MySQL SSL Configure Howto – How to Make MySQL communication secured

mysql-over-ssl-how-to-configure-logo how to configure ssl on mysql server

Recently I've been asked How to make communication to MySQL database encrypted. The question was raised by a fellow developer who works on developing a Desktop standalone application in Delphi Programming Language with DevArt an (SQL Connection Component capable to connect Delphi applications to multiple databases like MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, Firebird etc.

Communicating in Secured form to MySQL database is not common task to do, as MySQL usually communicates to applications hosted on same server or applications to communicate to MySQL are in secured DMZ or administrated via phpMyAdmin web interface.

MySQL supports encrypted connections to itself using Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption. Setting up MySQL db to be communicated encrypted is a must for standalone Desktop applications which has to extract / insert data via remote SQL.
Configuring SQL to support communicated queries encrpytion is supported by default and easily configured on most standard Linux version distributions (Debian, RHEL, Fedora) with no need to recompile it.
1. Generate SSL Certificates

$ mkdir /etc/mysql-ssl && cd mysql-ssl

# Create CA certificate
$ openssl genrsa 2048 > ca-key.pem
$ openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 3600
         -key ca-key.pem -out ca-cert.pem

Create server certificate, remove passphrase, and sign it
server-cert.pem is public key, server-key.pem is private key
$ openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 3600
         -nodes -keyout server-key.pem -out server-req.pem

$ openssl rsa -in server-key.pem -out server-key.pem
$ openssl x509 -req -in server-req.pem -days 3600
         -CA ca-cert.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 -out server-cert.pem

Create client certificate, remove passphrase, and sign it
client-cert.pem is public key and client-key.pem is private key
$ openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 3600
         -nodes -keyout client-key.pem -out client-req.pem

$ openssl rsa -in client-key.pem -out client-key.pem
$ openssl x509 -req -in client-req.pem -days 3600
         -CA ca-cert.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 -out client-cert.pem

After generating the certificates, verify them:

$ openssl verify -CAfile ca-cert.pem server-cert.pem client-cert.pem
 

2. Add SSL support variables to my.cnf

Once SSL key pair files are generated in order to active SSL encryption support in MySQL server, add to (/etc/my.cnf,  /etc/mysql/my.cnf, /usr/local/etc/my.cnf … ) or wherever config is depending on distro

# SSL
ssl-ca=/etc/mysql-ssl/ca-cert.pem
ssl-cert=/etc/mysql-ssl/server-cert.pem
ssl-key=/etc/mysql-ssl/server-key.pem

3. Restart MySQL server

/etc/init.d/mysqld restart
...

4. Create SQL user to require SSL login

Create new user with access to database;

GRANT ALL ON Sql_User_DB.* TO Sql_User@localhost;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

To create administrator privileges user:

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO ‘ssluser’@'%’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘pass’ REQUIRE SSL;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

5. Test SSL Connection with MySQL CLI client or with few lines of PHP

To use mysql cli for testing whether SSL connection works:

$ mysql -u ssluser -p'pass' –ssl-ca /etc/mysql-ssl/client-cert.pem –ssl-cert /etc/mysql-ssl/client-key.pem

Once connected to MySQL to verify SSL connection works fine:

mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE 'Ssl_Cipher';
 +---------------+--------------------+
| Variable_name | Value              |
 +---------------+--------------------+
| Ssl_cipher    | DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA |
+---------------+--------------------+

If you get this output this means MySQL SSL Connection is working as should.

Alternative way is to use test-mysqli-ssl.php script to test availability to mysql over SSL.

$conn=mysqli_init();
mysqli_ssl_set($conn, '/etc/mysql-ssl/client-key.pem', '/etc/mysql-ssl/client-cert.pem', NULL, NULL, NULL);
if (!mysqli_real_connect($conn, '127.0.0.1', 'ssluser', 'pass')) { die(); }
$res = mysqli_query($conn, 'SHOW STATUS like "Ssl_cipher"');
print_r(mysqli_fetch_row($res));
mysqli_close($conn);

Note: Change username password according to your user / pass before using the script

That's all now you have mysql communicating queries data over SSL

 

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