Posts Tagged ‘read’

SEO: Best day and time to write new articles and tweet to get more blog reads – Social Network Timing

Tuesday, June 17th, 2014

what-is-best-time-to-write-articles-to-increase-your-blog-traffic

I'm trying to regularly blog – as this gives me a roadmap what I'm into and how I spent my time. When have free time,  I blog almost daily except on weekends (as in weekends I'm trying to stay away from computers). So if you want to attract more readers to your blog the interesting question arises
 

What time is best to hit publish on your posts?

writing-in-the-mogning-on-the-internet-timing-morning-is-best-for-your-posts
Now there are different angles from where you can extract conclusions on best timing to blog post.One major thing to consider always when posting is that highest percentage of users read blogs in the morning with their morning coffee. Here are some more facts on when web content is more red:

  • 70% of users say they read blogs in the morning
  • More men read blogs at night than woman
  • Mondays are the highest traffic days for avarage blogs
  • 11 a.m. is normally the highest traffic hour for blogs
  • Usually most comments are put on Saturdays
  • Blogs with more than one post a day has higher chance of inbound links and usually get more unique visitors

As my blog is more technical oriented most of my visitors are men and therefore posting my blogs at night doesn't interfere much with my readers.
However, I've noticed that for me personally posting in time interval from 13:00 to 17:00 influence positively the amount of unique visitors the blog gets.

According to research done by Social Fresh – Thursday is the best day to publish an article if you want to get more Social SharesBest-Day-to-Blog-to-get-more-shares-in-social-networks

As a rule of thumb Thursday wins 10% more shares than all other days. In fact, 31% of the top 100 social share days in 2011 fell on Thursday.
My logical explanation on this phenomenon is that people tend to be more and more bored from their work and try to entertain more and more as the week progresses.

To get more attention on what I'm writting I use a bit of social networking but I prefer using only a micro blogging social networking.  I use Twitter to share what I'm into. When I write a new article on my blog I tweet its title with a link to my article, because this drives people attention to what I have to say.

In overall I am skeptical about social siting like Facebook and MySpace because it has negative impact on how people use their time and especially negative on youngsters Other reason why I don't like Friends Networks is because sharing what you have to say on sites like FB, Google+ or "The Russian Facebook" –  Vkontekte VK.com are not respecting privacy of your data.

 

You write free fresh content for their website for free and you get nothing!

 

Moreover by daily posting latest buzz you read / watched on Facebook etc. or simply saying what's happening with you, where you're situated now etc., you slowly get addicted to posting – yes for good or bad people tend to be maniacal).

By placing all of your pesronal or impersonal stuff online, you're making these sites better index their sites into Google / Yahoo / Yandex search engines and therefore making them profitable and high ranked websites on the internet and giving out your personal time for Facebook profit? + you loose control over your data (your data is not physically on your side but situated on some remote server, somewhere on the internet).
 

Best avarage time to post on Tweet Facebook, Google+ and Linkedin

best-time-and-day-to-write-new-articles-schedule-content-at-the-right-time-on-social-media-to-get-high-trafficrank

So What is Best Day timing to Post, Pin or Tweet?

Below is an infographic I fond on this blog (visual data is originalcompiled by SurePayRoll) and showing visualized results from some extensive research on the topic.

best-time-to-post-and-tweet-blog-articles-social-media-infographic


Here is most important facts this infographic reveals:


The avarage best time to post tweet and pin your new articles is about 15:00 h
 

  • Best timing to post on Twitter is on Mondays to Thursdays from 13:00 to 15:00 h
  • Best timing to post on facebook is between 13:00 and 16:00 h
  • For Linkedin it is best to place your publish between Tuesdays to Thursdays


Peak times on Facebook, Twitter and Linkedin

  • Peak times for use of Facebook is on Wednesdays about 15:00 h
  • Peak times for use of Twitter is from Monday to Thursdays from 9:00  to 15:00 h
  • Linkedin Peak time is from 17:00 to 18:00 h
  • Including images to your articles increases traffic, tweets with images increase visits, favorites and leads


Worst time (when users will probably not view your content) on FB, Twitter and Linkedin

  • Weekends before 08:00  and after 20:00 h
  • Everyday after 20:00 and Fridays after 15:00 noon
  • Mondays and Fridays from 22:00 to 06:00 morning

Facts about Google+
 

  • Google+ is the fastest growing demographic social network for people aged 45 to 54
  • Best time to share your posts on Google+ is from 09:00 to 10:00 in the morning
  • Including images to your articles increases traffic, tweets with images increase visits, favorites and leads
     

Images generate more traffic and engagement

  • Including images to your articles increases traffic, tweets with images increase visits, favorites and leads


I'm aware as every research above info on best time to tweet and post is just a generalization and according to field of information posted suggested time could be different from optiomal time for individual writer, however as a general direction, info is very useful and it gives you some idea.
Twitter engagement for brands is 17% higher on weekends according to Dan Zarrella’s research. Tweets posted on Friday, Saturday and Sunday had higher CTR (Click Through Rate) than those posted in the rest of the week.

tweet-on-the-weekends-is-better-for-high-click-through-rate

Other best day to tweet other than weekends is mid-week time Wednesday.
Whether your site or blog is using retweet to generate more traffic to website best time to retweet is said to be around 5 pm. CTR is higher

Nginx increase security by putting websites into Linux jails howto

Monday, August 27th, 2018

linux-jail-nginx-webserver-increase-security-by-putting-it-and-its-data-into-jail-environment

If you're sysadmining a large numbers of shared hosted websites which use Nginx Webserver to interpret PHP scripts and serve HTML, Javascript, CSS … whatever data.

You realize the high amount of risk that comes with a possible successful security breach / hack into a server by a malicious cracker. Compromising Nginx Webserver by an intruder automatically would mean that not only all users web data will get compromised, but the attacker would get an immediate access to other data such as Email or SQL (if the server is running multiple services).

Nowadays it is not so common thing to have a multiple shared websites on the same server together with other services, but historically there are many legacy servers / webservers left which host some 50 or 100+ websites.

Of course the best thing to do is to isolate each and every website into a separate Virtual Container however as this is a lot of work and small and mid-sized companies refuse to spend money on mostly anything this might be not an option for you.

Considering that this might be your case and you're running Nginx either as a Load Balancing, Reverse Proxy server etc. , even though Nginx is considered to be among the most secure webservers out there, there is absolutely no gurantee it would not get hacked and the server wouldn't get rooted by a script kiddie freak that just got in darknet some 0day exploit.

To minimize the impact of a possible Webserver hack it is a good idea to place all websites into Linux Jails.

linux-jail-simple-explained-diagram-chroot-jail

For those who hear about Linux Jail for a first time,
chroot() jail is a way to isolate a process / processes and its forked children from the rest of the *nix system. It should / could be used only for UNIX processes that aren't running as root (administrator user), because of the fact the superuser could break out (escape) the jail pretty easily.

Jailing processes is a concept that is pretty old that was first time introduced in UNIX version 7 back in the distant year 1979, and it was first implemented into BSD Operating System ver. 4.2 by Bill Joy (a notorious computer scientist and co-founder of Sun Microsystems). Its original use for the creation of so called HoneyPot – a computer security mechanism set to detect, deflect, or, in some manner, counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems that appears completely legimit service or part of website whose only goal is to track, isolate, and monitor intruders, a very similar to police string operations (baiting) of the suspect. It is pretty much like а bait set to collect the fish (which in this  case is the possible cracker).

linux-chroot-jail-environment-explained-jailing-hackers-and-intruders-unix

BSD Jails nowadays became very popular as iPhones environment where applications are deployed are inside a customly created chroot jail, the principle is exactly the same as in Linux.

But anyways enough talk, let's create a new jail and deploy set of system binaries for our Nginx installation, here is the things you will need:

1. You need to have set a directory where a copy of /bin/ls /bin/bash /bin/,  /bin/cat … /usr/bin binaries /lib and other base system Linux system binaries copy will reside.

 

server:~# mkdir -p /usr/local/chroot/nginx

 


2. You need to create the isolated environment backbone structure /etc/ , /dev, /var/, /usr/, /lib64/ (in case if deploying on 64 bit architecture Operating System).

 

server:~# export DIR_N=/usr/local/chroot/nginx;
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/etc
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/dev
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/var
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/usr
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/usr/local/nginx
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/tmp
server:~# chmod 1777 $DIR_N/tmp
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/var/tmp
server:~# chmod 1777 $DIR_N/var/tmp
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/lib64
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/usr/local/

 

3. Create required device files for the new chroot environment

 

server:~# /bin/mknod -m 0666 $D/dev/null c 1 3
server:~# /bin/mknod -m 0666 $D/dev/random c 1 8
server:~# /bin/mknod -m 0444 $D/dev/urandom c 1 9

 

mknod COMMAND is used instead of the usual /bin/touch command to create block or character special files.

Once create the permissions of /usr/local/chroot/nginx/{dev/null, dev/random, dev/urandom} have to be look like so:

 

server:~# ls -l /usr/local/chroot/nginx/dev/{null,random,urandom}
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 3 Aug 17 09:13 /dev/null
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 8 Aug 17 09:13 /dev/random
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 9 Aug 17 09:13 /dev/urandom

 

4. Install nginx files into the chroot directory (copy all files of current nginx installation into the jail)
 

If your NGINX webserver installation was installed from source to keep it latest
and is installed in lets say, directory location /usr/local/nginx you have to copy /usr/local/nginx to /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx, i.e:

 

server:~# /bin/cp -varf /usr/local/nginx/* /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx

 


5. Copy necessery Linux system libraries to newly created jail
 

NGINX webserver is compiled to depend on various libraries from Linux system root e.g. /lib/* and /lib64/* therefore in order to the server work inside the chroot-ed environment you need to transfer this libraries to the jail folder /usr/local/chroot/nginx

If you are curious to find out which libraries exactly is nginx binary dependent on run:

server:~# ldd /usr/local/nginx/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

        linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffe3e952000)
        libpthread.so.0 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007f2b4762c000)
        libcrypt.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcrypt.so.1 (0x00007f2b473f4000)
        libpcre.so.3 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpcre.so.3 (0x00007f2b47181000)
        libcrypto.so.0.9.8 => /usr/local/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 (0x00007f2b46ddf000)
        libz.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libz.so.1 (0x00007f2b46bc5000)
        libc.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (0x00007f2b46826000)
        /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007f2b47849000)
        libdl.so.2 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2 (0x00007f2b46622000)


The best way is to copy only the libraries in the list from ldd command for best security, like so:

 

server: ~# cp -rpf /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libthread.so.0 /usr/local/chroot/nginx/lib/*
server: ~# cp -rpf library chroot_location

etc.

 

However if you're in a hurry (not a recommended practice) and you don't care for maximum security anyways (you don't worry the jail could be exploited from some of the many lib files not used by nginx and you don't  about HDD space), you can also copy whole /lib into the jail, like so:

 

server: ~# cp -rpf /lib/ /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx/lib

 

NOTE! Once again copy whole /lib directory is a very bad practice but for a time pushing activities sometimes you can do it …


6. Copy /etc/ some base files and ld.so.conf.d , prelink.conf.d directories to jail environment
 

 

server:~# cp -rfv /etc/{group,prelink.cache,services,adjtime,shells,gshadow,shadow,hosts.deny,localtime,nsswitch.conf,nscd.conf,prelink.conf,protocols,hosts,passwd,ld.so.cache,ld.so.conf,resolv.conf,host.conf}  \
/usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx/etc

 

server:~# cp -avr /etc/{ld.so.conf.d,prelink.conf.d} /usr/local/chroot/nginx/nginx/etc


7. Copy HTML, CSS, Javascript websites data from the root directory to the chrooted nginx environment

 

server:~# nice -n 10 cp -rpf /usr/local/websites/ /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/


This could be really long if the websites are multiple gigabytes and million of files, but anyways the nice command should reduce a little bit the load on the server it is best practice to set some kind of temporary server maintenance page to show on the websites index in order to prevent the accessing server clients to not have interrupts (that's especially the case on older 7200 / 7400 RPM non-SSD HDDs.)
 

 

8. Stop old Nginx server outside of Chroot environment and start the new one inside the jail


a) Stop old nginx server

Either stop the old nginx using it start / stop / restart script inside /etc/init.d/nginx (if you have such installed) or directly kill the running webserver with:

 

server:~# killall -9 nginx

 

b) Test the chrooted nginx installation is correct and ready to run inside the chroot environment

 

server:~# /usr/sbin/chroot /usr/local/chroot/nginx /usr/local/nginx/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
server:~# /usr/sbin/chroot /usr/local/chroot/nginx /usr/local/nginx/nginx/sbin/nginx

 

c) Restart the chrooted nginx webserver – when necessery later

 

server:~# /usr/sbin/chroot /nginx /usr/local/chroot/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload

 

d) Edit the chrooted nginx conf

If you need to edit nginx configuration, be aware that the chrooted NGINX will read its configuration from /usr/local/chroot/nginx/nginx/etc/conf/nginx.conf (i'm saying that if you by mistake forget and try to edit the old config that is usually under /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

 

 

Run Apache with SSL Self Signed SSL Certificate

Friday, August 14th, 2009

Recently I had to run apache on Debian 4.0 (Edge) with Self Signed certificate.To make it happen I had to Google around and try out stuff. I've red that Debiancomes with a command (apache2-ssl-certificate) that generates a self signed openssl certificate.However on my Debian systems this cmd wasn't available. So I had to google around about it,and I came along the following website which provided mewith the script itself and some instructions how to use it. I've modified a bit the archive mentionedon the above website to make the install instructions of the website through a script. I've built a newarchive based on the archive apache2-ssl.tar.gz that includes an extra file runme.sh which does the properinstallation for you. The new archive itself could be found here .

In the mean time I recommend you read my article explaining how to quickly and efficiently generate self-signed certificate with openssl command on GNU / Linux and BSD

END—–

Upgrade old crappy Windows 7 32 bit to Windows 10 32 bit, post install fixes and impressions / How to enter Safe Mode in Windows 10

Wednesday, June 28th, 2017

Upgrade-Windows-7-Vista-XP-to-Windows-10-upgrade-howto-observations-post-fixes

However as I've been upgrading my sister's computer previously running Windows 7 to Windows 10 (the process of upgrading is really simple you just download Windows-Media-Creation-tool from Microsoft website and the rest comes to few clicks (Accept Windows 10 User Agreement, Create current install  restore point (backup) etc.) and waiting some 30 minutes or so for the upgrade to complete.

windows-7-to-10-windows-setup-upgrade-this-pc-prompt

Then it was up to downloading some other updates on a few times and restarting the computer, each time the upgrades were made and all the computer was ready. I've installed Avira (AntiVirus) as I usually do on new PCs and downloaded a bunch of anti-malware (MalwareBytes / Rfkill  / Zemanta)  to make sure that the old upgraded  WIndows was not already infected before the upgrade and I've found a bunch of malware, that got quickly cleared up.

Anyways I've tried also another tool called ReimagePlus – Online Computer Repair in order to check whether there are no some broken WIndows system files after the upgrade

Reimage_Repair-Windows-fix-windows-failing-services-and-broken-windows-installations-clear-up-malware
(here I have to say I've done that besides running in an Administrator command prompt (cmd.exe) and running
 

sfc /scannow


command to check base system files integrity, which luckily showed no problems with the Win base system files.

ReimagePlus however showed some failed services and some failed programs that were previously installed from Windows 7 before the upgrade and even it showed indication for Trojan present on computer but since ReImagePlus is a payed software and I didn't have the money to spend on it, I just proceeded to clean up what was found manually.

After that the computer ran fine, with the only strange thing that some data was from hard drive was red a bit too frequently, after a short call with a close friend (Nomen) – thx man, he suggested that the frequenty hdd usage might be related to Windows Search Indexing service database rebuilt and he adviced me to disable it which I did following this article How to speed up Windows by disabling Search Index Service.

One issue worthy to mention  stumbled upon after the upgrade was problems with Windows Explorer which was frequently crashing and "restarting the Desktop", but once, I've enabled all upgrades from Microsoft and Applied them after some update failures and restarts, once all was up2date to all latest from Microsoft, Explorer started working normally.

In the mean time while Windows Explorer was crashing in order to browse my file system I used the good old Win Total Command or Norton Commander for Windows – WinNC (with its most cool bizzarre own File Explorer tool).

Windows-Total-commander-tool-running-on-MS-Windows-10

As I wanted to run a MalwareBytes scan and Antivirus under Windows Safe-Mode, I tried entering it by restarting the Computer and pressing F8 a number of times before the Windows boot screen but this didn't work as Safe-Mode boot was changed in Windows 10 to be callable in another way because of some extra Windows Boot speed up optimizations, in short the easiest way I found to enter Windows 10 Safe Mode was to Hit Start Button -> Choose Restart PC and keep pressed SHIFT button simultaneously
that calls a menu that gives you some restore options, along with safe mode options for those who want to read more on How to Enter Safe mode (Command Prompt) on Windows 10 – please read this article.

Windows-10-enable-Safe-Mode-options-screen

Once the upgrade was over and all below done unfortunately I've realized her previously installed WIndows 7 is x86 (32 bit) version and the Acer notebook 5736Z where it is being installed is actually X64 (64 bit), hence I've decided to upgrade my dear sis computer to a 64 Bit Windows 10 and researched online whether, there is some tool that is capable to upgrade WIndows 10 from 32 bit to Windows 10 64 bit just to find out the only option is to either use some program to creaty a backup of files on the PC or to manually copy files to external hard drive and reinstall with a Windows 10 64 bit bootable USB Flash or CD / DVD image, so I took my USB flash and used again Windows Media Creation Tool to burn Windows and re-install with the 64 bit iso.

If you're wonder about why I choose to re-install finally Win 10 32 bit with Win 64 bit, because you might think performance difference might be not really so dramatic, then I have to say the Acer notebook is equipped with 4 Gigabytes of RAM Memory and Windows 10 32bit  (Pro) could recognize a maximum of 3 Gigabytes (2.9 GB if I have to be precise) and 1 Gigabyte of memory stays totally unusued all the time with  Winblows 10 32 bit.

Windows-10-4gb-memory-present-only-3gb-usable-why-reason-and-solution

I've tried my best actually to not loose time to fully upgrade Windows 7 (32 bit) -> Windows 10 (64 bit) but to make Windows 7 32 bit Windows to use more than the default Limitation of 3GB of memory by using this thirt party PAE Externsion Kernel Patch
which is patching the Windows Kernel to extend the Windows support for PCs with up to 128 GB of memory however it turned out that this Patch file is not compatible with my Windows Kernel version once I followed readme instructions.

It seems the PAE (Physical Address Extension) is supported by default  by Microsoft only on 32 bit Windows Server 10 to read more on the PAE if interested give a look here.

Well that's all folks, the rest I did was to just boot from the USB drive just burned and re-install WIndows and copy my files from User profile / Downloads / Pictures / Music etc. to the same locations on the new installed Windows 10 professional 64 bit and enjoy the better performance.

Is there a chosen God people today / What is God’s Chosen Nation / What is the Promised land in the Old Testament?

Friday, December 31st, 2010

s-there-God-chosen-people-nation-today-Holy_Irinity_Andrey_Rublev_icon

Many of you certainly remember the Holy Bible's old testament. There God chooses the Jewish (Israel) nation to be the nation to inherit the promised land.

If we read the Holy Scriptpures in a spiritual manner, all the things written in are clearly referring to the teachings of the new testament and the other way around.

God has promised to Moses and the Old Testament patriarchs to give them the land, where a milk and honey will be and they wouldn't need to work for it. etc. etc.

But if we really read this kind of promises from a jewish perspective (following the word of the law), this makes no sense?
How is it possible that somebody gets food and drink if he didn't work?
It's not possible!

This verses were clearly referring to the Kingdom of Heaven , where a man doesn't have to work or do thing but lives through God's grace in peace and love eternally, something our limited minds cannot really grasp and thus by trying to explain it we profane what Heaven really is.

So it's that simple the promise land that the Holy trinity has promised us is simply his eternal kingdom which is in heaven.
Thus we as Orthodox Christians should perceive after the looking always of the Heavenly gift and not care too much for the present world.
I'm closely observing myself and sadly enough the world power is too much attractive and I'm always about to be seduced to completely get out of our rock of Salvation which (Christ) is.

It's a very hard times for a true Christians, internationalization makes it even worser for a man to keep even the minimal amount of faith and hope in God.

That's why our Orthodox Churches has long ago been warning us about the internationalization and it's position right now is against the mixture of nations.

The mixture of nations and beliefs is a spiritual babylon in practice.

Back to the topic, thus read from our Orthodox Christian perspective this chosen people which Israel were is actually today God's true servants the devoted Orthodox Christians.

You might argue, why the Orthodox Christians and protestants or Roman Catholics. Well it's very simple Catholics and Protestants has broken too much of the ancient traditions already and had adopted the spirit of rationalism which has been ruling the world for too much.

We in the Orthodox Church as we have kept the traditions as much intact as possible up-to today are still struggling and mostly keeping the ancient Christian spirit, though very sadly this is changing nowdays.
The faith nowdays even in Orthodox Christians has been on a line to completely fade-away, with Roman Catholics and Protestants situation is even worser I believe.

So is there actually nowdays a chosen God people?

The Monks, layman and all Orthodox Church people who try to keep Christ's commandments of love brotherhood and keeping God as a head in our lives

We have that benefit that the path that leads to the Blessed promised land for which the Old Testament teaches us about is already set in, the promised land is existent even while we still live here in the body on this earth.

God's promised land and island of salvation is actually our Holy Orthodox Church, the dovoted God lovers within the realm of the Church is God's chosen people!

We as an Orthodox Christians has been granted by God a big grace and a big blessing, but with the big blessing always comes bigs responsibilities.

When I look in my life and try to weighten how much I do live a life like an Orthodox Christian I do really want to cry hard.

I know many other Orthodox Christians can also recognize this in our lives, we're living in a terrible times truely.

Further on on the question Are there a chosen God People in modern times ?, are the Israel chosen people yet like in the Old Days?

Definitely not, Jewish were chosen because The Messiah our saviour Jesus Christ (The Son of God) and God himself had to be incarnated in flesh die and suffer for all of the humanity.

But since the Jewish had crucified our Saviour, all that Jewish that haven't repented earnestly and turned to Christ by entering the Orthodox Church are not a chosen people any more.

Whoever is against the Son of God and Jewish are definitely against is actually against God. Whoever doesn't recognize God's eternal love, a love that has made God turn into man and suffer for our sins couldn't inherit the promised land neither be chosen anymore.

I've heard some of the prophecies made by some of Our Orthodox Christian Saints (Holy Fathers) says that Slavonic Orthodox Christian Nations would have an union when the Anti-Christ appears in the World.

According to this ancient prophecies by St. Nile/ st.Nil – a Athonite Monk the Slavonic Nations will have a king presumably (The King of Russia) and he will lead all the Slavonic nations to wage a war against the Anti-Christ.

I don't know if this prophecies are credible, but as far as I've read they're if it's really true this means that maybe someday my country Bulgaria Along with Russia and the other Slavonic Nations will really unite in faith and will fight the ungodly kingdom of the AntiChrist.

It's really I can't find any resources which had an exact translation about this prophecies.
Anyways back to the topic What are the God's chosen people nowdays (today)? , just in case if the Prophecies about the Chosen Slavonic Nations by God who will oppose the kingdom of the AntiChrist are true, then certainly, we the Slavonic (Bulgarians, Serbians, Macedonians, Russians, Ukrainians etc. etc.) and presumably other Orthodox Christians will unite and will march against the tyranny of the AntiChrist.
In that sense it could be that we The Orthodox Slavonics are also today's God chosen people.
I truly hope so! Only time will tell if this is true or not. And time and future is in God's hands for sure!

chmod all directories permissions only and omit files (recursively) on Linux howto

Friday, March 11th, 2016

execute-write-read-of-user-group-and-others-on-linux-unix-bsd-explanationary-picture

If you mistakenly chmod-ed all files within directory full of multiple other subdirectories and files and you want to revert back and set a certain file permissions (read, wite execute) privileges only to all directories:
 

find /path/to/base/dir -type d -exec chmod 755 {} +


If there are too many files or directories you need to change mod use
 

chmod 755 $(find /path/to/base/dir -type d) chmod 644 $(find /path/to/base/dir -type f)

Above willl run evaluate $() all files searched and print them and pass them to chmod so if you have too many files / directories to change it will drastically reduce execution time.

An alternative and perhaps a better way to do it for those who don't remember by heart the chmod permission (numbers), use something like:
 

chmod -R u+rwX,go+rX,go-w /path

Below is arguments meaning:

    -R = recursively;
    u+rwX = Users can read, write and execute;
    go+rX = group and others can read and execute;
    go-w = group and others can't write

If like piping, a less efficient but still working way to change all directory permissions only is with:
 

find /path/to/base/dir -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 755
find /path/to/base/dir -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 644


For those who wish to automate and often do change permissions of only files or only directories it might be also nice to look at (chmod_dir_files-recursive.sh) shell script

Tadadam 🙂

 

Adding another level of security to your shared Debian Linux webhosting server with SuPHP

Tuesday, April 7th, 2015

suphp_improve-apache-security-protect-against-virus-internal-server-infections-suphp-webserver-logo

There are plenty of security schemes and strategies you can implement if you're a Shared Web Hosting company sysadmin however probably the most vital one is to install on Apache + PHP Webserver SuPHP module.

# apt-cache show suphp-common|grep -i descrip -A 4

Description: Common files for mod suphp Suphp consists of an Apache module (mod_suphp for either Apache 1.3.x or Apache 2.x) and a setuid root binary (suphp) that is called by the Apache module to change the uid of the process executing the PHP interpreter to the owner of the php script.

So what SuPHP actuall  does is to run separate CPanel / Kloxo etc. Users with separate username and groupid permissions coinciding with the user present in /etc/passwd , /etc/shadow files existing users, thus in case if someone hacks some of the many customer sites he would be able to only write files and directories under the user with which the security breach occured.

On servers where SuPHP is not installed, all  systemusers are using the same UserID / GuID to run PHP executable scripts under separate domains Virtualhost which are coinciding with Apache (on Debian / Ubuntu  uid, gid – www-data) or on (CentOS / RHEL / Fedora etc. – user apache) so once one site is defaced  exploited by a worm all or most server websites might end up infected with a Web Virus / Worm which will be trying to exploit even more sites of a type running silently in the background.  This is very common scenarios as currently there are donezs of PHP / CSS / Javasripts / XSS vulnerability exploited on VPS and Shared hosting servers due to failure of a customer to update his own CMS  scripts / Website  (Joomla, Wordpress, Drupal etc.) and the lack of resource to regularly monitor all customer activities / websites.

Therefore installing SuPHP Apache module is essential one to install on new serverslarge hosting providers as it saves the admin a lot of headache from spreading malware across all hosted servers sites ..
Some VPS admins that are security freaks tend to also install SuPHP module together with many chrooted Apache / LiteSpeed / Nginx webservers each of which running in a separate Jailed environment.

Of course using SuPHP besides giving a improved security layer to the webserver has its downsides such as increased load for the server and making Apache PHP scripts being interpretted a little bit slower than with plain Apache + PHP but performance difference while running a site on top of SuPHP is often not so drastic so you can live it up ..

Installing SuPHP on a Debian / Ubuntu servers is a piece of cake, just run the as root superuser, usual:
 

# apt-get install libapache2-mod-suphp


Once installed only thing to make is to turn off default installed Apache PHP module (without SuPHP compiled support and restart Apache webserver):
 

# a2dismod php5 …

# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart


To test the SuPHP is properly working on the Apache Webserver go into some of many hosted server websites DocumentRoot

And create new file called test_suphp.php with below content:

# vim test_suphp.php
<?php
system('id');
?>

Then open in browser http://whatever-website/test_suphp.php assuming that system(); function is not disabled for security reasons in php.ini you should get an User ID, GroupID bigger than reserved system IDs on GNU / Linux e.g. ID > UID / GID 99

Its also a good idea to take a look into SuPHP configuration file /etc/suphp/suphp.conf and tailor options according to your liking 

If different hosted client users home directories are into /home directory, set in suphp.conf

;Path all scripts have to be in

docroot=/home/


Also usually it is a good idea to set 

umask=0022 

Windows batch read variable – equivalent of Linux read line command

Wednesday, March 12th, 2014

bat-file-icon-windows-read-variable
If you need to do some basic batch scripting sooner or later you will have to insert input from command line to a variable. In Linux this is done with read command, i.e.:
$ echo -n "Type a password for admin:";
$ read line;
$ echo $line;

So here is how to do the same if you need it for a Windows Batch (.BAT) file

C:\\Users\\> Set /p string='What do you want to ask?:'
'What do you want to ask?:'

This will define the string variable, to later print out the variable use:
> echo %string%
variable input output

Free Software in Balkans 2010 (A free software conference on the Balkanies is approaching)

Tuesday, August 24th, 2010

Richard Stallman on a Free Software Conference

Today when I was reviewing my daily visited websites I come across an interesting news.
This kind of meeting is quite a news because it is the first in line where Free software users and developmers fromall around the balkanies will meet to discuss,test,share and continue the free software code and ideals.
The first Free Software conference in the Balkanies is about to be hosted in Vlora University Albania .

The conference Free Software in Balkans (FreeSB2010) is an annual meeting of the free software users, developpers and supporters in the Balkan countries. It will travel from country to country, year to year to different locations. The Conference will gather professionals, academics and enthusiasts who share the vision that software should be free and open for the community to develop and customize to its needs, and that knowledge is a communal property and free and open to everyone.

This kind of event will build up the social network between free software fans and developers and will further help in the general spread of free software on the balkanies.
This kind of meeting are already for a long time a tradition in many states in America, so having it in the balkanies is quite a development.

You can read a bit more about the exact focus of Free Software in Balkans 2010 conference here

Pitily right now there is no published scheduled list of presentations which are about to be given in the conference, but I guess the conference schedule would be out in a few days time.
I’m not yet sure if I’ll have the time and opportunity to attend the conference, however I do hope that somebody of my balkan readers will got interested into the “fabulous” Free Software event and will support the event’s initiative by visiting it 🙂

How to Enable Open files with Microsoft Office Word 2003 in GNOME nautilus on Linux

Saturday, November 24th, 2012

how to addmicrosoft office to linux gui ms word logo with linux tux mascot in GNOME desktop nautiilus

Do you work with Linux and need communicate via e-mail with people sending you Microsoft Doc files created with Microsoft Office Word?

Do you end up with crappy (not identicaly looking) .doc files, after editing with Open Office and mailing back to Windows users, using Microsoft Office (Word)?

I experienced this many time and though it is not completely Open Office fault it is hard to explain or convince others to simply switch to Libre Office and distribute text in .ODT. Also pitily,  most computer users are much below the avarege level and too used to MS Office, so it is hardly possible  to change their bad habits (I try that with my co-students in Anrhem Business School) and I tell you from experience it is not possible …

I use GNU / Linux  as main Desktop operating system for  10 years now and for my work and studying, it is common the colleagues send me files in MS Word .DOC format. Usually I use OpenOffice to read and edit them and send back. However, not all formatted .doc files looks later nice in MS Word 2003 / 2007. Thus I have also a Native Microsoft Office 2003 installed on my Debian Linux running through – WINE Windows emulator.

Often, when I want to be sure a received MS .DOC file should be displaying exactly the same on MS Windows OS – to (avoid collegues criticism). I open the document using wine emulated Microsoft Office 2003.

Most of the MS .doc files are received over e-mail (I use as pop3 client Icedove- Mozilla Thunderbird), so I save them further on my hard disk and need to read / modifythem.
It is rather inconvenient and time inefficient to start Microsoft Office from gnome-terminal and type in below long command in order to edit .docs:

wine ~/.wine/drive_c/"Program Files"/"Microsoft Office"/OFFICE11/WINWORD.EXE

Thus I wanted a more convenient, easy way to be able to directly open .doc files with emulated Microsoft Word from GUI on my Debian Linux notebook.
This is possible using a nautilus plugin tool called nautilus-scripts-manager. Earlier I blogged about how to make extracting PDF to images possible with nautilus-scripts-manager, in the exactly same manner of logic is possible to add as many processing scripts to be available for invokement via the Scriptsnautilus scripts Properties menu.

Here is how to add MS Word to nautilus GNOME menus:

1. Install nautilus-scripts-manager (if not already installed)

debian:~# apt-get install --yes nautilus-scripts-manager

2. Create ~/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/ directory

(~/ is shortcut for /home/yourusername/) – To add it globally for all users, one has to create the same .gnome2/nautilus-scripts/ directory with respective scripts for all existing users on host.

mkdir ~/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/

3. Create ~/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/word.sh MS Word launcher script

  Edit ~/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/word.sh and add  like following 2 liners script: (note the paths to WINWORD.EXE might vary depending on exact Microsoft Office installed version:

#!/bin/sh
wine ~/.wine/drive_c/"Program Files"/"Microsoft Office"/OFFICE11/WINWORD.EXE "$1"

You can also download nautilus word.sh script here

Further on once placed, make word.sh script executable:

noah:~$ chmod +x ~/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/word.sh

Onwards it is possible to open .doc files from Nautilus Scripts Manager menu press on the .doc file with last mouse button and choose Scripts :

open doc files with Microsoft Word 2003 nautilus script manager on GNU Linux and FreeBSD My GNOME env is configured in Bulgarian language so on below script you see the bulgarian translated word for Scripts (Скриптове).

screenshot of random open doc file with microsoft word 2003 nautilus script manager on my Debian GNU / Linux

Right now I don't have at hand FreeBSD, and I'm not sure if nautilus-scripts-manager is available with FreeBSD gnome so, if someone has tested this and can confirm this works on FreeBSD drop a comment please.

Well that's all enjoy easily opening your .doc files with Microsoft Office on Linux.