Posts Tagged ‘disable’

OpenVZ enable or disable auto start on Linux Hypervisor host boot for Virtual Machine containers

Wednesday, July 7th, 2021

howto-add-virtual-machine-to-auto-start-with-vz-openvz-linux-containers-4-logo-slogan-vertical-big

To make OpenVZ / Virtuozzo Hypervisor servers and you are not sure whether your configured container virtual machines are configured to automatically boot on Linux Physical OS host boot in case of restart after patch update set or after unexpected shutdown due to Kernel / OS bug a hang or due to some electricity Power outage.

To check what is your current configuration for Virtual Environment on CentOS Linux you need to check inside /etc/sysconfig/vz-scripts/VEID.conf
You need to check the value for inside the file

ONBOOT="" 

To get the exact ID of "VEID.conf of the current openvz guest VM containers exec:

[root@openvz vz-scripts]# vzlist -a
      CTID      NPROC STATUS    IP_ADDR         HOSTNAME
       300         23 running   10.10.10.1     VirtualMachine1
       301         25 running   10.10.10.2     VirtualMachine2

[root@openvz ~]# cd /etc/sysconfig/vz-scripts
[root@gbapp2 vz-scripts]# pwd
/etc/sysconfig/vz-scripts

[root@openvz vz-scripts]# grep -i ONBOOT 300.conf 301.conf
300.conf:ONBOOT="yes"
301.conf:ONBOOT="yes"

If you happen to have configured ONBOOT="no" you will need to the change to respective VEID.conf:

vi /etc/sysconfig/vz-scripts/VEID.conf

search for

ONBOOT=”no”

and change to

ONBOOT=”yes”

OpenVZ_virtuozzo-standard-process-tree-landscape

OpenVZ server process tree. The colors of the virtual severs are indicated by colors.

OpenVZ Quick cheat sheet commands

This change will auto-start the VPS container next time the host Hypervisor node is rebooted.
If you happen to have daily work with OpenVZ legacy systems like I do you might find also useful the following OpenVZ Cheatsheet pdf document.

A miniature quick cheatsheet for OpenVZ Virtualion, in case if you are like me and you have to use various virtualization technologies and tend to forget is as below:

vzlist                               # List running instances
vzlist -a                            # List all instances

 

vzctl stop <instance>
vzctl start <instance>
vzctl status <instance>

vzctl exec <instance> <command>      # Run a command

vzctl enter <instance>               # Get console

vzyum <instance> install <package>   # Install a package


# Change properties
vzctl set <instance> –hostname <hostname> –save
vzctl set <instance> –ipadd <IP> –save
vzctl set <instance> –userpasswd root:<password> –save

If need to get more insight on how OpenVZ Virtualization does work on a low level and stretch out its possibilities, an old but useful document you might want to check is OpenVZ-Users-Guide PDF.


If you need it to hava e copy of it openvz_cheat_sheet.txt.

Disable server side includes (SSI) in Apache on Debian GNU / Linux to Improve minor Apache performance

Thursday, November 29th, 2012

Disalable Apache Server-side includes on debian Linux disable SSI for better performance and security
By default Apache deb installable binary on Debian GNU / Linux is shipped with Apache version  (Apache 2.2.16-6+squeeze6) is configured to be able to process Server Side Include (SSIs) scripts.

For those who don't know what is a Server-Side Includes it a way giving  possibility for inclusion through .shtml or even .html files (if configured) to dynamically include and process external scripts. Most admins should have already seen SSI scripts, but it is possible they don't even know it is SSI. An example code from an SSI script looks something like:

<!--#include file="footer.html" -->

<!--#exec cgi="/cgi-bin/foo.cgi" --> <!--#exec cmd="ls -l" -->

As of time of writting (on Debian stable codename Squeeze – and I guess the unstable one too).

In Debian.BG one of my previous employment companies SSI was used on a few website Projects;  However nowadays SSI's are not so popular as they used to be and many websites using mostly PHP for a programming backend don't use / need the Server Side Includes at all. Thus it is recommended on such servers where SSIs aren't used and not planned by company to be used in short future to disable SSI  (.shtml) support completely. As the popular saying says "less is more" – having enabled SSI hanging their is simply a waste of Apache resources and just another hanging unused feature from security stand point is not good.

 SSI .shtml support in Debian is enabled via /etc/apache2/mods-available/mime.conf, not  through apache2.conf because of the modular Apache Debian build structure.

Thus to disable server-side parsing on Debian (and I guess other debian derivatives);

  • Edit /etc/apache2/mods-available/mime.conf

vim /etc/apache2/mods-available/mime.conf

  • Look for file section:

#
# Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
#
# To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
# (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
#
AddType text/html .shtml
AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml
 

  • Comment out .shtml mime directives to:

#
# Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
#
# To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
# (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
#
##AddType text/html .shtml
##AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml

  •   Apply changes, with the usual apache restart:

debian:~# apache2ctl -k restart

Don't expect that disabling SSI will give a great boost to the webserver but it will definitely, do a minor performance improvement. This should be noticable on  Webserver hosts (using apache2-mpm-prefork) with thousands of Apache forks, on a little home Webserver perf change is unnoticeable.

 

How to disable Microsoft Widnows XP annoying Updates Available / Updates disabled notification

Sunday, September 30th, 2012

veryone knows, how M$ Windows updates the PC at stake. Besides that you know if updates are Disabled, the annoying picture showing a red like X under bottom left (Start menu panel) corner. Even if updates are Enabled often on the bottom part there is the yellow ! sign pushing the user to update:

Microsoft Windows Your Computer might be at risk menu screenshot

Thanksfully there is work around. To remove notification use:


Start (Menu) -> Control Panel -> Security Center -> Change the way Security center alerts me

Microsoft Windows XP SP3 Security Center - Change the way Security Center alerts me

Windows XP alert settings change disable automatic updates

No more update notifications. Enjoy 🙂

Disable Apache access.log and error.log logging on Debian Linux and FreeBSD

Tuesday, September 25th, 2012

Disable Apache logging Debian and FreeBSD Linux logo

Many times disabling logging on a busy websites is quite beneficial, especially if more than few Gigabytes are written in Apache visitors log (access.log) every day. Too much visitors to Apache webserver could pose significantly increase disk writes and be negative for overall server performance.

Disabling the log is handy also for websites which already integrate a different type of visitors logging lets say – via MySQL, PostgreSQL (SQL) …

From security perspective disabling logging is a very stupid idea thought, however on systems which are experiencing high load and you need to sacrifice logging to reduce a bit the load (especially if you cannot afford to get a new server hardware), disabling it is an option.

1. Disabling access.log and error on Debian Linux

a) Disabling access.log logging
As most Debian users already know on Debian GNU Linux Apache logs all incoming (port 80) Apache requests to /var/log/apache2/access.log and /var/log/apache2/error.log

Disabling logging is very simple, just comment out line in /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default:


CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

to


#CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

Then restart the webserver to re-read new config value:


# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
....

Of course this is one of the ways to disable access.log logging. Other ways are to make logging gets logged in good old /dev/null. To use /dev/null forwardingp put Customlog /dev/null in /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default


CustomLog /dev/null

In Debian Lenny and older Debian releases Customlog Apache directive is found in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.

b) Disabling error.log logging

Same procedure applies for disabling error.log, comment out default ErrorLog directive, restart Apache and you’re done:


ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log

should become:


ErrorLog /dev/null

Usually just comming ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log is supposed to work, unfortunately for reason on Debian Squeeze this worked not commenting it and restarting Apache failed to restart apache with error:


# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
Restarting web server: apache2 ... waiting (2)No such file or directory: apache2: could not open error log file /etc/apache2/logs/error_log.
Unable to open logs
Action 'start' failed.
The Apache error log may have more information.
failed!

Thus to disalbe error.log you need to add ErrorLog /dev/null in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf and once again restart Apache.


ErrorLog /dev/null


# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Bear in mind that if you use some custom virtualhosts which has the ErrorLog directive in (let’s say /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/{website-domain.com,website-domain1.com} etc. you need to change there too.
2. Disabling access.log and error.log logging on FreeBSD
On FreeBSD to disable access.log add CustomLog /dev/null to /usr/local/etc/httpd.conf and just like on Linux restart Apache:


freebsd# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache2 restart
....

Disaling error.log on BSD is done by changing:


ErrorLog /var/log/httpd-error.log

to


ErrorLog /dev/null

BTW disaling error.log is quite a stupid idea but in some situation, where you don’t update software versions and don’t change often webserver script interpreter and (processed) server side executables / PHP scripts it could be ok.
Still it is much better to change the amount of Apache logged information and keep error.log logging by changing:


LogLevel crit

Using LogLevel crit, will prevent Apache from logging numerous not so useless warnings in error.log, so if you have a very busy server with high loads you better use it.

Don’t expect that disabling logging will drastically improve performance usually even on Apache servers which serve more than 20 000 of requests daily disabling access.log / error.log could would probably reduce load with from 00.1 to maximum 2-3 percentage.

Disable DNS recursion and AXFR requests in BIND on Debian Linux and FreeBSD / How to test a nameserver if AXFR requests are allowed with dig command

Monday, March 15th, 2010

I am playing with bind on a newly configured server and therefore doing my best to configure the nameserver in a good manner. In that manner of thoughts I remembered about the good old “recursion” which could pose a security hole in your DNS systems. I won’t buffle on how bad it is for a BIND domain resolver to have Domain recursion switched on, there is plenty of information you can read further online. Anyways here is a brief overview on recursion:
Recursive DNS is essentially the opposite of Custom DNS. Custom DNS is an authoritative DNS service that allows others to find your domain, and Recursive DNS allows you to resolve other people’s domains.

So considering the above definition if you decide to leave the default behaviour of the Bind nameserver (which by the way is also default behaviour of many other DNS servers including Microsoft DNS), this would mean that your DNS will be left open for the whole world to be able to serve resolve requests for any domain name requested by end users. In other words somebody out there might decide to use your nameserver to resolve all internet domains, like: google.com, yahoo.co.uk etc.

It is wise to enable recursion only for localhost on your bind name server, So to achieve that on Debian:
Open /etc/bind/named.conf.options and insert into it
Right before the options {

acl recurseallow { 1.2.3.4; 127.0.0.1; };

Also in the options {} include the following lines:

allow-recursion { recurseallow; };recursion yes;

On FreeBSD you need to include the same in /var/named/etc/namedb/named.conf by default or any other location if you have some specific named.conf file location.

Another truly Vital things to include in /etc/bind/named.conf.options on Debian Lenny among options {} is:

auth-nxdomain no;

Including this in the options {} configuration block would completely disable AXFR transfer requests on your nameserver on FreeBSD the procedure is absolutely analogous, just open /var/named/etc/namedb/named.conf and include the auth-nxdomain no; in the options configuration block.

To stress out the importance of disable AXFR it’s important to know that if you don’t disable the AXFR which is enabled by default in many nameservers out there you’re risking that a malicious person could list the whole zone files for each and every of the configured domains in the DNS server and consequently the attacker can learn a lot about the DNS topology of your network etc.
So to complete the article I’m gonna give an example on how the dig command can be used in order to check a certain DNS server if it has enabled the AXFR requests (e.g. if it’s vulnerable to this type of DNS information leak).

dig @somenameserver.net somedomainname.net axfr

In the above example somenameserver.net = is a random name server hosting a specific DNS domain
somedomainname.net = is the DNS domain name / (a.k.a. zone file) hosted on somenameserver.net

If everything is configured properly in your the namesever you’re running the axfr test against you should see something like:

; <<>> DiG 9.6.1-P1 <<>> @somenameserver.net somedomainname.net axfr
; (1 server found)
;; global options: +cmd
; Transfer failed.

Disable default Thunberbird annoying Display Images blocking (Display Pictures in Thunderbird by default)

Friday, September 11th, 2009

Since quite some time I’m experiencing this annoying behaviour on side of Thunderbird. Every time I receive a new mail which includes embedded html code with pictures, Thunderbird blocks them until I explicitly select the picture and allow it to display or either allow picture displaying for the whole domain for the future references. Today I decided at last to put an end to this boredom and look for a solution.
Here is the way I changed this terrible behaviour:
1. Go to Thunderbird “Edit -> Preferences -> Advanced -> General -> Config Editor”2. Look for the variables record mailnews.message_display.disable_remote_imageuse the mouse to select “toggle” value to switch the default value from”true” to “false”.That should be it. END—–