Archive for May, 2022

Living of unknown saint Saint Sophronius of Sofia, known also as Saint Soprhonius of the Bulgaria / Sofronij of the Balkans

Saturday, May 28th, 2022


Biography of Staint Sofronij / Sophronius of Bulgaria Sofia, Known also as Saint Soprhonius of the Balkans

The parish priest of the village of Penkyovtsi (Sofia, Bulgaria region) Stefan (Te fled to Sofia with his wife due to Turkish violence, from hence he later fled to Wallachia region to the great Wallachian voivode (Duke) Radul. His wife died there and he became a monk named Sophronius (not to be mistaken with the very famous Bulgarian saint Saint Sofronius of Vratza / Sofronij Vrachanski).

After the death of Duke Radul, he returned from the Danube river to his homeland and settled in a monastery near city of Ruse (probably he lived in the cave monastery of Saint Joachim I Patriarch of Tarnovo and the Venerable Demetrius Besarabovsky, that even today is the biggest monastery nearby the city of Ruse).

There he struggled with common sanctification practices as fasting, prayer, work and alms for the poor. The devil did not tolerate his monastic great achievements and set a monastic servant against him, who struck him on the head with an ax and killed him.

Three years later, Sophronius appeared to the people living in the monastery, who obeyed his suggestion (obviously they got inspired to  dug up his grave which is a common ancient Christian practice for notable christians who might have been saints) and look up if his relics are incorruptable and found his relics incorruptible and fragrant (emitting a heavenly odor), as they have been inspired by God's Spirit to do.
People with great joy placed the holy relics in a coffin for common (universal) worship of all the Christians.

We do not know the exact dates he was  born or has been killed, because of the devilish envy, as at that time Bulgaria has been under the Ottoman turks and the founding of his holy relics has happened years after his martyrdom. But most probably the Venerable Sofronij  lived in the second half of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth century, by the second decade of which he must have suffered. This information about him is told to us by the Bulgarian writer and priest Father (the bulgarian word for which is Pop – stems from the greek word Papas (Father) Peyu. The same Pop Peyu has been also the author of the life of Saint George of Sofia the New not to be mistaken with Saint George the Newest from Sofia  who maryrdom suffered in year 1515 because of his unwillingless to accept the false Islamic faith.

© Lives of the Saints. Synodal Publishing House, Sofia, 1991, edited by Parthenius, Bishop of Lefkada and Archimandrite Dr. Athanasius (Bonchev) with minor inclusions of the article author Georgi Georgiev

Let by his holy prayers the Bulgarian homeland and especially the suffering in Ukraine and all people everywhere, finds more Peace, Love, Hope, Faith and Goodness 

Saint Hieromartyr Therapont of Serdika ( Sofia ) martyred year † 1555 for Christ

Thursday, May 26th, 2022

Saint Therapontius of Serdika is celebrated every year on on May 27 in the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, together with St. Holy Martyrs Therapont of Sardis († 259). He is born and lived in the ancient city of Serdika (today Sofia).

He is part of the nine saints of Sofia, that are celebrated in the Church throughout the Liturgical year.

A little is known of him and just like the martyrologies of much of the ancient saints, we have only few sentences left mentioning his great martyrdom for Christ, along with other local Bulgarian saints. He has a written  celebration service in the Minelogion Church book for  27-th of May.
Minelogion for those unaware is one of the service books used in the Night and Morning services songs and containing services details about the glorified saints for each day of the year.


Troparion of the Holy Martyr, voice 4
He became a partaker of morals and viceroy of the apostles
in the way of your contemplation, inspired by God, you have done deeds,
therefore you have faithfully taught the word of truth,
for his faith he suffered even to the point of blood,
Holy Martyr Therapont, beg the Christ God to save our souls.


Saint Hieromartyr Therapont of Roman Fortress Serdika ( Sofia )
The famous Bulgarian medieval historian Matei Gramatik, who was a contemporary of Saint Nicholas of Sofia (a 15h century famous Bulgarian martyr saint) and a witness to his martyrdom in 1555, who wrote his biography with great skill, writes about this holy martyr. There he describes the situation in which St. Nicholas of Sofia lived – both geographically and spiritually.
In his description of the spiritual situation, he gives brief information about the saints of Sofia, including St. Terapont of Serdica (Sofia). He writes:


"When you listen for the inhabitants of Sofia, don't think about the current contemporary ones,
but for the heavenly ones, who were once co-inhabitants of us and now live with the angels.
So forth it is beneficial, to tell about 2 , 3 of them. The holy hieromartyr Therapontius, who
being a citizen of this place and a presbyter of the holy God's Church in Serdika (Sofia), lived filled
with lot of virtues and at the end, during the persecutions of Christians, has been detained by guards
by the lawless for his Christ confession. After a lot of martyrs and being enchained with a heavy
iron chains, he has been put out of the city and on a distance of one day walking, on
this place he was beheaded and henceforth he received a martyrs death for Christ.
They say on the place where his blood was shed, in that time a large oak tree has grown  and it is seen until today and there a lot of miraculous healings occur,
whenever one comes with faith."

Today a part of this trunk of the oak is kept as a sacred relic in the ancient Sofia's capital ancient church "St. Petka", where the memory of the holy martyr is celebrated every year on May 27.

Translated from: © Lives of the Saints Book. Synodal Publishing House, Sofia, 1991, edited by Parthenius, Bishop of Lefkada and Archimandrite Dr. Athanasius (Bonchev).

Another Bulgarian saint Paisios of Hilendar / Paisij Hilendarski (1722 – 1773) also mentions in his history book History of the Slavo-Bulgarians states: "There are three holy martyrs in the city of Sofia:
1) St. George;
2) St. Nicholas;
3) St. Terapontius.

This saint was a priest in town of Tran, where many people now go for healing. Where in the Turks has slayered the saint a an oak greaw and with his prayers a lot of healing is given on the place of this oak. Same manner Saints George and Nicholas suffered from the godless Turks during Selim's reign; and their holy relics give healing in this city of Sofia. "

Icon Images of St. Therapontius are known to exist today from the XIX century. There are icons icons in the Sofia church "St. Paraskeva ”, in Pernik, in the church of " St. Petka ” in Sofia, fresco in the church“ St. Dimitar ” in the village of Yarlovtsi, Transko, wherein used to an icon also whose location now is unknown.

In Tran and Godech respectively there were folk customs associated with the saint and therein and in the region he is revered as a healer and protector of the harvests.
There is also a cave in Trun, which is indicated as a refuge for the saint.
A chapel in his name was in the city, burned by the Turks in the 30s of the XIX century.

In Glory of St. Terapontius of Sofia during the Second World War and until 1957 was dedicated the Revival church "Holy Trinity ", today – Saint Great-martyr (Mina)  Menas, in the Slatina district of Sofia. The church was built on the remains of the monastery “Holy  Trinity", according to mouth to mouth tradition kept for ages. 

According to the legend, the saint was slaughtered here and this gives some reason to presume that St. Terapontius might have been one of the spiritual fathers who were serving in the monastery at that time.

Let by the holy prayers of Saint Terapont God gives forgives to our multitude of transgressions and grants more Peace, Love, Hope, Faith and goodness to everyone !

How to RPM update Hypervisors and Virtual Machines running Haproxy High Availability cluster on KVM, Virtuozzo without a downtime on RHEL / CentOS Linux

Friday, May 20th, 2022


Here is the scenario, lets say you have on your daily task list two Hypervisor (HV) hosts running CentOS or RHEL Linux with KVM or Virutozzo technology and inside the HV hosts you have configured at least 2 pairs of virtual machines one residing on HV Host 1 and one residing on HV Host 2 and you need to constantly keep the hosts to the latest distribution major release security patchset.

The Virtual Machines has been running another set of Redhat Linux or CentOS configured to work in a High Availability Cluster running Haproxy / Apache / Postfix or any other kind of HA solution on top of corosync / keepalived or whatever application cluster scripts Free or Open Source technology that supports a switch between clustered Application nodes.

The logical question comes how to keep up the CentOS / RHEL Machines uptodate without interfering with the operations of the Applications running on the cluster?

Assuming that the 2 or more machines are configured to run in Active / Passive App member mode, e.g. one machine is Active at any time and the other is always Passive, a switch is possible between the Active and Passive node.


In this article I'll give a simple step by step tested example on how you I succeeded to update (for security reasons) up to the latest available Distribution major release patchset on one by one first the Clustered App on Virtual Machines 1 and VM2 on Linux Hypervisor Host 1. Then the App cluster VM 1 / VM 2 on Hypervisor Host 2.
And finally update the Hypervisor1 (after moving the Active resources from it to Hypervisor2) and updating the Hypervisor2 after moving the App running resources back on HV1.
I know the procedure is a bit monotonic but it tries to go through everything step by step to try to mitigate any possible problems. In case of failure of some rpm dependencies during yum / dnf tool updates you can always revert to backups so in anyways don't forget to have a fully functional backup of each of the HV hosts and the VMs somewhere on a separate machine before proceeding further, any possible failures due to following my aritcle literally is your responsibility 🙂


0. Check situation before the update on HVs / get VM IDs etc.

Check the virsion of each of the machines to be updated both Hypervisor and Hosted VMs, on each machine run:

# cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS Linux release 7.9.2009 (Core)

The machine setup I'll be dealing with is as follows:

hypervisor-host1 -> 
•    virt-mach-centos1
•    virt-machine-zabbix-proxy-centos (zabbix proxy)

hypervisor-host2 ->
•    virt-mach-centos2
•    virt-machine-zabbix2-proxy-centos (zabbix proxy)

To check what is yours check out with virsh cmd –if on KVM or with prlctl if using Virutozzo, you should get something like:

[root@hypervisor-host2 ~]# virsh list
 Id Name State
 1 vm-host1 running
 2 virt-mach-centos2 running

 # virsh list –all

[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]# virsh list
 Id Name State
 1 vm-host2 running
 3 virt-mach-centos1 running

[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]# prlctl list
UUID                                    STATUS       IP_ADDR         T  NAME
{dc37c201-08c9-589d-aa20-9386d63ce3f3}  running      –               VM virt-mach-centos1
{76e8a5f8-caa8-5442-830e-aa4bfe8d42d9}  running      –               VM vm-host2
[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]#

If you have stopped VMs with Virtuozzo to list the stopped ones as well.

# prlctl list -a

[root@hypervisor-host2 74a7bbe8-9245-5385-ac0d-d10299100789]# vzlist -a
                                CTID      NPROC STATUS    IP_ADDR         HOSTNAME
[root@hypervisor-host2 74a7bbe8-9245-5385-ac0d-d10299100789]# prlctl list
UUID                                    STATUS       IP_ADDR         T  NAME
{92075803-a4ce-5ec0-a3d8-9ee83d85fc76}  running      –               VM virt-mach-centos2
{74a7bbe8-9245-5385-ac0d-d10299100789}  running      –               VM vm-host1

# prlctl list -a

If due to Virtuozzo version above command does not return you can manually check in the VM located folder, VM ID etc.

[root@hypervisor-host2 vmprivate]# ls
74a7bbe8-9245-4385-ac0d-d10299100789  92075803-a4ce-4ec0-a3d8-9ee83d85fc76
[root@hypervisor-host2 vmprivate]# pwd
[root@hypervisor-host2 vmprivate]#

[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]# ls -al /vz/vmprivate/
total 20
drwxr-x—. 5 root root 4096 Feb 14  2019 .
drwxr-xr-x. 7 root root 4096 Feb 13  2019 ..
drwxr-x–x. 4 root root 4096 Feb 18  2019 1c863dfc-1deb-493c-820f-3005a0457627
drwxr-x–x. 4 root root 4096 Feb 14  2019 76e8a5f8-caa8-4442-830e-aa4bfe8d42d9
drwxr-x–x. 4 root root 4096 Feb 14  2019 dc37c201-08c9-489d-aa20-9386d63ce3f3
[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]#

Before doing anything with the VMs, also don't forget to check the Hypervisor hosts has enough space, otherwise you'll get in big troubles !

[root@hypervisor-host2 vmprivate]# df -h
Filesystem                       Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/centos_hypervisor-host2-root   20G  1.8G   17G  10% /
devtmpfs                          20G     0   20G   0% /dev
tmpfs                             20G     0   20G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                             20G  2.0G   18G  11% /run
tmpfs                             20G     0   20G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1                        992M  159M  766M  18% /boot
/dev/mapper/centos_hypervisor-host2-home  9.8G   37M  9.2G   1% /home
/dev/mapper/centos_hypervisor-host2-var   9.8G  355M  8.9G   4% /var
/dev/mapper/centos_hypervisor-host2-vz    755G   25G  692G   4% /vz


[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]# df -h
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/centos-root   50G  1.8G   45G   4% /
devtmpfs                  20G     0   20G   0% /dev
tmpfs                     20G     0   20G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                     20G  2.1G   18G  11% /run
tmpfs                     20G     0   20G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda2                992M  153M  772M  17% /boot
/dev/mapper/centos-home  9.8G   37M  9.2G   1% /home
/dev/mapper/centos-var   9.8G  406M  8.9G   5% /var
/dev/mapper/centos-vz    689G   12G  643G   2% /vz

Another thing to do before proceeding with update is to check and tune if needed the amount of CentOS repositories used, before doing anything with yum.

[root@hypervisor-host2 yum.repos.d]# ls -al
total 68
drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root  4096 Oct  6 13:13 .
drwxr-xr-x. 110 root root 12288 Oct  7 11:13 ..
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  4382 Mar 14  2019 CentOS7.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1664 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1309 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   649 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   314 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   630 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1331 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  6639 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Vault.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1303 Mar 14  2019 factory.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   666 Sep  8 10:13 openvz.repo
[root@hypervisor-host2 yum.repos.d]#


[root@hypervisor-host1 yum.repos.d]# ls -al
total 68
drwxr-xr-x.   2 root root  4096 Oct  6 13:13 .
drwxr-xr-x. 112 root root 12288 Oct  7 11:09 ..
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1664 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1309 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   649 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   314 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   630 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1331 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  6639 Sep  5  2019 CentOS-Vault.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root  1303 Mar 14  2019 factory.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   300 Mar 14  2019 obsoleted_tmpls.repo
-rw-r–r–.   1 root root   666 Sep  8 10:13 openvz.repo

1. Dump VM definition XMs (to have it in case if it gets wiped during update)

There is always a possibility that something will fail during the update and you might be unable to restore back to the old version of the Virtual Machine due to some config misconfigurations or whatever thus a very good idea, before proceeding to modify the working VMs is to use KVM's virsh and dump the exact set of XML configuration that makes the VM roll properly.

To do so:
Check a little bit up in the article how we have listed the IDs that are part of the directory containing the VM.

[root@hypervisor-host1 ]# virsh dumpxml (Id of VM virt-mach-centos1 ) > /root/virt-mach-centos1_config_bak.xml
[root@hypervisor-host2 ]# virsh dumpxml (Id of VM virt-mach-centos2) > /root/virt-mach-centos2_config_bak.xml


2. Set on standby virt-mach-centos1 (virt-mach-centos1)

As I'm upgrading two machines that are configured to run an haproxy corosync cluster, before proceeding to update the active host, we have to switch off
the proxied traffic from node1 to node2, – e.g. standby the active node, so the cluster can move up the traffic to other available node.

[root@virt-mach-centos1 ~]# pcs cluster standby virt-mach-centos1

3. Stop VM virt-mach-centos1 & backup on Hypervisor host (hypervisor-host1) for VM1

Another prevention step to make sure you don't get into damaged VM or broken haproxy cluster after the upgrade is to of course backup 


[root@hypervisor-host1 ]# prlctl backup virt-mach-centos1


[root@hypervisor-host1 ]# prlctl stop virt-mach-centos1
[root@hypervisor-host1 ]# cp -rpf /vz/vmprivate/dc37c201-08c9-489d-aa20-9386d63ce3f3 /vz/vmprivate/dc37c201-08c9-489d-aa20-9386d63ce3f3-bak
[root@hypervisor-host1 ]# tar -czvf virt-mach-centos1_vm_virt-mach-centos1.tar.gz /vz/vmprivate/dc37c201-08c9-489d-aa20-9386d63ce3f3

[root@hypervisor-host1 ]# prlctl start virt-mach-centos1

4. Remove package version locks on all hosts

If you're using package locking to prevent some other colleague to not accidently upgrade the machine (if multiple sysadmins are managing the host), you might use the RPM package locking meachanism, if that is used check RPM packs that are locked and release the locking.

+ List actual list of locked packages

[root@hypervisor-host1 ]# yum versionlock list  

versionlock list done

+ Clear the locking            

# yum versionlock clear                               

+ List actual list / == clear all entries

[root@virt-mach-centos2 ]# yum versionlock list; yum versionlock clear
[root@virt-mach-centos1 ]# yum versionlock list; yum versionlock clear
[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]# yum versionlock list; yum versionlock clear
[root@hypervisor-host2 ~]# yum versionlock list; yum versionlock clear

5. Do yum update virt-mach-centos1

For some clarity if something goes wrong, it is really a good idea to make a dump of the basic packages installed before the RPM package update is initiated,
The exact versoin of RHEL or CentOS as well as the list of locked packages, if locking is used.

Enter virt-mach-centos1 (ssh virt-mach-centos1) and run following cmds:

# cat /etc/redhat-release  > /root/logs/redhat-release-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# cat /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober > /root/logs/grub2-efi-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

+ Only if needed!!

# yum versionlock clear
# yum versionlock list

Clear any previous RPM packages – careful with that as you might want to keep the old RPMs, if unsure comment out below line

# yum clean all |tee /root/logs/yumcleanall-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out


Proceed with the update and monitor closely the output of commands and log out everything inside files using a small script that you should place under /root/status the script is given at the end of the aritcle.:

yum check-update |tee /root/logs/yumcheckupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
yum check-update | wc -l
yum update |tee /root/logs/yumupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
sh /root/status |tee /root/logs/status-before-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out


6. Check if everything is running fine after upgrade

Reboot VM

# shutdown -r now

7. Stop VM virt-mach-centos2 & backup  on Hypervisor host (hypervisor-host2)

Same backup step as prior 

# prlctl backup virt-mach-centos2


# prlctl stop virt-mach-centos2
# cp -rpf /vz/vmprivate/92075803-a4ce-4ec0-a3d8-9ee83d85fc76 /vz/vmprivate/92075803-a4ce-4ec0-a3d8-9ee83d85fc76-bak
## tar -czvf virt-mach-centos2_vm_virt-mach-centos2.tar.gz /vz/vmprivate/92075803-a4ce-4ec0-a3d8-9ee83d85fc76

# prctl start virt-mach-centos2

8. Do yum update on virt-mach-centos2

Log system state, before the update

# cat /etc/redhat-release  > /root/logs/redhat-release-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# cat /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober > /root/logs/grub2-efi-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# yum versionlock clear == if needed!!
# yum versionlock list


Clean old install update / packages if required

# yum clean all |tee /root/logs/yumcleanall-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

Initiate the update

# yum check-update |tee /root/logs/yumcheckupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out 2>&1
# yum check-update | wc -l 
# yum update |tee /root/logs/yumupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out 2>&1
# sh /root/status |tee /root/logs/status-before-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

9. Check if everything is running fine after upgrade

Reboot VM

# shutdown -r now


10. Stop VM vm-host2 & backup

# prlctl backup vm-host2


# prlctl stop vm-host2

Or copy the actual directory containig the Virtozzo VM (use the correct ID)

# cp -rpf /vz/vmprivate/76e8a5f8-caa8-5442-830e-aa4bfe8d42d9 /vz/vmprivate/76e8a5f8-caa8-5442-830e-aa4bfe8d42d9-bak
## tar -czvf vm-host2.tar.gz /vz/vmprivate/76e8a5f8-caa8-4442-830e-aa5bfe8d42d9

# prctl start vm-host2

11. Do yum update vm-host2

# cat /etc/redhat-release  > /root/logs/redhat-release-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# cat /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober > /root/logs/grub2-efi-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

Clear only if needed

# yum versionlock clear
# yum versionlock list
# yum clean all |tee /root/logs/yumcleanall-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

Do the rpm upgrade

# yum check-update |tee /root/logs/yumcheckupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# yum check-update | wc -l
# yum update |tee /root/logs/yumupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# sh /root/status |tee /root/logs/status-before-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

12. Check if everything is running fine after upgrade

Reboot VM

# shutdown -r now

13. Do yum update hypervisor-host2



# cat /etc/redhat-release  > /root/logs/redhat-release-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# cat /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober > /root/logs/grub2-efi-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

Clear lock   if needed

# yum versionlock clear
# yum versionlock list
# yum clean all |tee /root/logs/yumcleanall-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

Update rpms

# yum check-update |tee /root/logs/yumcheckupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out 2>&1
# yum check-update | wc -l
# yum update |tee /root/logs/yumupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out 2>&1
# sh /root/status |tee /root/logs/status-before-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

14. Stop VM vm-host1 & backup

Some as ealier

# prlctl backup vm-host1


# prlctl stop vm-host1

# cp -rpf /vz/vmprivate/74a7bbe8-9245-4385-ac0d-d10299100789 /vz/vmprivate/74a7bbe8-9245-4385-ac0d-d10299100789-bak
# tar -czvf vm-host1.tar.gz /vz/vmprivate/74a7bbe8-9245-4385-ac0d-d10299100789

# prctl start vm-host1

15. Do yum update vm-host2

# cat /etc/redhat-release  > /root/logs/redhat-release-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# cat /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober > /root/logs/grub2-efi-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# yum versionlock clear == if needed!!
# yum versionlock list
# yum clean all |tee /root/logs/yumcleanall-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# yum check-update |tee /root/logs/yumcheckupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# yum check-update | wc -l
# yum update |tee /root/logs/yumupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# sh /root/status |tee /root/logs/status-before-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

16. Check if everything is running fine after upgrade

+ Reboot VM

# shutdown -r now

17. Do yum update hypervisor-host1

Same procedure for HV host 1 

# cat /etc/redhat-release  > /root/logs/redhat-release-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# cat /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober > /root/logs/grub2-efi-vorher-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

Clear lock

# yum versionlock clear
# yum versionlock list
# yum clean all |tee /root/logs/yumcleanall-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

# yum check-update |tee /root/logs/yumcheckupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# yum check-update | wc -l
# yum update |tee /root/logs/yumupdate-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out
# sh /root/status |tee /root/logs/status-before-$(hostname)-$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S').out

18. Check if everything is running fine after upgrade

Reboot VM

# shutdown -r now

Check hypervisor-host1 all VMs run as expected 

19. Check if everything is running fine after upgrade

Reboot VM

# shutdown -r now

Check hypervisor-host2 all VMs run as expected afterwards

20. Check once more VMs and haproxy or any other contained services in VMs run as expected

Login to hosts and check processes and logs for errors etc.

21. Haproxy Unstandby virt-mach-centos1

Assuming that the virt-mach-centos1 and virt-mach-centos2 are running a Haproxy / corosync cluster you can try to standby node1 and check the result
hopefully all should be fine and traffic should come to host node2.

[root@virt-mach-centos1 ~]# pcs cluster unstandby virt-mach-centos1

Monitor logs and make sure HAproxy works fine on virt-mach-centos1

22. If necessery to redefine VMs (in case they disappear from virsh) or virtuosso is not working

[root@virt-mach-centos1 ]# virsh define /root/virt-mach-centos1_config_bak.xml
[root@virt-mach-centos1 ]# virsh define /root/virt-mach-centos2_config_bak.xml

23. Set versionlock to RPMs to prevent accident updates and check OS version release

[root@virt-mach-centos2 ]# yum versionlock \*
[root@virt-mach-centos1 ]# yum versionlock \*
[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]# yum versionlock \*
[root@hypervisor-host2 ~]# yum versionlock \*

[root@hypervisor-host2 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS Linux release 7.8.2003 (Core)

Other useful hints

[root@hypervisor-host1 ~]# virsh console dc37c201-08c9-489d-aa20-9386d63ce3f3
Connected to domain virt-mach-centos1

! Compare packages count before the upgrade on each of the supposable identical VMs and HVs – if there is difference in package count review what kind of packages are different and try to make the machines to look as identical as possible  !

Packages to update on hypervisor-host1 Count: XXX
Packages to update on hypervisor-host2 Count: XXX
Packages to update virt-mach-centos1 Count: – 254
Packages to update virt-mach-centos2 Count: – 249

The /root/status script


echo  '=======================================================   '
echo  '= Systemctl list-unit-files –type=service | grep enabled '
echo  '=======================================================   '
systemctl list-unit-files –type=service | grep enabled

echo  '=======================================================   '
echo  '= systemctl | grep ".service" | grep "running"            '
echo  '=======================================================   '
systemctl | grep ".service" | grep "running"

echo  '=======================================================   '
echo  '= chkconfig –list                                        '
echo  '=======================================================   '
chkconfig –list

echo  '=======================================================   '
echo  '= netstat -tulpn                                          '
echo  '=======================================================   '
netstat -tulpn

echo  '=======================================================   '
echo  '= netstat -r                                              '
echo  '=======================================================   '
netstat -r


That's all folks, once going through the article, after some 2 hours of efforts or so you should have an up2date machines.
Any problems faced or feedback is mostly welcome as this might help others who have the same setup.

Thanks for reading me 🙂

How to monitor Haproxy Application server backends with Zabbix userparameter autodiscovery scripts

Friday, May 13th, 2022


Haproxy is doing quite a good job in High Availability tasks where traffic towards multiple backend servers has to be redirected based on the available one to sent data from the proxy to. 

Lets say haproxy is configured to proxy traffic for App backend machine1 and App backend machine2.

Usually in companies people configure a monitoring like with Icinga or Zabbix / Grafana to keep track on the Application server is always up and running. Sometimes however due to network problems (like burned Network Switch / router or firewall misconfiguration) or even an IP duplicate it might happen that Application server seems to be reporting reachable from some monotoring tool on it but unreachable from  Haproxy server -> App backend machine2 but reachable from App backend machine1. And even though haproxy will automatically switch on the traffic from backend machine2 to App machine1. It is a good idea to monitor and be aware that one of the backends is offline from the Haproxy host.
In this article I'll show you how this is possible by using 2 shell scripts and userparameter keys config through the autodiscovery zabbix legacy feature.
Assumably for the setup to work you will need to have as a minimum a Zabbix server installation of version 5.0 or higher.

1. Create the required  and scripts 

You will have to install the two scripts under some location for example we can put it for more clearness under /etc/zabbix/scripts

[root@haproxy-server1 ]# mkdir /etc/zabbix/scripts

[root@haproxy-server1 scripts]# vim 
# Get list of Frontends and Backends from HAPROXY
# Example: ./ [/var/lib/haproxy/stats] FRONTEND|BACKEND|SERVERS
# First argument is optional and should be used to set location of your HAPROXY socket
# Second argument is should be either FRONTEND, BACKEND or SERVERS, will default to FRONTEND if not set
# !! Make sure the user running this script has Read/Write permissions to that socket !!
## haproxy.cfg snippet
#  global
#  stats socket /var/lib/haproxy/stats  mode 666 level admin

[ -n “$1” ] && echo $1 | grep -q ^/ && HAPROXY_SOCK="$(echo $1 | tr -d '\040\011\012\015')"

if [[ “$1” =~ (25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?):[0-9]{1,5} ]];


query_stats() {
    if [[ ${QUERYING_METHOD} == “SOCKET” ]]; then
        echo "show stat" | socat ${HAPROXY_SOCK} stdio 2>/dev/null
    elif [[ ${QUERYING_METHOD} == “TCP” ]]; then
        echo "show stat" | nc ${HAPROXY_STATS_IP//:/ } 2>/dev/null

get_stats() {
        echo "$(query_stats)" | grep -v "^#"

[ -n “$2” ] && shift 1
case $1 in
        B*) END="BACKEND" ;;
        F*) END="FRONTEND" ;;
                for backend in $(get_stats | grep BACKEND | cut -d, -f1 | uniq); do
                        for server in $(get_stats | grep "^${backend}," | grep -v BACKEND | grep -v FRONTEND | cut -d, -f2); do
                echo -e '{\n\t"data":[\n’${serverlist#,}’]}'
                exit 0
        *) END="FRONTEND" ;;

for frontend in $(get_stats | grep "$END" | cut -d, -f1 | uniq); do
echo -e '{\n\t"data":[\n’${felist#,}’]}'


[root@haproxy-server1 scripts]# vim 
set -o pipefail

if [[ “$1” = /* ]]
  shift 0
  if [[ “$1” =~ (25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?):[0-9]{1,5} ]];
    shift 1


CACHE_INFO_FILEPATH="${CACHE_INFO_FILEPATH:-/var/tmp/haproxy_info.cache}" ## unused
GET_STATS=${GET_STATS:-1} # when you update stats cache outsise of the script
SOCAT_BIN="$(which socat)"
NC_BIN="$(which nc)"
FLOCK_BIN="$(which flock)"
FLOCK_WAIT=15 # maximum number of seconds that "flock" waits for acquiring a lock
CUR_TIMESTAMP="$(date '+%s')"

debug() {
  [ “${DEBUG}” -eq 1 ] && echo "DEBUG: $@" >&2 || true

debug "SOCAT_BIN        => $SOCAT_BIN"
debug "NC_BIN           => $NC_BIN"
debug "FLOCK_BIN        => $FLOCK_BIN"
debug "FLOCK_WAIT       => $FLOCK_WAIT seconds"
debug "pxname   => $pxname"
debug "svname   => $svname"
debug "stat     => $stat"

# check if socat is available in path
if [ “$GET_STATS” -eq 1 ] && [[ $QUERYING_METHOD == “SOCKET” && -z “$SOCAT_BIN” ]] || [[ $QUERYING_METHOD == “TCP” &&  -z “$NC_BIN” ]]
  echo 'ERROR: cannot find socat binary'
  exit 126

# if we are getting stats:
#   check if we can write to stats cache file, if it exists
#     or cache file path, if it does not exist
#   check if HAPROXY socket is writable
# if we are NOT getting stats:
#   check if we can read the stats cache file
if [ “$GET_STATS” -eq 1 ]
  if [ -e “$CACHE_FILEPATH” ] && [ ! -w “$CACHE_FILEPATH” ]
    echo 'ERROR: stats cache file exists, but is not writable'
    exit 126
  elif [ ! -w ${CACHE_FILEPATH%/*} ]
    echo 'ERROR: stats cache file path is not writable'
    exit 126
    echo "ERROR: haproxy socket is not writable"
    exit 126
elif [ ! -r “$CACHE_FILEPATH” ]
  echo 'ERROR: cannot read stats cache file'
  exit 126

# index:name:default

_STAT=$(echo -e "$MAP" | grep :${stat}:)

debug "_STAT    => $_STAT"
debug "_INDEX   => $_INDEX"
debug "_DEFAULT => $_DEFAULT"

# check if requested stat is supported
if [ -z “${_STAT}” ]
  echo "ERROR: $stat is unsupported"
  exit 127

# method to retrieve data from haproxy stats
# usage:
# query_stats "show stat"
query_stats() {
    if [[ ${QUERYING_METHOD} == “SOCKET” ]]; then
        echo $1 | socat ${HAPROXY_SOCKET} stdio 2>/dev/null
    elif [[ ${QUERYING_METHOD} == “TCP” ]]; then
        echo $1 | nc ${HAPROXY_STATS_IP//:/ } 2>/dev/null

# a generic cache management function, that relies on 'flock'
check_cache() {
  local cache_type="${1}"
  local cache_filepath="${2}"
  local cache_expiration="${3}"  
  local cache_filemtime
  cache_filemtime=$(stat -c '%Y' "${cache_filepath}" 2> /dev/null)
  if [ $((cache_filemtime+60*cache_expiration)) -ge ${CUR_TIMESTAMP} ]
    debug "${cache_type} file found, results are at most ${cache_expiration} minutes stale.."
  elif "${FLOCK_BIN}" –exclusive –wait "${FLOCK_WAIT}" 200
    cache_filemtime=$(stat -c '%Y' "${cache_filepath}" 2> /dev/null)
    if [ $((cache_filemtime+60*cache_expiration)) -ge ${CUR_TIMESTAMP} ]
      debug "${cache_type} file found, results have just been updated by another process.."
      debug "no ${cache_type} file found, querying haproxy"
      query_stats "show ${cache_type}" > "${cache_filepath}"
  fi 200> "${cache_filepath}${FLOCK_SUFFIX}"

# generate stats cache file if needed
get_stats() {

# generate info cache file
## unused at the moment
get_info() {

# get requested stat from cache file using INDEX offset defined in MAP
# return default value if stat is ""
get() {
  # $1: pxname/svname
  local _res="$("${FLOCK_BIN}" –shared –wait "${FLOCK_WAIT}" "${CACHE_STATS_FILEPATH}${FLOCK_SUFFIX}" grep $1 "${CACHE_STATS_FILEPATH}")"
  if [ -z “${_res}” ]
    echo "ERROR: bad $pxname/$svname"
    exit 127
  _res="$(echo $_res | cut -d, -f ${_INDEX})"
  if [ -z “${_res}” ] && [[ “${_DEFAULT}” != “@” ]]
    echo "${_DEFAULT}"  
    echo "${_res}"

# not sure why we'd need to split on backslash
# left commented out as an example to override default get() method
# status() {
#   get "^${pxname},${svnamem}," $stat | cut -d\  -f1
# }

# this allows for overriding default method of getting stats
# name a function by stat name for additional processing, custom returns, etc.
if type get_${stat} >/dev/null 2>&1
  debug "found custom query function"
  get_stats && get_${stat}
  debug "using default get() method"
  get_stats && get "^${pxname},${svname}," ${stat}

! NB ! Substitute in the script /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock with your haproxy socket location

You can download the here and here

2. Create the userparameter_haproxy_backend.conf

[root@haproxy-server1 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat userparameter_haproxy_backend.conf 
# Discovery Rule

# HAProxy Frontend, Backend and Server Discovery rules
UserParameter=haproxy.list.discovery[*],sudo /etc/zabbix/scripts/ SERVER
UserParameter=haproxy.stats[*],sudo /etc/zabbix/scripts/  $2 $3 $4

# support legacy way

UserParameter=haproxy.stat.downtime[*],sudo /etc/zabbix/scripts/  $2 $3 downtime

UserParameter=haproxy.stat.status[*],sudo /etc/zabbix/scripts/  $2 $3 status

UserParameter=haproxy.stat.last_chk[*],sudo /etc/zabbix/scripts/  $2 $3 last_chk


3. Create new simple template for the Application backend Monitoring and link it to monitored host




Go to Configuration -> Hosts (find the host) and Link the template to it

4. Restart Zabbix-agent, in while check autodiscovery data is in Zabbix Server

[root@haproxy-server1 ]# systemctl restart zabbix-agent

Check in zabbix the userparameter data arrives, it should not be required to add any Items or Triggers as autodiscovery zabbix feature should automatically create in the server what is required for the data regarding backends to be in.

To view data arrives go to Zabbix config menus:

Configuration -> Hosts -> Hosts: (lookup for the haproxy-server1 hostname)


The autodiscovery should have automatically created the following prototypes

Now if you look inside Latest Data for the Host you should find some information like:

HAProxy Backend [backend1] (3 Items)
HAProxy Server [backend-name_APP/server1]: Connection Response
2022-05-13 14:15:04            History
HAProxy Server [backend-name/server2]: Downtime (hh:mm:ss)
2022-05-13 14:13:57    20:30:42        History
HAProxy Server [bk_name-APP/server1]: Status
2022-05-13 14:14:25    Up (1)        Graph
        ccnrlb01    HAProxy Backend [bk_CCNR_QA_ZVT] (3 Items)
HAProxy Server [bk_name-APP3/server1]: Connection Response
2022-05-13 14:15:05            History
HAProxy Server [bk_name-APP3/server1]: Downtime (hh:mm:ss)
2022-05-13 14:14:00    20:55:20        History
HAProxy Server [bk_name-APP3/server2]: Status
2022-05-13 14:15:08    Up (1)

To make alerting in case if a backend is down which usually you would like only left thing is to configure an Action to deliver alerts to some email address.