Perl Modules via HTTP Proxy installation, update and install perl CPAN modules behind a Firewall DMZ-ed networks

May 19th, 2023

If you have to maintain perl script written applications on Linux servers that are sitting behind a very paranoid set-up firewalls
and Local DMZ network, but you still need to maintain the servers and applications versions including perl CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive networking) module libraries, you could still do so via another Proxy machine Hub on the Local network, where you either have to manually download all the newest perl versions and CPAN module (libraries) or you can set it up that Proxy machine
to access only a specific Secured internet URLs for perl stuff.

Proxying perl downloads can be done via FTP connects, but as FTP is communicating in plain text and the protocol is known
for not behaving very well behind firewalls, it is a better idea to use for CPAN downloads HTTP or HTTPS protocol.

Normlly Perl is using FTP to download files from the internet. To enable Perl using also HTTP, please install the following RPM:

# yum install perl-libwww-perl

After figure out a CPAN-mirror from, we can start with the configuration from CPAN.

or debian package

# apt install libwww-perl

At the first run from /usr/bin/cpan the initial configuration will be started up which will be done automatically:

[username@linux-host ~]$ cpan

/home/linux-username/.cpan/CPAN/ initialized.

CPAN is the world-wide archive of perl resources. It consists of about
100 sites that all replicate the same contents all around the globe.
Many countries have at least one CPAN site already. The resources
found on CPAN are easily accessible with the module. If you
want to use, you have to configure it properly.

If you do not want to enter a dialog now, you can answer 'no' to this
question and I'll try to autoconfigure. (Note: you can revisit this
dialog anytime later by typing 'o conf init' at the cpan prompt.)

Are you ready for manual configuration? [yes] no


commit: wrote /home/linux-username/.cpan/CPAN/
Terminal does not support AddHistory.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.7602)
ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')

cpan> q
Terminal does not support GetHistory.
Lockfile removed.
[username@linux-host ~]$

After the initial configuration you have to run /usr/bin/cpan again, to configure the HTTP-proxy and an alternative HTTP-URL for the default FTP URL:

[username@linux-host ~]$ cpan
Terminal does not support AddHistory.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.7602)
ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')

cpan> o conf http_proxy

cpan> o conf urllist push

cpan> o conf commit
commit: wrote /home/linux-username/.cpan/CPAN/

cpan> q
Terminal does not support GetHistory.
Lockfile removed.
[username@linux-host ~]$

From now CPAN will load it's files from the internet with the HTTP-proxy:

[username@linux-host ~]$ cpan
Terminal does not support AddHistory.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.7602)
ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')

cpan> i  Example::DB::Oracle
CPAN: Storable loaded ok
CPAN: LWP::UserAgent loaded ok
Fetching with LWP:
Going to read /home/linux-host/.cpan/sources/authors/01mailrc.txt.gz
Fetching with LWP:
Going to read /home/linux-host/.cpan/sources/modules/02packages.details.txt.gz
  Database was generated on Thu, 07 Jan 2010 10:44:22 GMT

  There's a new version (v1.9402) available!
  [Current version is v1.7602]
  You might want to try
    install Bundle::CPAN
    reload cpan
  without quitting the current session. It should be a seamless upgrade
  while we are running…

Fetching with LWP:
Going to read /home/linux-username/.cpan/sources/modules/
Going to write /home/linux-username/.cpan/Metadata
Strange distribution name [Example::DB::Oracle]
Module id = Example::DB::Oracle
    CPAN_VERSION undef
    CPAN_FILE    M/MS/MSERGEANT/DBIx-AnyDBD-2.01.tar.gz
    INST_FILE    (not installed)

cpan> q
Terminal does not support GetHistory.
Lockfile removed.

Now as the new proxy http URL is set on the machine, to upgrade the existing modules non interactively

# perl MCPAN -e upgrade

or do it the old fashioned way via the MCPAN perl shell:

# perl -MCPAN -e shell

Starting with version 2.29 of the cpan shell, a new download mechanism
is the default which exclusively uses as the host to download
from. The configuration variable pushy_https can be used to (de)select
the new mechanism. Please read more about it and make your choice
between the old and the new mechanism by running

    o conf init pushy_https

Once you have done that and stored the config variable this dialog
will disappear.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v2.29)
Enter 'h' for help.

cpan[1]> upgrade

That's all folks after a while if no errors are spit during the Perl modules update you'll be at the latest versions of CPAN and modules.


The Holy Martyrs of Novo Selo Monastery “Holy Trinity” Selo Bulgaria. The holy priest-martyrs and martyrs who suffered by the Turks on May 9, 1876, canonized on April 3, 2011

May 10th, 2023


There are many saints who labored hard over the centuries, but there are few known that has done their feat in the Bulgarian lands. We Christian honor of the saints for centuries and whose memory is marked in the Church calendar of Saints, but there are some less known but not lesser in their confessory saints than the ancients. The Lord honors with eternal wreaths not only the sufferers of the early Christian times (during the early periods of persecution 1st and 2nd century) , but also those who are much closer to us in time and place and have endured persecutions and torments no less than the ancients.

We know about them from history, but it is not history that will join us to the sacrificial table, that will gather us in the church temple and that will strengthen us in faith. The signs of holiness are given to us from above, but our participation to accept it is also necessary, our "Let it be, Oh Lord!", another knowledge, so that we can pluck holiness from the depths of oblivion, be part of its path, tell about it and we bear witness to her miracles.

Today is another day of reaffirmation of holiness, deserved before God and known to people for a time.
Today, our thoughts and prayers are directed to the foothills of the Central Balkans (mountains) and to the Holy Trinity Monastery, illuminated by the martyrdom of the sisters, whose feet once touched the ground here and prayer chants rose day and night along with the fragrant smoke from the incense in the temple. And indeed, this monastery is like a candlestick placed on high, so that the light from it, which illuminated our land in the time of April's bloody harvest (on 20th of April 1976, The April Revolt against the Ottoman turks yoke has arised) never goes out and shines again, especially when our Church needs it.

Although it is not ancient, like others that glorify the Lord in the Slavic language over the centuries, the virgin monastery "Holy Trinity" was built around 1830 – when the Orthodox faith, like a vine, daily burned by non-believers, instead of withering – strengthened , and the thought of liberation more and more embraces souls and gives hope. For decades girls from the most awake and enlightened Orthodox families – not only from Novo Selo, but also from the neighboring places – put themselves under the protection of the One God the Holy Trinity. The inhabitants of Novo Selo ( Novoseltsi ) are famous with his zeal – both to the Church and to good morals.

Indeed, Novo Selo is a place worthy of raising and offering to the Most High the animate sacrifices of the true faith. To work for the pleasing to God, every wealthy family gave its contribution – and not only in form of money donations, lands and all kind of donations for the maintenance of the temples, the monastery, but also in the selection of worthy priests who would lay down their souls for their (flock) pasoms. And it is enough to mention only the two who received from the Savior a bright crown for their martyrdom, so that through their holy endurance and faith be be praised through them all the priests, guardians of the Christian faith who put their live for the herd during the many years of slavery that Bulgarians, Serbians, Greek, Romanians and many other Christians has suffered from the unfaithful.

With what words can we describe the zeal of priest Nikola Barbulov, a teacher and presbyter with a wise soul, who worked hard to successfully complete his studies in Bessarabia (nowadays Moldavia). He was fond of books, prosperous as a teacher, worthy as a priest, and educated many pupils; his spiritual children were the most active part of the Church body, among which many received priesthood as well.

Saint Pope Nicholas is similar to the great patriarch Euthymius, because he stayed to the end to guard his verbal flock; moreover, he was not a bloodless martyr, but a sufferer, put to death in terrible torments without renouncing his faith.

And with what words should we call the priest Georgi Dylgodreiski?

A warrior of Christ, as if a second Saint George, he fought not only against the thought, but also against the living enemy of the Cross. The new passion sufferer did not defend himself in the single combat with the Agarians (ottoman turks), he did not defend himself, he did not think about himself, but how to slow down the hordes of beasts and give the weak and helpless at least a little time to escape or hide from the ferocious infidels.

He guarded the House of God (the Church) and accepted circumcision as a grace, because he knew that through it he received eternal life.
We will not have enough words to praise the strength of those fragile nuns – fragile by nature, but strong in their faith.

The testimony of their life and death are the stories passed down from generation to generation in the new village families. There are not many memories, but the grace of their martyrdom is like an invisible light above the earth and, even without mentioning them, without praying to them, they are intercessors for those in trouble. There is no need for descriptions of their existence, because it is before the eyes of all who know the order in Orthodox monasteries. The sisters lived a celibate and angelic life – in deeds and prayers, in common breathing. Through their association they were a model and a guarantee of virtue to each one of them.
They prayed not only for their souls and for the salvation and well-being of their neighbors, but also for what was then in the heart of every Bulgarian – that God's destinies would be fulfilled and the Fatherland would once again become an independent Christian state.
Raised from childhood in piety and firm confession, entrusted by their relatives to God and the Mother of God, the brides of Christ humbly and daily wore the sweet yoke of Christ.


Every good deed of theirs – both prayer and manual work (following the example of the ancients saints of the path of ‘ora and labora’ – added oil to the lamps with which they would welcome the Bridegroom and enter with Him into the Kingdom of God.

The abbess of the monastery at that time was Susana, daughter of the mayor of the village, the fighter for faith and family Tsonko Somlev.

She worthily carries the burden of the board, making sure that the sisters reside according to the statute drawn up for them on Mount Athos by hieromonk Spyridon.
The ordeal of the priests and nuns whose martyrdom we celebrate today began when, on May 1, 1876, a mutiny signal was given on Mount Baban.

During this very harsh times for Bulgarian enslaved people in attempt to revolt against the unrighteess system of Ottoman empire not honoring the liberty and rights of people, the drunkenness of the breath of freedom raised the people to their feet, and the very next day the leaders announced the Novosel Republic (as a separate entity from the Ottoman Empire). During the several days of celebration, bells ring the valley, and prayer chants invite everyone to experience a moment of earthly joy, but also to call on the Lord of hosts to be their helper in the coming sorrows …

In the following days, the Christians tried to organize themselves and resist the Agarians, which hearing about the desire of people to self-govern themselves in a new tiny Christian country.

The unexpected cold and snow tormented the Chetniks (armed group part of Cheta a small battalion of armed liberation forces) of Tsanko Dyustabanov, and hunger weakened severely their strength.

And here the thirty nuns of the "Holy Trinity," adding to their prayers and service with the strength of their godly devotion, give no sleep to their eyes, nor slumber to their eyelids, but some alternate in the kitchen and bakery, and others took constant care for the under-shoeed and under-dressed boys, collecting everything that could serve them as clothing – socks knitted manually by them, scarfs, warm flannels…

And just according to the Gospel of Christ, anticipating the close meeting with the Bridegroom, they repeat the words of the Psalmist: "My heart is ready, God, my heart is ready…" (Ps. 56:8).

At that time, an army gathered around Sevlievo and Pleven, but not regular soldiers, to fight only against the armed chetniks and to keep the many innocent peaceful villants who officially did not took the guns but only supported and beseeched for the freedom of the darkness of harsh taxes and lack of rights as the ordinary muslims.

A blasphemous congregation of Abazis and Circassians is coming and multiplying around the monastery.

Adding to their natural demonic cruelty the orders of their leader, the thrice-cursed Deli Nejib Agha, they, seized with depravity and a desire to kill, slither like locusts, consigning to death and scorn all living things in their path..
Some of the residents, known for the approaching bashi-bazouk (irregular soldiers of Ottomans army rised in times of war), are hiding in the mountains, others are running in panic to the fields, and some of the houses in the new village are already engulfed in flames.

However, most of the nuns remain in the monastery.
In vain they hope that the hordes will not dare to desecrate the Holy presanctified heavenly place of God, the Holy Trinity monastery.

The priest Georgi Hristov, holed up in the upper floor of one of the monastery buildings, tries to slow down the enemy and give at least some of the fleeing time to escape.

There, once captured his body was cut down bit by bit by the enraged Circassians who burst through the monastery gate…

The last refuge of some of the nuns is the church building. One of them fails to enter with the others and is cut with a scythe (turkish half moon shaped sword) at the threshold of the temple.

We know about the last moments of the earthly life of the new martyrs from the shocking stories of four of the nuns who survived after having inflicted unbearable sufferings.

For the rest of their lives, they relive their humiliation and humiliation and vilify those of their sisters who took the martyrdom wreath.

The ungodly infidels shoot through the windows and hit several of the sisters.
Then they enter the church and start cutting whoever they want – both the living and the dead.
In front of the Church altar and inside it, Mother Abbess Susana, six other nuns and one laywoman died.

The abuses of the innocent victims, according to the testimonies, are inhumanly cruel. When they begin to strip everyone of their clothes and see that one of the sisters is still alive, the demonic minions blind and suffocate her, stuffing her eyes and mouth with mortar. The enraged and embittered instruments of the devil indulge in robbery and violence, not only in the church and the monastery, but everywhere in the settlement.

And so for the hearth (in glory) of the Bulgarian Orthodox true Christian faith, which was destroyed by the permission of the all-powerful providence. Ehat was said came true: "They shed their blood like water around Jerusalem and there was no one to bury them: they left the corpses of the slaves for food for the birds of the sky and the bodies of your reverends – for the earthly beasts."

But what is happening in Novo Selo is even more terrible – the Agarians not only desecrate the bodies of their victims. In the monastery church, they cut the icons into splinters, ransacked everything, and finally began to burn both the holy abode and the houses, so that there was nothing left to bury and mourn, and everywhere the abomination of desolation reigned.

But in the temple, the fire does not completely destroy the remains of the martyrs, so that later the dry bones can speak to everyone who looks at them with believing eyes and bows before their feat. And the testimony of our words is the ossuary of the "Holy Trinity" monastery rebuilt from the ashes, where one feels the invisible spiritual power and God's grace flowing from the remains – the holy relics – of the martyrs.

And let us from today on May 9, on the day of their suffering death, call them by their names, so that we also have their holy intercession prayers: you, newly martyred holy nuns
Susanna, Sophia, Elisaveta, Ephrosinia, Christina, Calista and Ekaterina,

and you, Susana Chorbadjieva, who during her lifetime was not able to join the sisters, but through your blood received a place in their image, as well as you, newly martyred priests Nicholai and Georgi, a couple of sympathizers and namesakes of the Glorious 9 Martyrs of Serdika (martyred near city of Sofia), together with all others who suffered for the faith and family, whose names now only the Lord knows, because they are all with Him in eternal and endless life, pray to the Holy Trinity, call on the Holy Mother of God and all the saints and give us strength to preserve your memory, so that you will be mentioned in future generations and forever. Amen.

* Novo selo – now a district of the town of Apriltsi Bulgaria.

Translated with minor inclusions from Official site of Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Origianl Bulgarian text Source : Holy Metropolis of Lovchan, Bulgaria
The Holy Novoselski Muchenici was canonized by the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, after following a canonization procedures and affirmation of the saintship of the martyrs of Novoselo decided to officially
canonize the saints together with the Martyrs Saints of Batak
Canonization of the Nove Selo Monastery saints, was officially announced with a Holy Liturgy in Sofia Capital, Church Saint Alexander Nevski  on April 3, 2011.

Install Zabbix Proxy configure and connect to Zabbix server on CentOS Linux

May 4th, 2023

Install Zabbix Proxy configure and connect to Zabbix server on CentOS Linux

1. Why use Zabbix-Proxy hidden advantages of using Zabbix-Proxy ?

Proxy can be used for many purposes and can provide many hidden benefits, just to name few of them:

  • Offload Zabbix Server when monitoring thousands of devices
  • Monitor remote locations
  • Monitor locations having unreliable communications
  • Simplify maintenance of distributed monitoring
  • Improved Security (Zabbix server can be restricted to be connectable only by the set of connected Zabbix Proxy / Proxies



A Zabbix proxy is the ideal solution if you have numerous hosts with multiple slow items that are affecting the performance of the server simply because processes are spending most of the time simply waiting for a response. A proxy can collect information from all hosts using its internal processes and then send raw historical data to the server. The time needed to connect and receive the host response will be on the proxy site, and the server performance will not be affected at all. A proxy just sends raw values to the server, and the server itself does not have to connect to the host to get the data.

2. Install zabbix-proxy-sqlite3 rpm package from Zabbix Official Repositories download page

Zabbix repository provides choice of 3 packages named as follows:


where the last value of the name (after zabbix-proxy) represents database type of the package — MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite respectively.

To not bother installing MySQL / PostgreSQL separate database servers, a lightweight choice is to use the sqlite3 db version. 
As I prefer zabbix-proxy data to be stored inside a flat database, thus I choose to use zabbix-proxy-sqlite3.

[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# yum info zabbix-proxy-sqlite3-5.0.31-1.el7.x86_64
Заредени плъгини: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base:
 * epel:
 * extras:
 * remi:
 * remi-php74:
 * remi-safe:
 * updates:
Инсталирани пакети
Име         : zabbix-proxy-sqlite3
Архитект.   : x86_64
Версия      : 5.0.31
Издание     : 1.el7
Обем        : 4.4 M
Хранилище   : installed
Обобщение   : Zabbix proxy for SQLite3 database
URL         :
Лиценз      : GPLv2+
Описание    : Zabbix proxy with SQLite3 database support.

My experience to try to install thethe default CentOS RPM package for zabbix-proxy-sqlite3 provided by default
RPM package that came with CentOS did not work as expected and trying to install / configure and use it via

[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# yum install zabbix-proxy-sqlite3.x86_64 -y

[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# vi /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.conf

Led me to a nasty errors seen in /var/log/zabbixsrv/zabbix_proxy.log like:

May 1st 2023, 08:42:45.020 zabbix_server cannot set list of PSK ciphersuites: file ssl_lib.c line 1314: error:1410D0B9:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_set_cipher_list:no cipher match
May 1st 2023, 08:42:45.018 zabbix_server cannot set list of PSK ciphersuites: file ssl_lib.c line 1314: error:1410D0B9:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_set_cipher_list:no cipher match
May 1st 2023, 08:42:45.013 zabbix_server cannot set list of PSK ciphersuites: file ssl_lib.c line 1314: error:1410D0B9:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_set_cipher_list:no cipher match
May 1st 2023, 08:42:45.013 zabbix_server cannot set list of PSK ciphersuites: file ssl_lib.c line 1314: error:1410D0B9:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_set_cipher_list:no cipher match
May 1st 2023, 08:42:45.011 zabbix_server cannot set list of PSK ciphersuites: file ssl_lib.c line 1314: error:1410D0B9:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_set_cipher_list:no cipher match

After some googling and reading some threads came upon this one, there is exmplaed errors preventing the configured zabbix-proxy
to start are caused by the zabbix-proxy-sqlite3 package provided by Redhat (due to openssl incompitability bug or something ).

As one of people in the discussion pointed out the quickest workaround suggested is simply to use the official Zabbix Repository packages for zabbix-proxy-sqlite3, in order to not waste anymore time on this
trivial stuff to install it, simply run:

[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# rpm -Uvh \

Alternative way if you seem to not have the machine connected to the internet is simply download the package with wget / lynx / curl / w3m from another machine 
that can reach the Internet upload the package via the local LAN or VPN and install it:

# wget

[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# rpm -ivh zabbix-proxy-sqlite3-5.0.31-1.el7.x86_64.rpm

NOTE ! Before you install proxy, keep in mind that your proxy version must match the Zabbix server version !

3. Generate a PSK random secret key and set proper permissions for zabbix-proxy directories

[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# cd /etc/zabbix/
[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# openssl rand -hex 32 >> /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.psk     
[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# chown root:zabbix zabbix_proxy.psk [root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# vi /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.conf [root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# mkdir -p /var/lib/zabbix-proxy/sqlite3db
[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# chown -R zabbix:zabbix /var/lib/zabbix-proxy
[root@sysadminshelp:/var/lib/zabbixsrv/sqlite3db]# sqlite3 zabbix_proxy
SQLite version 3.7.17 2013-05-20 00:56:22
Enter ".help" for instructions
Enter SQL statements terminated with a ";"
sqlite> .databases
seq  name             file
—  —————  ———————————————————-
0    main             /var/lib/zabbixsrv/sqlite3db/zabbix_proxy
[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]# vi /etc/zabbix_proxy.conf

4. Configure zabbix proxy to be able to connect to Zabbix Server

[root@sysadminshelp:/root ]#  vi /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.conf     ############ GENERAL PARAMETERS #################
    ######### PROXY SPECIFIC PARAMETERS #############
    ############ ADVANCED PARAMETERS ################
    ####### TLS-RELATED PARAMETERS #######
    TLSPSKIdentity=PSK zabbix-proxy-fqdn-hostname

5. Check and make sure the installed zabbix proxy as well as the zabbix_proxy server zabbix_agentd client and zabbix_server are at the same major version release

a) Check zabbix proxy version

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# zabbix_proxy -V
zabbix_proxy (Zabbix) 5.0.31
Revision f64a07aefca 30 January 2023, compilation time: Jan 30 2023 09:55:10

Copyright (C) 2023 Zabbix SIA
License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later <>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it according to
the license. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project
for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (

Compiled with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013
Running with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013


b) check zabbix_agentd version

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# zabbix_agentd -V
zabbix_agentd (daemon) (Zabbix) 5.0.30
Revision 2c96c38fb4b 28 November 2022, compilation time: Nov 28 2022 11:27:43

Copyright (C) 2022 Zabbix SIA
License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later <>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it according to
the license. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project
for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (

Compiled with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013
Running with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013

c) Check zabbix server version

[root@zabbix:~]# zabbix_server -V
zabbix_server (Zabbix) 5.0.30
Revision 2c96c38fb4b 28 November 2022, compilation time: Nov 28 2022 09:19:03

Copyright (C) 2022 Zabbix SIA
License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later <>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it according to
the license. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project
for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (

Compiled with OpenSSL 1.1.1d  10 Sep 2019
Running with OpenSSL 1.1.1n  15 Mar 2022

6. Starting the zabbix-proxy for a first time

Before beginning with installation make sure selinux is disabled, as it might cause some issues with Zabbix

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# sestatus
SELinux status:                 disabled

If you need to have the selinux enabled you will have to allow the zabbix-proxy into selinux as well:

cd /tmp
# grep zabbix_proxy /var/log/audit/audit.log | grep denied | audit2allow -m zabbix_proxy > zabbix_proxy.te
grep zabbix_proxy /var/log/audit/audit.log | grep denied | audit2allow -M zabbix_proxy
semodule -i zabbix_proxy.pp

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# systemctl start zabbix-proxy

Also lets enable zabbix-proxy to automatically start it on next server reboot / boot.

root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# systemctl enable zabbix-proxy

Normally running zabbix-proxy should provide a status messages like:

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# systemctl status zabbix-proxy
● zabbix-proxy.service – Zabbix Proxy
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/zabbix-proxy.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since чт 2023-05-04 14:58:36 CEST; 2h 59min ago
  Process: 8500 ExecStop=/bin/kill -SIGTERM $MAINPID (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 8504 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy -c $CONFFILE (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 8506 (zabbix_proxy)
   CGroup: /system.slice/zabbix-proxy.service
           ├─8506 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy -c /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.conf
           ├─8507 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: configuration syncer [synced config 40521 bytes in 0.0…
           ├─8508 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: trapper #1 [processed data in 0.000808 sec, waiting fo…
           ├─8509 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: trapper #2 [processed data in 0.005028 sec, waiting fo…
           ├─8510 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: trapper #3 [processed data in 0.001240 sec, waiting fo…
           ├─8511 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: trapper #4 [processed data in 0.004378 sec, waiting fo…
           ├─8512 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: trapper #5 [processed data in 0.004991 sec, waiting fo…
           ├─8513 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: preprocessing manager #1 [queued 0, processed 3 values…
           ├─8514 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: preprocessing worker #1 started
           ├─8515 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: preprocessing worker #2 started
           ├─8516 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: preprocessing worker #3 started
           ├─8517 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: heartbeat sender [sending heartbeat message success in…
           ├─8518 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: data sender [sent 0 values in 0.005241 sec, idle 1 sec…
           ├─8519 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: housekeeper [deleted 4501 records in 0.011462 sec, idl…
           ├─8520 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: http poller #1 [got 0 values in 0.000248 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8521 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: http poller #2 [got 0 values in 0.000239 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8522 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: http poller #3 [got 0 values in 0.000328 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8523 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: discoverer #1 [processed 0 rules in 0.000261 sec, idle…
           ├─8524 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: history syncer #1 [processed 0 values in 0.000009 sec,…
           ├─8525 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: history syncer #2 [processed 0 values in 0.000007 sec,…
           ├─8526 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: history syncer #3 [processed 0 values in 0.000014 sec,…
           ├─8527 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: history syncer #4 [processed 0 values in 0.000021 sec,…
           ├─8528 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: java poller #1 [got 0 values in 0.000017 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8529 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: java poller #2 [got 0 values in 0.000019 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8530 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: java poller #3 [got 0 values in 0.000019 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8531 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: java poller #4 [got 0 values in 0.000018 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8532 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: java poller #5 [got 0 values in 0.000013 sec, idle 5 s…
           ├─8533 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: snmp trapper [processed data in 0.000026 sec, idle 1 s…
           ├─8534 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: self-monitoring [processed data in 0.000034 sec, idle …
           ├─8535 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: task manager [processed 0 task(s) in 0.000169 sec, idl…
           ├─8536 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: poller #1 [got 0 values in 0.000012 sec, idle 5 sec]
           ├─8537 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: poller #2 [got 0 values in 0.000021 sec, idle 5 sec]
           ├─8538 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: poller #3 [got 0 values in 0.000039 sec, idle 5 sec]
           ├─8539 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: poller #4 [got 0 values in 0.000024 sec, idle 5 sec]
           ├─8540 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: poller #5 [got 0 values in 0.000019 sec, idle 5 sec]
           ├─8541 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: unreachable poller #1 [got 0 values in 0.000011 sec, i…
           ├─8542 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: unreachable poller #2 [got 0 values in 0.000018 sec, i…
           ├─8543 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: unreachable poller #3 [got 0 values in 0.000041 sec, i…
           └─8544 /usr/sbin/zabbix_proxy: icmp pinger #1 [got 0 values in 0.000022 sec, idle 5 s…

май 04 14:58:36 sysadminshelp systemd[1]: Stopped Zabbix Proxy.
май 04 14:58:36 sysadminshelp systemd[1]: Starting Zabbix Proxy…
май 04 14:58:36 sysadminshelp systemd[1]: Started Zabbix Proxy.


7. Configure zabbix-agentd to use your just new brand new zabbix-proxy

Here is my sample configuration file:

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# grep -v \# /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf | sed '/^$/d'

Note that the ServerActive given "zabbix-proxy" should be resolvable from the host, or even better you might want to put the IP of the Proxy if
you don't have at least a pseudo Hostname already configured inside /etc/hosts or actual DNS 'A' Active record configured inside a properly resolving
DNS server configured on the host via /etc/resolv.conf.

8. Create and Configure new proxy into the Zabbix-server host

Go to the zabbix server web interface URL into menus:


Administration -> Proxies (Proxy) 

Click on ;

Create Proxy button (uppper right corner)

*Proxy name: usually-your-host-pingable-fqdn
Proxy mode: Active
Proxy address:
Description: pcfreak zabbix proxy

Administration -> Proxies -> Encryption

From "Connection to proxy"

Untick "No encryption"


Tick "PSK"


*PSK Identity: PSK proxy
*PSK: Put the key here (copy from /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.psk generated steps earlier with openssl)

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# cat zabbix_proxy.psk

Press the "Update" Button


and go again to Proxies and check the zabbix-proxy is connected to the server and hosts configured to use the zabbix proxy reporting frequently.

To make sure that the configured new hosts to use the Zabbix Proxy instead of direct connection to Zabbix Server, go to Latest Data and check whether the configured Hostnames to connect to the Zabbix-Proxy continues to sent Data still.

9. Debugging problems with zabix-proxy and zabbix-agentd connectivity to proxy

In case of troubles check out what is going on inside the Zabbix Proxy / Agent and Server log files

[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# tail -n 50 /var/log/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.log

 6832:20230504:134032.281 Starting Zabbix Proxy (active) [zabbix-proxy]. Zabbix 5.0.31 (revision f
  6832:20230504:134032.281 **** Enabled features ****
  6832:20230504:134032.281 SNMP monitoring:       YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 IPMI monitoring:       YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 Web monitoring:        YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 VMware monitoring:     YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 ODBC:                  YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 SSH support:           YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 IPv6 support:          YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 TLS support:           YES
  6832:20230504:134032.281 **************************
  6832:20230504:134032.281 using configuration file: /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.conf
  6832:20230504:134032.291 current database version (mandatory/optional): 05000000/05000005
  6832:20230504:134032.291 required mandatory version: 05000000
  6832:20230504:134032.292 proxy #0 started [main process]
  6833:20230504:134032.292 proxy #1 started [configuration syncer #1]
  6833:20230504:134032.329 received configuration data from server at "", datalen 40521
  6834:20230504:134032.392 proxy #2 started [trapper #1]
  6835:20230504:134032.401 proxy #3 started [trapper #2]
  6836:20230504:134032.402 proxy #4 started [trapper #3]
  6838:20230504:134032.405 proxy #6 started [trapper #5]
  6837:20230504:134032.409 proxy #5 started [trapper #4]
  6843:20230504:134032.409 proxy #11 started [heartbeat sender #1]
  6845:20230504:134032.412 proxy #13 started [housekeeper #1]
  6847:20230504:134032.412 proxy #15 started [discoverer #1]
  8526:20230504:145836.512 proxy #20 started [history syncer #3]
  8517:20230504:145836.512 proxy #11 started [heartbeat sender #1]
  8530:20230504:145836.515 proxy #24 started [java poller #3]
  8531:20230504:145836.517 proxy #25 started [java poller #4]
  8532:20230504:145836.520 proxy #26 started [java poller #5]
  8536:20230504:145836.522 proxy #30 started [poller #1]
  8527:20230504:145836.525 proxy #21 started [history syncer #4]
  8535:20230504:145836.525 proxy #29 started [task manager #1]
  8533:20230504:145836.528 proxy #27 started [snmp trapper #1]
  8539:20230504:145836.528 proxy #33 started [poller #4]
  8538:20230504:145836.529 proxy #32 started [poller #3]
  8534:20230504:145836.532 proxy #28 started [self-monitoring #1]
  8544:20230504:145836.532 proxy #38 started [icmp pinger #1]
  8543:20230504:145836.532 proxy #37 started [unreachable poller #3]
  8542:20230504:145836.535 proxy #36 started [unreachable poller #2]
  8541:20230504:145836.537 proxy #35 started [unreachable poller #1]
  8540:20230504:145836.540 proxy #34 started [poller #5]
  8507:20230504:150036.453 received configuration data from server at "", datalen 40521
  8507:20230504:150236.503 received configuration data from server at "", datalen 40521
  8507:20230504:150436.556 received configuration data from server at "", datalen 40521
  8507:20230504:150636.608 received configuration data from server at "", datalen 40521
  8507:20230504:150836.662 received configuration data from server at "", datalen 40521


[root@sysadminshelp:/etc/zabbix]# tail -n 10  /var/log/zabbix-agent/zabbix_agentd.log
3096166:20230504:182840.461 agent #1 started [collector]
3096167:20230504:182840.462 agent #2 started [listener #1]
3096168:20230504:182840.463 agent #3 started [listener #2]
3096169:20230504:182840.464 agent #4 started [listener #3]
3096170:20230504:182840.464 agent #5 started [active checks #1]

If necessery to Debug further and track some strange errors, you might want to increase the DebugLevel to lets say DebugLevel=5

5 – extended debugging (produces even more information)

If checking both zabbix_agentd.log and zabbix_proxy.log cannot give you enough of a hint on what might be the issues you face with your userparameter scripts or missing Monitored data etc. and hopefully you have access to the zabbix-server machine, check out the zabbix server log as well

[root@zabbix:~]# tail -n 100 /var/log/zabbix/zabbix_server.log

3145027:20230504:182641.556 sending configuration data to proxy "zabbix-proxy" at "", datalen 40521, bytes 6120 with compression ratio 6.6
3145029:20230504:182716.529 cannot send list of active checks to "": host [pcfrxenweb] not found
3145028:20230504:182731.959 cannot send list of active checks to "": host [pcfrxenweb] not found
3145029:20230504:182756.634 cannot send list of active checks to "": host [pcfrxenweb] not found

Wrapping it up

In this article, we have learned how to install and configure a zabbix-proxy server and prepare a PSK encryption secret key for it.
We learned also  how to connect this server to the central zabbix monitoring host machine in Active mode, so both Zabbix proxy and server can communicate in a secure crypted form,
as well as how to set zabbix_agentd clients to connect to the zabbix proxy
which will from itself send its data to the Central Zabbix server host as well as how to Debug and hopefully solve issues with communication between Zabbix client -> Zabbix Proxy -> Zabbix server.

I know this article, does not say anything revolutionary and there is plenty of posts online talking about how to run yourself a zabbix proxy and make in your home or corporate network,
but I thought to write it down as by writting it and reading a bit more on the topic of Zabbix Server / Proxy / Agent, that give myself a better overview on how this technologies work and such an article will give myself an easier step by step guide to follow,
in future when I have to configure Zabbix Environments for personal hobby or professionally for customers.
Hope you enjoyed. Cheers ! 🙂

Analyze disk space usage in Linux / BSD with du / find and filelight /qdirstat / baobab GUI disk usage analyzers to check what takes up your disk space on Unix like OSes

April 21st, 2023


If you're a Desktop Linux or BSD UNIX user and your hard disk / external SSD / flash drive etc. space starts to be misteriously disapper due to whatever reaseon such as a crashing applications producing rapidly log error / warning messages leading quickly to filling up the disk or out of a sudden you have some Disk space lost without knowing what kind of data filled up the disk or you're downloading some big sized bittorrent files forgotten in your bittorrent client or complete mirroring a large website and you suddenly get the result of root directory ( / ) getting fully or nearly filled up, then you definitely would want to check out what has disk activity has eaten up your disk space and leaing to OS and Aplication slow responsiveness.

For the Linux regular *nix user finding out what is filling the disk is a trivial task with with find / du -hsc * but as people have different habits to use find and du I'll show you the most common ways I use this two command line tools to identify disk space low issues for the sake of comparison.
Others who have better easier ways to do it are very welcome to share it with me in the comments.

1. Finding large files on hard disk with find Linux command tool

host:~# find /home -type f -printf "%s\t%p\n" | sort -n | tail -10
2100000000    /home/hipo/Downloads/MameUIfx incl. ROMs/MameUIfx incl. ROMs-6.bin
2100000000    /home/hipo/Downloads/MameUIfx incl. ROMs/MameUIfx incl. ROMs-7.bin
2100000000    /home/hipo/Downloads/MameUIfx incl. ROMs/MameUIfx incl. ROMs-8.bin
2100000000    /home/hipo/Downloads/MameUIfx incl. ROMs/MameUIfx incl. ROMs-9.bin
2815424080    /home/hipo/.thunderbird/h3dasfii.default\
2925584895    /home/hipo/Documents/.git/\
4336918067    /home/hipo/Games/Mames_4GB-compilation-best-arcade-games-of-your-14_04_2021.tar.gz
6109003776    /home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs/CentOS/CentOS.vdi
23599251456    /home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs/Windows 7/Windows 7.vdi
33913044992    /home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs/Windows 10/Windows 10.vdi

I use less rarely find on Desktops and more when I have to do some kind of data usage analysis on servers, of course for my Linux home computer and any other Linux desktop machines, or just a small incomprehensive analysis du cmd is much more appropriate to use.

2. Finding large files Megabyte occupying space files sorted in Megabytes and Gigas with du

  • Check main 10 files sorted in megabytes that are hanging in a directory

pcfkreak:~# du -hsc /home/hipo/*|grep 'M\s'|sort -rn|head -n 10
956M    /home/hipo/last_dump1.sql
711M    /home/hipo/hipod
571M    /home/hipo/from-thinkpad_r61
453M    /home/hipo/ultimate-edition-themes
432M    /home/hipo/metasploit-framework
355M    /home/hipo/output-upgrade.txt
333M    /home/hipo/Плот
209M    /home/hipo/Work-New.tar.gz
98M    /home/hipo/DOOM64
90M    /home/hipo/mp3

  • Get 10 top larges files in Gigabytes that are space hungry and eating up your space

pcfkreak:~# du -hsc /home/hipo/*|grep 'G\s'|sort -rn|head -n 10
156G    total
60G    /home/hipo/VirtualBox VMs
37G    /home/hipo/Downloads
18G    /home/hipo/Desktop
11G    /home/hipo/Games
7.4G    /home/hipo/ownCloud
7.1G    /home/hipo/Документи
4.6G    /home/hipo/music
2.9G    /home/hipo/root
2.8G    /home/hipo/Documents

If you want to still work on the console terminal but you don't want to type too much you can use ncdu (ncurses) text tool, install it with

# apt install –yes ncdu

 For the most lazy ones or complete Linux newbies that doesn't want to spend time typing / learing or using text commands or softwares you can also check what has eaten up your full disk space with GUI tools as well.

There are at least 3 tools to use to check in Graphical Interface what has occupied your disk space on Linux / BSD, I'm aware of:

3. Filelight GUI disk usage analysis Linux tool

For those using KDE or preferring a shiny GUI interface that will capture the eye, perhaps filelight would be the option of choice tool to get analysis sum of your directory sturctures and file use on the laptop or desktop *unix OS.

unix-desktop:~# apt-cache show filelight|grep -i description-en -A 7
Description-en: show where your diskspace is being used
 Filelight allows you to understand your disk usage by graphically
 representing your filesystem as a set of concentric, segmented rings.
 It is like a pie-chart, but the segments nest, allowing you to see both
 which directories take up all your space, and which directories
 and files inside those directories are the real culprits.
Description-md5: 397ff9a469e07a772f22460c66b66875

To use it simply go ahead and install it with apt or yum / dnf or whatever Linux package manager your distro uses:

unix-desktop:~# apt-get install –yes filelight


4. GNOME DIsk Usage Analyzer Baobab GUI tool

For those being a GNOME / Mate / Budgie / Cinnamon Graphical interface users baobab shold be the program to use as it uses the famous LibGD library.

unix-desktop:~# apt-cache show baobab|grep -i description-en -A10
Description-en: GNOME disk usage analyzer
 Disk Usage Analyzer is a graphical, menu-driven application to analyse
 disk usage in a GNOME environment. It can easily scan either the whole
 filesystem tree, or a specific user-requested directory branch (local or
 It also auto-detects in real-time any changes made to your home
 directory as far as any mounted/unmounted device. Disk Usage Analyzer
 also provides a full graphical treemap window for each selected folder.
Description-md5: 5f6072b89ebb1dc83433fa7658814dc6



5. Qdirstat graphical application to show where your disk space has gone on Linux

Qdirstat is perhaps well known tool to track disk space issues on Linux desktop hosts, known by the hardcore KDE / LXDE / LXQT / DDE GUI interface / environment lovers and as a KDE tool uses the infamous Qt library. I personally don't like it and don't put it on machines I use because I never use kde and don't want to waste my disk space with additional libraries such as the QT Library which historically was not totally free in terms of licensing and even now is in both free and non free licensing GPL / LGPL and QT Commercial Licensing license.

unix-desktop:~# apt-cache show qdirstat|grep -i description-en -A10
Description-en: Qt-based directory statistics
 QDirStat is a graphical application to show where your disk space has gone and
 to help you to clean it up.
 QDirStat has a number of new features compared to KDirStat. To name a few:
  * Multi-selection in both the tree and the treemap.
  * Unlimited number of user-defined cleanup actions.
  * Properly show errors of cleanup actions (and their output, if desired).
  * File categories (MIME types) and their treemap color are now configurable.
  * Exclude rules for directories are easily configurable.
  * Desktop-agnostic; no longer relies on KDE or any other specific desktop.


That shiny fuzed graphics is actually a repsesantation of all directories the bigger and if one scrolls on the colorful gamma a text with directory and size or file will appear. Though the graphical represantation is really c00l to me it is a bit unreadable, thus I prefer and recommend the other two GUI tools filelight or baobab instead.

6. Finding duplicate files on Linux system with duff command tool

Talking about big unknown left-over files on your hard drives, it is appropriate to mention one tool here that is a console one but very useful to anyone willing to get rid of old duplicate files that are hanging around on the disk. Sometimes such copies are produced while copying large amount of files from place to place or simply by mistake while copying Photo / Video files from your Smart Phone to Linux desktop etc. 

This is where the duff command line utility might be super beneficial for you.

unix-desktop:~# apt-cache show duff|grep -i description-en -A3
Description-en: Duplicate file finder
 Duff is a command-line utility for identifying duplicates in a given set of
 files.  It attempts to be usably fast and uses the SHA family of message
 digests as a part of the comparisons.

Using duff tool is very straight forward to see all the duplicate files hanging in a directory lets say your home folder.

unix-desktop:~#  duff -rP /home/hipo

/home/hipo/music/var/Quake II Soundtrack – Kill Ratio.mp3
/home/hipo/mp3/Quake II Soundtrack – Kill Ratio.mp3
2 files in cluster 44 (7913472 bytes, digest 98f38be49e2ffcbf90927f9357b3e24a81d5a649)
2 files in cluster 45 (2807808 bytes, digest ce9067ce1f132fc096a5044845c7fac73e99c0ed)
/home/hipo/music/var/Quake II Suondtrack – March Of The Stoggs.mp3
/home/hipo/mp3/Quake II Suondtrack – March Of The Stoggs.mp3
2 files in cluster 46 (3506176 bytes, digest efcc401b4ebda9b0b2367aceb8e334c8ba1a357d)
/home/hipo/music/var/Quake II Suondtrack – Quad Machine.mp3
/home/hipo/mp3/Quake II Suondtrack – Quad Machine.mp3
2 files in cluster 47 (7917568 bytes, digest 0905c1d790654016c2ecf2949f78d47a870c3822)
/home/hipo/music/var/Cyberpunk Group – Futureshock!.mp3
/home/hipo/mp3/Cyberpunk Group – Futureshock!.mp3

-r (Recursively search into all specified directories.)

P (Don't follow any symbolic links.  This overrides any previous -H or -L option.  This is the default.  Note that this only applies to directories, as sym‐
             bolic links to files are never followed.)

7. Deleting duplicate files with duff

If you're absolutely sure you know what you're doing and you have a backup in case if something messes up during duplicate teletions, to get rid of lets say any duplicate Picture files found by duff run sommething like:

# duff -e0 -r /home/hipo/Pictures/ | xargs -0 rm

!!! Please note that using duff is for those who absolutely know what they're doing and have their data recent data. Deleting the wrong data by mistake with the tool might put you in the first grade and you'll be the only one to blame  🙂 !!!

Wrap it Up

Filling up the disk with unknown large files is a task to resolve that happens often. For the unlazy on Linux / BSD / Mac OS and other UNIX like OS-es the easiest way is to use find or du with some one liner command. For the lazy Windows addicted Graphical users filelightqdirstat or baobab GUI disk usage analysis tools are there.
If you have a lot of files and many of thems are duplicates you can use duff to check them out and remove all unneded duplicates and save space. 
Hope this article, was helpful for someone.
That's all folks, enjoy your data profilactics, if you know any other good easy command or GUI tools or hints for drive disk space profilactics please share.

Monitor cluster heartbeat lines IP reahability via ping ICMP protocol with Zabbix

April 12th, 2023

Say you're having an haproxy load balancer cluster with two or more nodes and you are running the servers inside some complex organizational hybrid complex network that is a combination of a local DMZ lans, many switches, dedicated connectivity lines and every now and then it happens for the network to mysteriously go down. Usually simply setting monitoring on the network devices CISCO itself or the smart switches used is enough to give you an overview on what's going on but if haproxy is in the middle of the end application servers and in front of other Load balancers and network equipment sometimes it might happen that due to failure of a network equipment / routing issues or other strange unexpected reasons one of the 2 nodes connectivity might fail down via the configured dedicated additional Heartbeat lines that are usually configured in order to keep away the haproxy CRM Resource Manager cluster thus ending it up in a split brain scenarios.

Assuming that this is the case like it is with us you would definitely want to keep an eye on the connectivity of Connect Line1 and Connect Line2 inside some monitoring software like zabbix. As our company main monitoring software used to monitor our infrastructure is Zabbix in this little article, I'll briefly explain how to configre the network connectivity status change from haproxy node1 and haproxy node2 Load balancer cluster to be monitored via a simple ICMP ping echo checks.

Of course the easies way to configure an ICMP monitor via Zabbix is using EnableRemoteCommands=1 inside /etc/zabbix/zabbix-agentd.conf but if your infrastructure should be of High Security and PCI perhaps this options is prohibited to be used on the servers. This is why to achieve still the ICMP ping checks with EnableRemoteCommands=0 a separate simple bash user parameter script could be used. Read further to find out one way ICMP monitoring with a useparameter script can be achieved with Zabbix.

1. Create the userparameter check for heartbeat lines

root@haproxy1 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat userparameter_check_heartbeat_lines.conf

root@haproxy2 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat userparameter_check_heartbeat_lines.conf

2. Create script which will be actually checking connectivity with simple ping

root@haproxy1 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat /etc/zabbix/scripts/
if ping -c 1 $hb1  &> /dev/null
  echo "$hb1 1"
  echo "$hb1 0"
if ping -c 1 $hb2  &> /dev/null
  echo "$hb2 1"
  echo "$hb2 0"

[root@haproxy1 zabbix_agentd.d]#

root@haproxy2 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat /etc/zabbix/scripts/
if ping -c 1 $hb1  &> /dev/null
  echo "$hb1 1"
  echo "$hb1 0"
if ping -c 1 $hb2  &> /dev/null
  echo "$hb2 1"
  echo "$hb2 0"

[root@haproxy2 zabbix_agentd.d]#

3. Test script heartbeat lines first time

Each of the nodes from the cluster are properly pingable via ICMP protocol

The script has to be run on both haproxy1 and haproxy2 Cluster (load) balancer nodes

[root@haproxy-hb1 zabbix_agentd.d]# /etc/zabbix/scripts/
haproxy2-hb1 1
haproxy2-hb2 1

[root@haproxy-hb2 zabbix_agentd.d]# /etc/zabbix/scripts/
haproxy1-hb1 1
haproxy1-hb2 1

The status of 1 returned by the script should be considered remote defined haproxy node is reachable / 0 means ping command does not return any ICMP status pings back.

4. Restart the zabbix-agent on both cluster node machines that will be conducting the ICMP ping check

[root@haproxy zabbix_agentd.d]# systemctl restart zabbix-agentd
[root@haproxy zabbix_agentd.d]# systemctl status zabbix-agentd

[root@haproxy zabbix_agentd.d]# tail -n 100 /var/log/zabbix_agentd.log

5. Create Item to process the userparam script

Create Item as follows:

6. Create the Dependent Item required


For processing you need to put the following simple regular expression

Name: Regular Expression
Parameters: hb1(\s+)(\d+)
Custom on fail: \2




7. Create triggers that will be generating the Alert

Create the required triggers as well

Main thing to configure here in Zabbix is below expression

Expression: {FQDN:heartbeat2.last()}<1


You can further configure Zabbix Alerts to mail yourself or send via Slack / MatterMost or Teams alarms in case of problems.

Enable PSK encryption on Zabbix Agent (client) sent encrypted monitored datas to Zabbix server

April 7th, 2023


Those concerned of security and in use of their Zabbix monitored data who communicate Zabbix collected agent
data over internet or via some kind of untrusted network might definitely not enjoy the fact that zabbix-agent sents
its collected data to server in a plain text. Clear text data is allowing any network sniffer to possibly collect your
monitored server and hardware devices data and exposes all data sent over the network to same problems like in the past
the old uencrypted SMTP protocol.

To mitigate those great security hole for the paranoid sys admin it is rather easy to enable PSK (Pre Shared Key) based encryption.
To generate Pre Shared key you have to had to important values present

1. PSK Identity
2. PSK Secret

PSK secret should be minimum of 128 bit (16-byte PSK, entered as 32 hexadecimal digits), and supports up to
2048 bit (256-byte PSK, entered as 512 hexadecimal digits)

Usually something like 256 bit PSK secret on the machine should be strong enough and simply generated by running

# openssl rand -hex 32

1. Agent to zabbix server or proxy connection config

In /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf for a Server Active (e.g. server to actively request the client to sent its collected data)
On machine running zabbix-agent should have a configuration similar to:

# cat /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf


# IP of the machine
# turn it on if you need to execute to remote machine commands

# IP of the server

# IP of the machine

# IP of the server


# Machine hostname

# Encryption
TLSPSKIdentity=PSK to Zabbix Server5

! Important security note

!!! The TLSPSKIdentity value you decide will not be encrypted on transport, so don't use anything sensitive.

Once you include the TSL config

2 Generate / Create Zabbix Agent Key

Generate the key with pseudo-random bites inside /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd_key.psk

# cd /etc/zabbix
# openssl rand -hex 32 > zabbix_agentd_key.psk
# chown zabbix:zabbix zabbix_agentd_key.psk
# chmod 600 zabbix_agentd_key.psk

3. Configure PSK encryption in Zabbix Server Web User interface

Go to Zabbix Server User interface in browser and configure the PSK encryption options for the host.

Select the:

'Connections to host' = PSK

'Connections from host' = PSK

'PSK Identity' = [public-value-configured-in-Zabbix-agent-config]

'PSK' = [paste the long hex string generated from the OpenSSL command above]

In some seconds up to a minute or two the Zabbix Server and Agent will successfully communicate using PSK encryption.
Making the monitored data unreadable in plain text for malignant sniffers hanging in the middle equipment between the zabbix-agent and zabbix-server hosts.

4. PSK encryption behind a Proxy

Many companies, nowadays use zabbix proxy for improvement of network infrastrucutre. For example it is used to offload the zabbix-server when multiple zabbix-agents have to report various datas or to monitor servers and devices that are phyisically in separate networks or data centers (are passing through paranoic built firewalls) or monitor locations are having unreliable communications between each other.

To enable PSK for communications between your Zabbix Server and Zabbix Proxy.

1. Create a new secret, and add the PSK Identity and Secret to

Administration ⇾ Proxies ⇾ [Your proxy] ⇾ Encryption

2. Adjust the settings inside the zabbix proxies configuration file at /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.conf

If setting up PSK encryption for agents behind a Zabbix proxy, ensure your have

Zabbix Server ⇽⇾ Proxy PSK enabled
first in Zabbix Server UI.

This is because, when you start the Proxy, or do some testing to send some key value to Zabbix server via the proxy with commands :

# zabbix_get -s -k system.hostname
# zabbix_server -R config_cache_reload

config_cache_reload, the Proxy will download all its host settings from the server, and this also includes the servers copy of the secret.

The proxy needs to know the secret since it is now managing the communications on behalf of the server.

3. To add PSK encryption for any Agents behind a proxy, then you continue to set up the Agents as normal by creating a new secret, editing

Configuration ⇾ Hosts ⇾ [Your Host] ⇾ Encryption page

and also editing /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf.

Remember that, since your Agents Host configuration in the Zabbix UI will be set as Monitored by Proxy, the PSK settings will be applicable for communications happening between the Zabbix Proxy and the Agent that it is monitoring, not between the Zabbix Server and the Agent behind the proxy.

You can also add PSK Encryption between your Zabbix Proxy and its own local Agent if you want.
You would set its PSK settings in the Proxy Agents host configuration at

Configuration ⇾ Hosts ⇾ [Your proxy] ⇾ Encryption

and modify the settings in the agents on configuration file at /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf.
Keep in mind, this is only applicable to communications between the Zabbix Proxy, and its own Agent process.

When setting up PSK encryption for the Zabbix Server, Proxy and Agents, you may see an error in the Proxy logs,

cannot send proxy data to server at "zabbix.your-domain.tld": connection of type "TLS with PSK" is not allowed for proxy "your-proxy".

If you hit this, check that your

Zabbix Server ⇽⇾ Proxy PSK settings

are correct first.

Don't get confused between the Proxies own optional agent process, and its main Proxy process which is required.

Configure aide file integrity check server monitoring in Zabbix to track for file changes on servers

March 28th, 2023


Earlier I've written a small article on how to setup AIDE monitoring for Server File integrity check on Linux, which put the basics on how this handy software to improve your server overall Security software can be installed and setup without much hassle.

Once AIDE is setup and a preset custom configuration is prepared for AIDE it is pretty useful to configure AIDE to monitor its critical file changes for better server security by monitoring the AIDE log output for new record occurs with Zabbix. Usually if no files monitored by AIDE are modified on the machine, the log size will not grow, but if some file is modified once Advanced Linux Intrusion Detecting (aide) binary runs via the scheduled Cron job, the /var/log/app_aide.log file will grow zabbix-agentd will continuously check the file for size increases and will react.

Before setting up the Zabbix required Template, you will have to set few small scripts that will be reading a preconfigured list of binaries or application files etc. that aide will monitor lets say via /etc/aide-custom.conf

1. Configure aide to monitor files for changes

Before running aide, it is a good idea to prepare a file with custom defined directories and files that you plan to monitor for integrity checking e.g. future changes with aide, for example to capture bad intruders who breaks into server which runs aide and modifies critical files such as /etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group or / /usr/local/etc/* or /var/* / /usr/* critical files that shouldn't be allowed to change without the admin to soon find out.

# cat /etc/aide-custom.conf

# Example configuration file for AIDE.
@@define DBDIR /var/lib/aide
@@define LOGDIR /var/log/aide
# The location of the database to be read.

#NOT IMPLEMENTED report_url=syslog:LOG_AUTH

# These are the default rules.
#p:      permissions
#i:      inode:
#n:      number of links
#u:      user
#g:      group
#s:      size
#b:      block count
#m:      mtime
#a:      atime
#c:      ctime
#S:      check for growing size
#acl:           Access Control Lists
#selinux        SELinux security context
#xattrs:        Extended file attributes
#md5:    md5 checksum
#sha1:   sha1 checksum
#sha256:        sha256 checksum
#sha512:        sha512 checksum
#rmd160: rmd160 checksum
#tiger:  tiger checksum

#haval:  haval checksum (MHASH only)
#gost:   gost checksum (MHASH only)
#crc32:  crc32 checksum (MHASH only)
#whirlpool:     whirlpool checksum (MHASH only)

FIPSR = p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+sha256

#R:             p+i+n+u+g+s+m+c+acl+selinux+xattrs+md5
#L:             p+i+n+u+g+acl+selinux+xattrs
#E:             Empty group
#>:             Growing logfile p+u+g+i+n+S+acl+selinux+xattrs

# You can create custom rules like this.
# With MHASH…
# ALLXTRAHASHES = sha1+rmd160+sha256+sha512+whirlpool+tiger+haval+gost+crc32
ALLXTRAHASHES = sha1+rmd160+sha256+sha512+tiger
# Everything but access time (Ie. all changes)

# Sane, with multiple hashes
# NORMAL = R+rmd160+sha256+whirlpool

# For directories, don't bother doing hashes
DIR = p+i+n+u+g+acl+selinux+xattrs

# Access control only
PERMS = p+i+u+g+acl+selinux

# Logfile are special, in that they often change
LOG = >

# Just do sha256 and sha512 hashes
LSPP = FIPSR+sha512

# Some files get updated automatically, so the inode/ctime/mtime change
# but we want to know when the data inside them changes
DATAONLY =  p+n+u+g+s+acl+selinux+xattrs+sha256

#To delegate to app team create a file like /app/aide.conf
#and uncomment the following line
#@@include /app/aide.conf
#Then remove all the following lines
/etc/zabbix/scripts/ FIPSR
/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf FIPSR
/etc/sudoers FIPSR
/etc/hosts FIPSR
/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf FIPSR
# monitor haproxy.cfg
/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg FIPSR
# monitor keepalived
/home/keepalived/.ssh/id_rsa FIPSR
/home/keepalived/.ssh/ FIPSR
/home/keepalived/.ssh/authorized_keys FIPSR

/usr/local/bin/ FIPSR
/usr/local/bin/another_script_to_monitor_for_changes FIPSR

#  cat /usr/local/bin/
/sbin/aide -c /etc/aide-custom.conf -D

# cat /usr/local/bin/
/sbin/aide -c /etc/custom-aide.conf -B database_out=file:/var/lib/aide/custom-aide.db.gz -i


# cat /usr/local/bin/

/sbin/aide -c /etc/custom-aide.conf -Breport_url=stdout -B database=file:/var/lib/aide/custom-aide.db.gz -C|/bin/tee -a /var/log/aide/custom-aide-check.log|/bin/logger -t custom-aide-check-report


# cat /usr/local/bin/aide_app_cron_daily.txt

#If first time, we need to init the DB
if [ ! -f /var/lib/aide/app_aide.db.gz ]
    logger -p -t app-aide-check-report  "Generating NEW AIDE DATABASE for APPLICATION"
    nice -n 18 /sbin/aide –init -c /etc/aide_custom.conf
    mv /var/lib/aide/ /var/lib/aide/app_aide.db.gz

nice -n 18 /sbin/aide –update -c /etc/aide_app.conf
#since the option for syslog seems not fully implemented we need to push logs via logger
/bin/logger -f /var/log/aide/app_aide.log -p -t app-aide-check-report
#Acknoledge the new database as the primary (every results are sended to syslog anyway)
mv /var/lib/aide/ /var/lib/aide/app_aide.db.gz

What above cron job does is pretty simple, as you can read it yourself. If the configuration predefined aide database store file /var/lib/aide/app_aide.db.gz, does not
exists aide will create its fresh empty database and generate a report for all predefined files with respective checksums to be stored as a comparison baseline for file changes. 

Next there is a line to write aide file changes via rsyslog through the logger and handler

2. Setup Zabbix Template with Items, Triggers and set Action

2.1 Create new Template and name it YourAppName APP-LB File integrity Check

aide-itengrity-check-zabbix_ Configuration of templates

Then setup the required Items, that will be using zabbix's Skip embedded function to scan file in a predefined period of file, this is done by the zabbix-agent that is
supposed to run on the server.

2.2 Configure Item like


*Name: check aide log file

Type: zabbix (active)


Type of information: Log

Update Interval: 30s

Applications: File Integrity Check

Configure Trigger like

Enabled: Tick On


2.3 Create Triggers with the respective regular expressions, that would check the aide generated log file for file modifications


Configure Trigger like

Enabled: Tick On

*Name: Someone modified {{ITEM.VALUE}.regsub("(.*)", \1)}

*Expression: {PROD APP-LB File Integrity Check:log[/var/log/aide/app_aide.log,^File.*,,,skip].strlen()}>=1

Allow manual close: yes tick

*Description: Someone modified {{ITEM.VALUE}.regsub("(.*)", \1)} on {HOST.NAME}


2.4 Configure Action



Now assuming the Zabbix server has  a properly set media for communication and you set Alerting rules zabbix-server can be easily set tosend mails to a Support email to get Notifications Alerts, everytime a monitored file by aide gets changed.

That's all folks ! Enjoy being notified on every file change on your servers  !

How to log every Linux executed command by every running system program to separte log via rsyslog for better server Security and audit trails

March 15th, 2023


To keep a good eye on installed Debian Linux server security if you have to be PCI compliant (e.g. follow a high security) standards or you work in a company, where system security is crucial and any kind of security breach is untorrelated and in case of unexpected security holes exploited on running system processess listening on network peripherals (that malicious crackers) does to be able to easily identify what really happened e.g. do a Security RCA (Root Cause Analysis) for how this hack happened in order to mitigate it for future if possible capture the crackers and close the security hole the better, some kind of paranoid running program logging is required.

For such higher security systems, Linux / BSD / UNIX sysadmins can benefit from;

Snoopy command logger – a small library that logs all program executions on your Linux/BSD system.

Embedding snoopy into a running uptodate system is relatively easy, you either have to download the respective distribution package (in this particular article that would be Debian GNU / Linux) or for Linux distributions, that doesn't have the package integrated into the existing package repositories or externally available package repos, the code can be easily git cloned and installed from github snoopy program page following the

However consider that snoopy run and logging the executed commands, make sure that if you use it you have rsyslogd configured to log to external logging server to make sure (someone did not manipulate the running system to avoid their actions being logged by snoopy, this is pointed by snoopy security disclaimer on the FAQ of official github snoopy project page, the page reads as so:

Security disclaimer
WARNING: Snoopy is not a reliable auditing solution.
Rogue users can easily manipulate environment to avoid their actions being logged by Snoopy. Consult this FAQ entry for more information.                

Most likely this warning is pointed out by the tool authors, in order to set the logging Tool creators free for any liability in case if someone uses the snoopy tool for some unauthorized logging
and sniffing of systems etc.

Before we proceed with the tool, install first for some clarity it is a good idea to know on what kind of Debian Linux you're about to install Snoopy command logger.

root@linux:~ # cat /etc/os-release
PRETTY_NAME="Debian GNU/Linux 11 (bullseye)"
NAME="Debian GNU/Linux"
VERSION="11 (bullseye)"

1. Prepare separate log file for snoopy that will keep log of every system command run by running processes visible by (ps -ef)

Next check the permissions user / group and read / write / executable flags with which the default generated rsyslog will be writting and set snoopy to whatever you would like it to write with

root@linux:~ # cat /etc/rsyslog.conf | grep "^\$File\|\$Umask"~
$FileOwner root
$FileGroup adm
$FileCreateMode 0640

Create Rsyslog configuration for snoopy.log

root@linux:~ # cat << EOF | sudo tee /etc/rsyslog.d/01-snoopy.conf
# Send snoopy messages to a dedicated logfile
if (\$programname startswith "snoopy") then {
  action(type="omfile" fileOwner="root" fileGroup="root" fileCreateMode="0600" file="/var/log/snoopy.log")


To make sure that snoopy library will be preloaded after installation on next boot:

root@linux:~ # cat << EOF | sudo debconf-set-selections
snoopy snoopy/install-ld-preload boolean true


root@linux:~ # systemctl restart rsyslog


root@linux:~ # systemctl status rsyslog
● rsyslog.service – System Logging Service
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/rsyslog.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: active (running) since Tue 2023-03-14 12:59:05 EET; 59min ago
TriggeredBy: ● syslog.socket
       Docs: man:rsyslogd(8)
   Main PID: 713745 (rsyslogd)
      Tasks: 6 (limit: 4654)
     Memory: 1.1M
        CPU: 548ms
     CGroup: /system.slice/rsyslog.service
             └─713745 /usr/sbin/rsyslogd -n -iNONE

мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 systemd[1]: Started System Logging Service.
мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: warning: ~ action is deprecated, consider using the 'stop' statement instead [v8.210>
мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: [198B blob data]
мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: [198B blob data]
мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: [198B blob data]
мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: [198B blob data]
мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: imuxsock: Acquired UNIX socket '/run/systemd/journal/syslog' (fd 3) from systemd.  [>
мар 14 12:59:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: [origin software="rsyslogd" swVersion="8.2102.0" x-pid="713745" x-info="https://www.>
мар 14 13:19:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: — MARK —
мар 14 13:39:05 haproxy2 rsyslogd[713745]: — MARK —

2. Install snoopy deb package and configure it

root@linux:~ # apt install snoopy
Четене на списъците с пакети… Готово
Изграждане на дървото със зависимости… Готово
Четене на информацията за състоянието… Готово
Следните пакети са били инсталирани автоматично и вече не са необходими:
  bsdmainutils cpp-8 geoip-database libasan5 libbind9-161 libcroco3 libdns1104 libdns1110 libevent-core-2.1-6
  libevent-pthreads-2.1-6 libgdk-pixbuf-xlib-2.0-0 libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0 libgeoip1 libicu63 libisc1100 libisc1105 libisccc161
  libisccfg163 libisl19 liblwres161 libmpdec2 libmpx2 libperl5.28 libpython2-stdlib libpython2.7-minimal libpython2.7-stdlib
  libpython3.7-minimal libpython3.7-stdlib libreadline7 netcat-traditional node-ansi-align node-arrify node-bluebird
  node-boxen node-builtin-modules node-call-limit node-camelcase node-cli-boxes node-cliui node-co node-concat-stream
  node-config-chain node-cross-spawn node-cyclist node-decamelize node-decompress-response node-deep-extend node-detect-indent
  node-detect-newline node-duplexer3 node-duplexify node-editor node-end-of-stream node-errno node-execa node-find-up
  node-flush-write-stream node-from2 node-fs-vacuum node-get-caller-file node-get-stream node-got node-has-symbol-support-x
  node-has-to-string-tag-x node-import-lazy node-invert-kv node-is-buffer node-is-builtin-module node-is-npm node-is-object
  node-is-plain-obj node-is-retry-allowed node-is-stream node-isurl node-json-buffer node-kind-of node-latest-version
  node-lazy-property node-lcid node-libnpx node-locate-path node-lowercase-keys node-mem node-merge-stream node-mimic-fn
  node-mimic-response node-minimist node-mississippi node-node-uuid node-npm-run-path node-os-locale node-p-cancelable
  node-p-finally node-p-limit node-p-locate node-p-timeout node-package-json node-parallel-transform node-path-exists
  node-path-is-inside node-prepend-http node-proto-list node-prr node-pump node-pumpify node-qw node-rc
  node-registry-auth-token node-registry-url node-require-directory node-require-main-filename node-semver-diff node-sha
  node-shebang-command node-shebang-regex node-slide node-sorted-object node-stream-each node-stream-iterate node-stream-shift
  node-strip-eof node-strip-json-comments node-term-size node-through2 node-timed-out node-typedarray node-uid-number
  node-unpipe node-url-parse-lax node-url-to-options node-which-module node-widest-line node-wrap-ansi node-xdg-basedir
  node-xtend node-y18n node-yargs node-yargs-parser perl-modules-5.28 python-pkg-resources python2 python2-minimal python2.7
  python2.7-minimal python3.7-minimal

Използвайте „apt autoremove“ за да ги премахнете.
Следните НОВИ пакети ще бъдат инсталирани:
0 актуализирани, 1 нови инсталирани, 0 за премахване и 1 без промяна.
Необходимо е да се изтеглят 46,0 kB архиви.
След тази операция ще бъде използвано 124 kB допълнително дисково пространство.
Изт:1 bullseye/main amd64 snoopy amd64 2.4.12-1 [46,0 kB]
Изтеглени 46,0 kB за 0с (93,2 kB/сек)
Предварително настройване на пакети …

Selecting previously unselected package snoopy.
(Reading database … 56067 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack …/snoopy_2.4.12-1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking snoopy (2.4.12-1) …
Setting up snoopy (2.4.12-1) …
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.31-13+deb11u5) …

root@linux:/etc# ls -al /var/log/snoopy.log
-rw——- 1 root root 14472 14 мар 13:40 /var/log/snoopy.log

Any specific configuration for snoopy can be tuned through /etc/snoopy.ini

Now you will find all the commands executed by all monitored running processes in /var/log/snoopy.

root@linux:/etc# tail -30 /var/log/snoopy.log
Mar 14 12:59:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713804]: [login:root ssh:( 62796 22) sid:713792 tty:/dev/pts/2 (0/root) uid:root(0)/root(0) cwd:/]: ldconfig
Mar 14 12:59:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713806]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: who
Mar 14 12:59:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713807]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: wc -l
Mar 14 13:00:07 haproxy2 snoopy[713815]: [login:root ssh:((undefined)) sid:713815 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:root(0)/root(0) cwd:/usr/lib/sysstat]: /usr/lib/sysstat/sadc -F -L -S DISK 1 1 /var/log/sysstat
Mar 14 13:00:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713823]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: who
Mar 14 13:00:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713824]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: wc -l
Mar 14 13:01:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713834]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: who
Mar 14 13:01:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713835]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: wc -l
Mar 14 13:02:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713843]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: who
Mar 14 13:02:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713844]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: wc -l
Mar 14 13:03:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713855]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: who
Mar 14 13:03:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713856]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: wc -l
Mar 14 13:04:32 haproxy2 snoopy[713868]: [login:zabbix ssh:((undefined)) sid:682168 tty:(none) ((none)/(none)) uid:zabbix(108)/zabbix(108) cwd:/]: who

3. Set up logrotation (archiving) for snoopy logs

root@linux:/etc# vim /etc/logrotate.d/snoopy    

/var/log/snoopy.log {
        rotate 30
        create 640 root adm


If you want to test logrotation without actually rotating the file:               

root@linux:/etc# logrotate –debug –force /etc/logrotate.d/snoopy   
  log needs rotating
rotating log /var/log/snoopy.log, log->rotateCount is 30
dateext suffix '-20230314'
glob pattern '-[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]'
previous log /var/log/snoopy.log.1 does not exist
renaming /var/log/snoopy.log.30.gz to /var/log/snoopy.log.31.gz (rotatecount 30, logstart 1, i 30),

renaming /var/log/snoopy.log.1.gz to /var/log/snoopy.log.2.gz (rotatecount 30, logstart 1, i 1),
renaming /var/log/snoopy.log.0.gz to /var/log/snoopy.log.1.gz (rotatecount 30, logstart 1, i 0),
log /var/log/snoopy.log.31.gz doesn't exist — won't try to dispose of it
renaming /var/log/snoopy.log to /var/log/snoopy.log.1
creating new /var/log/snoopy.log mode = 0640 uid = 0 gid = 4

4. Monitoring only selected applications  executed commands with snoopy                                                                             

By default snoopy after installed will set itself to monitor all kind of running processes on the system is done by preloading the ldconfig's (

root@haproxy2:/etc# cat /etc/

If you want to monitor a concrete application and not log everything from the running processes in process list, comment this out this line run ldconfig command

Then to any concrete application you would like to monitor with snoopy add to its init script either /etc/init.d/app_init_script or to systemctl's start script before the application binary program run:

export LD_PRELOAD=/lib/

  As per the README states

 Snoopy is placed in /etc/ to trap all occurrences of exec, if 
 you wish to monitor only certain applications you can do so through the    
 LD_PRELOAD environment variable.
Simply set it to /lib/ before  loading the application.

For example

 # export LD_PRELOAD=/lib/                                           
 # lynx