There are several different tools used to manage packages on FreeBSD:
The sysinstall utility can be invoked on a running system to install, delete, and list available and installed packages. For more information, see Section 2.10.11.
The package management command line tools, which are the subject of the rest of this section.
You can use the pkg_add(1) utility to install a FreeBSD software package from a local file or from a server on the network.
Example 5-1. Downloading a Package Manually and Installing It Locally
# ftp -a ftp2.FreeBSD.org Connected to ftp2.FreeBSD.org. 220 ftp2.FreeBSD.org FTP server (Version 6.00LS) ready. 331 Guest login ok, send your email address as password. 230- 230- This machine is in Vienna, VA, USA, hosted by Verio. 230- Questions? E-mail email@example.com. 230- 230- 230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply. Remote system type is UNIX. Using binary mode to transfer files. ftp> cd /pub/FreeBSD/ports/packages/sysutils/ 250 CWD command successful. ftp> get lsof-4.56.4.tgz local: lsof-4.56.4.tgz remote: lsof-4.56.4.tgz 200 PORT command successful. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for 'lsof-4.56.4.tgz' (92375 bytes). 100% |**************************************************| 92375 00:00 ETA 226 Transfer complete. 92375 bytes received in 5.60 seconds (16.11 KB/s) ftp> exit # pkg_add lsof-4.56.4.tgz
If you do not have a source of local packages (such as a FreeBSD CD-ROM set) then it
will probably be easier to use the
-r option to pkg_add(1). This will
cause the utility to automatically determine the correct object format and release and
then fetch and install the package from an FTP site.
# pkg_add -r lsof
The example above would download the correct package and add it without any further user intervention. If you want to specify an alternative FreeBSD Packages Mirror, instead of the main distribution site, you have to set the PACKAGESITE environment variable accordingly, to override the default settings. pkg_add(1) uses fetch(3) to download the files, which honors various environment variables, including FTP_PASSIVE_MODE, FTP_PROXY, and FTP_PASSWORD. You may need to set one or more of these if you are behind a firewall, or need to use an FTP/HTTP proxy. See fetch(3) for the complete list. Note that in the example above lsof is used instead of lsof-4.56.4. When the remote fetching feature is used, the version number of the package must be removed. pkg_add(1) will automatically fetch the latest version of the application.
Note: pkg_add(1) will download the latest version of your application if you are using FreeBSD-CURRENT or FreeBSD-STABLE. If you run a -RELEASE version, it will grab the version of the package that was built with your release. It is possible to change this behavior by overriding PACKAGESITE. For example, if you run a FreeBSD 8.1-RELEASE system, by default pkg_add(1) will try to fetch packages from ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-8.1-release/Latest/. If you want to force pkg_add(1) to download FreeBSD 8-STABLE packages, set PACKAGESITE to ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-8-stable/Latest/.
Package files are distributed in .tgz and .tbz formats. You can find them at ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/packages/, or on the FreeBSD CD-ROM distribution. Every CD on the FreeBSD 4-CD set (and the PowerPak, etc.) contains packages in the /packages directory. The layout of the packages is similar to that of the /usr/ports tree. Each category has its own directory, and every package can be found within the All directory.
The directory structure of the package system matches the ports layout; they work with each other to form the entire package/port system.
pkg_info(1) is a utility that lists and describes the various packages installed.
# pkg_info cvsup-16.1 A general network file distribution system optimized for CV docbook-1.2 Meta-port for the different versions of the DocBook DTD ...
pkg_version(1) is a utility that summarizes the versions of all installed packages. It compares the package version to the current version found in the ports tree.
# pkg_version cvsup = docbook = ...
The symbols in the second column indicate the relative age of the installed version and the version available in the local ports tree.
|=||The version of the installed package matches the one found in the local ports tree.|
|<||The installed version is older than the one available in the ports tree.|
|>||The installed version is newer than the one found in the local ports tree. (The local ports tree is probably out of date.)|
|?||The installed package cannot be found in the ports index. (This can happen, for instance, if an installed port is removed from the Ports Collection or renamed.)|
|*||There are multiple versions of the package.|
|!||The installed package exists in the index but for some reason, pkg_version was unable to compare the version number of the installed package with the corresponding entry in the index.|
To remove a previously installed software package, use the pkg_delete(1) utility.
# pkg_delete xchat-1.7.1
Note that pkg_delete(1) requires the full package name and number; the above command would not work if xchat was given instead of xchat-1.7.1. It is, however, easy to use pkg_version(1) to find the version of the installed package. You could instead simply use a wildcard:
# pkg_delete xchat\*
in this case, all packages whose names start with xchat will be deleted.
All package information is stored within the /var/db/pkg directory. The installed file list and descriptions of each package can be found within files in this directory.