP1251 encoding with Apache set to serve UTF-8 encoding questiomarks

Improper Windows CP1251 delivered page in UTF-8 browser view

Apache returns cp1251 in some non-UTF8 wrong encoding (webserver improperly served cyrillic encoding)

Improperly served encoding CP1251 delivered by Apache in non-utf-8 encoding

When this kind of issues occur, the only solution is to simply login to the server and use iconv command to convert all files returning unreadable content from whatever the non UTF-8 encoding is lets say in my case Bulgarian typeset of cp1251 to UTF-8

Here is how the iconv command to convert between windows-cp1251 to utf-8 the two sample files named single1.html and single2.html

server:/web# /usr/bin/iconv -f WINDOWS-1251 -t UTF-8 single1.html > single1.html.utf8
server:/web# mv single1.html single1.html.bak;
server:/web# mv single1.html.utf8 single1.html
server:/web# /usr/bin/iconv -f WINDOWS-1251 -t UTF-8 single2.html > single2.html.utf8
server:/web# mv single2.html single2.html.bak;
server:/web# mv single2.html.utf8 single2.html

I always, make copies of the original cp1251 encoded files (as you see mv single1.html single1.html.bak), because if something goes wrong with convertion I can easily revert back.

If there are 10 files with consequential numbers naming they can be converted using a short for loop, like so:

server:/web# for i $(seq 1 10); do
/usr/bin/iconv -f WINDOWS-1251 -t UTF-8 single$i.html > single$i.html.utf8;mv single$i.html single$i.html.bak
mv single$i.html.utf8 single$i.html

Just as earlier mentioned if single1.html, single2.html … has in the html <head>:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1251">

You should open, each of the files in question and wipe out the line either by hand or use sed to wipe it in one loop if it has to be done for lets say 10 files named (single{1..10})

server:/web# for i in $(seq 1 10); do
sed '/<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text\/html; charset=windows-1251>/d' single$i.txt > single$;
mv single$i.txt single$i.txt.bak;
mv single$ single$i.txt

Well now,

How to find out all programs bandwidth use with (nethogs) top like utility on Linux

Friday, September 30th, 2011

Just run across across a super nice top like, program for system administrators, its called nethogs and is definitely entering my “l337” admin outfit next to tools like iftop, nettop, ettercap, darkstat htop, iotop etc.

nethogs is ultra easy to use, to get immediately in console statistics about running processes UPLOAD and DOWNLOAD bandwidth consumption just run it:

linux:~# nethogs

Nethogs screenshot on Linux Server with Nginx
Nethogs running on Debian GNU/Linux serving static web content with Nginx

If you need to check what program is using what amount of network bandwidth, you will definitely love this tool. Having information of bandwidth consumption is also viewable partially with iftop, however iftop is unable to track the bandwidth consumption to each process using the network thus it seems nethogs is unique at what it does.

Nethogs supports IPv4 and IPv6 as well as supports network traffic over ppp. The tool is available via package repositories for Debian GNU/Lenny 5 and Debian Squeeze 6.

To install Nethogs on CentOS and Fedora distributions, you will have to install it from source. On CentOS 5.7, latest nethogs which as of time of writting this article is 0.8.0 compiles and installs fine with make && make install commands.

In the manner of thoughts of network bandwidth monitoring, another very handy tool to add extra understanding on what kind of traffic is crossing over a Linux server is jnettop
jnettop shows which hosts/ports is taking up the most network traffic.
It is available for install via apt in Debian 5/6).

Here is a screenshot on jnettop in action:

Jnettop check network traffic in console

To install jnettop on latest Fedoras / CentOS / Slackware Linux it has to be download and compiled from source via jnettop’s official wiki page
I’ve tested jnettop install from source on CentOS release 5.7 and it seems to compile just fine using the usual compile commands:

[root@prizebg jnettop-0.13.0]# ./configure
[root@prizebg jnettop-0.13.0]# make
[root@prizebg jnettop-0.13.0]# make install

If you need to have an idea on the network traffic passing by your Linux server distringuished by tcp/udp/icmp network protocols and services like ssh / ftp / apache, then you will definitely want to take a look at nettop (if of course not familiar with it yet).
Nettop is not provided as a deb package in Debian and Ubuntu, where it is included as rpm for CentOS and presumably Fedora?
Here is a screenshot on nettop network utility in action:

Nettop server traffic division by protocol screenshot
FreeBSD users should be happy to find out that jnettop and nettop are part of the ports tree and the two can be installed straight, however nethogs would not work on FreeBSD, I searched for a utility capable of what Nethogs can, but couldn’t find such.
It seems the only way on FreeBSD to track bandwidth back and from originating process is using a combination of iftop and sockstat utilities. Probably there are other tools which people use to track network traffic to the processes running on a hos and do general network monitoringt, if anyone knows some good tools, please share with me.