Archive for the ‘Educational’ Category

Enormous Church Scandal in the Bulgarian Orthodox Church on the selection of new Metropolitan for one of Biggest Church Eparchies the Eparchy of Sliven

Wednesday, February 28th, 2024

Priests-layman-monks-protest-against-Cassation-of-vote-for-New-Sliven-Metropolitan-Ierotey

Currently an enormous scandal has been ongoing in the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. The Church Mafia is fighting the People's will for choice of a Metropolitan in an attempt to 'install' a new Metropolitan, that is part of the clique clerics that has a connection to the Underground Criminal World in Bulgaria.

Sliven_Metropolitan-Ioanikij-Ikoanikius-Slivenski_mitropolit_Joanikij

Holy Liturgy Blessing of Metropolitan Ioanikij Nedelchev (Joanichius) in the Dormition of Mother of God Church in Nessebar 15 August 2008 
(Photo source Wikipedia)

The reason for the Scandal is the choice of a New Metropolitan of Sliven after the blessed passing of his Holiness Joanichius the Metropolitan of Sliven (2nd March 1939 – 9 January 2024 ), who has wisefully governed the Eparchy for almost a decate a 44 years in which he has seen the times and lived through when communist try to infiltrate the Churches completely as well as the new time after the fall of communist (socialist) regime in Bulgaria, where big part of ex-communist party has given money to different people to work and grow business for them leading to the dark years in which thje ex-communist reordered the country in a way to make each other a super rich and act only for their interests and against the interests of people, leaving a lot of people without any normal social benefits and normal standard of living for one to feel himself a person but pushing him all the time to live on the edge and just making money out of the people's tragedies for few and leaving on the border of poorness many.

Those dark years, where the country was bankrupt and people lost their money and belongings in favour of some people who become mega rich, stealing from the country's belongings selling them for pennys and destroying everything built till this moment however seems to have not ended.

The democracy and democractic choice for governors in Both the Country Stages of Power in Bulgaria (The National Assembly, President and local  city Mayers and all the other people assigned with functions to govern over the citizens) is still suppressed and people are installed on country government positions in the old communist 'scheme' of dictatorship not regarding at all the choice and will of people on who should govern the country.

So far so good everyone in Bulgaria now knows, that even though the European Union inclusion of the country and the attempt from the European Union messangers to change some realms of power distance and over-dominance of governors of Bulgaria and unwalfulness for the better, still the situation is critical and again following the old communist scheme before 1995 is again practiced fully not only in the Country but also in the Church.

Bulgarian Orthodox Church has done a lot of improvement and development at first after the great Scheme that was organized by Secret services of Bulgaria called (DS Darzhavna Sigurnost or Country Security / CS). After those terrible time of dictatorship only few of the new seclected Church highest authorities (Mitrpolitans) like Metropolitan Daniil of Vidin and Seraphim of Nevrokop as well as the old selected (during communism) but very much pious and truth loving Gavriil of Lavchanska eparchy has been legally selected venerating both the will of people and the will of the Highest Church governing Authorities, that is the Holy Synod.

Those metropolitans until today over the years, since their official election as Metropolitans after the pass of the old Metropolitans has shown their high spirituality and perseverence for God and the Church and  every normal orthodox christian in Bulgaria highly values, their good deeds for the Church, the preach and the charisma and their sincere desire and acts to help the Bulgarian Church institution rise up its position in the eyes of todays degradated youth to push back Church moral in society and educate the long time kept illiterate of faith nominal Christians in Bulgaria, just like they have done a lot to share the Gospel and help people in spiritual and material need and has truly dedicated themselves to follow the Gospel as it is preached and shown on a deed by Jesus Christ himself.

Unfortunately the old government installed Metropolitans (agents) in the Synod even though as publicly showing as a perfect and good are known by people in the country that most of them have some at least points of dark past (connection with Secret Services and compromising materials with sexual and immoral acts) that helped them to rise over the ladder of Church power to become the Metropolitans they are today.

This is not a secret to anyone in the country even though noone really speaks about it too frequent.

This is also at least partially the reason if not fully, why many people in Bulgaria even though baptized in the Church, choose to be a nominal Christians and not frequently visit Church services. I myself was one those people while my faith was missing (or partial and shaking) and took me very difficult and hard road to return back to my ancestors Orthodox faith. Many of people in Bulgaria that are about 40 – 50 has walked similar path and we all have interacted or seen some of the abnormalities in the Church and the unwalfullness in times. Don't get me wrong unlawfulness actually is normal as we're human and such we do sin all the time, but still there are some limitations on when unwalfulness that is created by our own passions ends and unwalfulness from a mania for power and money and even megalomania comes. 

The Church as everyone knows has a set of Financial activities that are interesting for people willing to live a relatively confort live and less, or people who want to become a succesful businessman in cassocs, without having too high education but having a high perseverence to follow orders without thinking of superior.
For that reason over the past years of 'pseudo' democracy, where the country shows the face of a fully free to the world even though such a democracy and law is followed only for simple things and for the big and important government questions 'its all about money' and law is not venerated.

For that reason many people that are in the High Stages in the Church, for the lack of proper spiritual elders in the Church and the activities of Bulgarian Secret Services SS (DS) operations, as well as Mafia sponsorship  has installed even from communism times till now, the pseudo spiritual pastors, who are ex or even current informers to SS / Mafia as well as because of lack of normal high church authorities, many of whom were governed by the communist party has been filled with many people unworthy due to their sinful life and thinking and unfollowing the Christ Highest standard of Love God and the Neighbor but only considering their own corrupted interests and interests of their masters to whom they seem to be simple a puppets who receive benefits for following the orders of the masters …

You would say everywhere is the same and that would be true in more a or less for each country Local / Public / Government institution.
But when the unwafulness becomes a standard and public unwalfulness is tolerated that is a indicator for either a lack of country or dictatorship in it.
If such unwafullness as unfollowing the norms of Public Law are happening in the Country every now and then that is normal, but what becomes abnormal if such anomalities has become a standard also for not only how things happen in Government Parliaments but how things happen in the Church, then this is a tragedy.
The Church has always been the Highest standard and example for people and even today for many it is still a barrometer for whereto things are going.

For those who don't know the Church's governence Authorities The Metropolitans (a High Powered Monks Bishops who give a vows for unaffection to money posetions and worldy goods that promised God to work only and mainly for the Good of the Church members the people assembly Ecclasia) has the holy duty to not only persevere for their own salvation but has taken the responsibility to lead the people following the Highest Standards of The Christ Gospel in their way to salvation. Those people in the Bulgarian Church who govern it are callet the Holy Synod (or Assembly of Metropolitans) and as of today's article writting are 28.02.2024 are numbered of 13 'elders / starci (as called in Bulgarian) who should take the important decisions for the Church, those 13 are being exchanged with others that should be selected once one passes over using a special procedure for choice that is written in the so-called 'Church institution' the Church statuses regulations, that are written and approved together with Priests ,Monks, and Laymen and has been selected to be followed as a legal internal way on how the Church takes decision of the seclection of new Metropolitans once one passes away. To this date this law has been followed and this kind of selection procedure, where the Church members the people choose on the new Metropolitan together with Priests in a special selection day that is set by the Holy Synod elders and with one Elder (A Metropolitan from the Holy Synod) who will be observer on how the people and clergy vote for their new Hierarch and as currently we had this Eparchy of Sliven His Holiness Joanichius metropolitan of Slived – Died  passing to Christ just 49 days ago and a decision was taken by the Holy Synod to organize the selection procedure for new Metropolitan. 

The procedures of selection of new Metropolitan has been followed closely up to the smallest details, and two candidates has been selected just like the Church accepted rules prescribes those was

On the first circle of selections (which by the way  were publicly translated in Facebook !!!) 3 bishops were selected

1. Ierotey of Agathopolski (received most votes)
2. Arsenij Znepolsky (second in votes)
3. Mihail Konstantijski (third in votes)

A second circle up to the official selection rules was done on which Arsenij has been put out of the list as he received only 17 votes for the people will.

 

1. Bishop Ierotey of Agatopolos spiritual district (received 26 votes by Sliven's Monks, Priests and Laymen that are part of Eparchal assembly as to the Church rules)
2. Bishop Mihail of Konstant  spiritual district (received 22 votes by Sliven's Monks, Priests and Laymen that are part of Eparchal assembly as to the Church rules)

 

His-Holiness-Bisohop-Ierotey-Kosakov-the-peoples-choice-for-new-Metropolitan-of-Sliven-Eparchy

Biship Ierotey

Bishop-Mihail-Konstantijki-Dilovski

Biship Mihail

(note both spiritual districts are no longer existing in Bulgarian Orthodox Church due to territorial change of the country and this titles are given usually to non metropolitan Bihops in the Bulgarian Church).

Possible-choice-Bishops-for-new-Metropolitan-of-Sliven-eparchy-Bulgarian-Orthodox-Church-bishops-as-of-28-02-2024

The selection process was leaded by Metropolitan Ioan (John) of eparchy Varna and Veliko Preslav. 
After the selection his Holiness John of Varna and Velikopreslav has been very happy and told publicly to the news the first part of selection of new Metropolitan for Sliven has been sucessfully finished and no any irregularities on the votes process has been seen.

The official process and practice in that case in the Bulgarian Orthodox Church so far has always been to ratify the Choice of People and select one of the two that seems for the 13 Metropolitan Elders as the most suitable for the Eparchy to lead and teach the people on the Gospel and Christs Words and lead them in their path to Salvation and to protect the flock against heresies etc. etc.

The practice up to this date was to ratify one of the two chosen Bishops as favourites and Entrone him as the Official Governor and local Church Spiritual Leader of the Eparchy of the Holy Orthodox Church and the person who will take the important decisions for the Eparchy and by the Public head official representative of the Priests, Monks and Layman of those eparchy.

A date was set on which the Synod should come up with an information on his selection of the new Bishop of Sliven between the pre-selected ones Ierotey or Mihail.
Everyone was expecting the choice and the clirics and people of Sliven Bulgas and the many black sea Black Sea tourist famous destinations cities such as  Ahtopol, Chernomoretz, Pomorie, Rezovo as well as people from villages and everyone was waiting to celebrate and congrat their new Metropolitan and accept him in the Synodal Palace in Sliven. 

But guess what happens, the official set process of selection is cancelled in a very unwalful way out of the Sudden the Sinodal elders makes a paradoxal decision without any official explanation to cancel the prior vote selection of Metropolitan Ierotey or Mihail !!! 

During that strange behaviors there even more oddities, the Patriarch is in Hospital and unconscios and not part of the decision of the Synod, which makes the important decision out of Quorum of 13, moreover the strange unlogical and unargumented decision however is not approved by 3 of of the Synodal Elders


+ Gavriil
+ Seraphim 
+ Danijl

Who has the fame of the few only truthful uncorrupted or unkept by compromats or sex or other public scandals and who are serving Holy Liturgies, serving, working steadily for the goodness of church temples, the people and the interest of the Bulgarian nation.
Besides that the Patriarch did not take any decision as his health situation is unclear (some people in the Church even doubt whether he is still alive?? as no laymen or clergy man is allowed to enter the Hospital where officially he is said to be health with a severe deadly disease a cancer on the white lungs). 
Besides that the Metropolitan of America His Beautitude Yosif Metropolitan of America did not took part of the discussions in the Synodal Palace.
Meaning out of 13 Sinodal Elders only 8 do vote for and 5 vote against. Strange enough the observer of the whole voting process that took place 2 weeks ago in Sliven Sinodal Palace Joan of Veliko Preslav has also voted for the cassation of the choice??

Now Suddenly John starts suddenly talking the vote was not really done in a proper way even though he himself has been part of the vote and has confirmed after the vote that everything was flawless actual and honest and there was no corruption during the vote and again (The vote has been shown on facebook LIVE !!!).
That of course leads to the fact that someone has pushed him to make those strange choice of cassation from somewhere and to publicly claim the voting process has been compromised controrary to what he claimed earlier. 

But the strangeness here in Metropolitan voting does not end. On those same day where the Synod has chosen to cassase (cancel) the voting by sliven's eparchy people and priests, there is an offer made that the Official way of how a selection of new metropolitan is made is changed immediately !!!
The Church is immediately voted by those same 8 of Elders that has voted for the cassation and those "Elders". What a coincidence HUH


OR IS IT A CONSPIRACY ? 


And this offer to cancel the current Rules that are provided by officially Church legal binding document on the process of Choice of Metropolitan that has been used until today and whose latest revision was from 2009 and has been accepted on a Church National Assembly ratified by Layman, Deacons, Priests, Monks, Ipodeacons, Layman to be the official guide for how the voting of new metropolitan should be made as well as how to solve different complex situations that could emerge in the Church realms.

For over 150 years of the existing of new Bulgarian history, after liberation (The Church Statues state rules has been the leading guide for the Highest authorities like a help manual so things in the Church are done in lawful way and everything as transparent as possible, now without the allowness of people and clergy except the synod they want to cancel those Church Statuses not caring about the people opinion.

Sorry guys but this is the 21 century and in realms of 21 century this kind of behavior is called Dictatorship !!! Every normal member of the Bulgarian Church recognized those and now a great set of discussions in facebook and on many Bulgarian websites and informational websites are explaining a lot of hidden details on the real reasons for those scandal which in short are:
 

1. The Patriarch of the Church Neofit is near his deadbed or has passed away and this is kept in secret until new Metropolitan is installed
according to the Plans and in that way the group of Nikolay even prankly called Nikolayts (for their dedication to Nicolay) will be complete
enough in order for him to succeed to be Enthroned as next Patriarch ?


2. There is Metropolitan Nikolay who is well known by at least 10+ years that has appetite to become patriarch or to command over the whole Church Synod and Bishops and those same person has forced his protegees to make that unlogical choice as he has helped him somewhere in their career development, by installing his new protegee Arsenij or someone else under his dominance power group who he is dictating pretty much like Hitler his Gestopo (just to name one scandal person who is a famous part of his group this is Sionij who by some proven sources has been claimed to have been involved with things that does not fit to his high position in society such as pedophilia sex, alcoholism and other criminal deeds that has connection to the Secret Servies and the Mafia of Bulgaria.


3. Sliven Metropoly (Eparchy) has a lot of Public Business interest for businessman involved as the Eparchy is a common tourist destinations and a lot of investors wants to buy a cheap Church land and such a dead could be easily helped with installing the right new Metropolitan on the Eparchy Ship steering wheel. Rumors are ongoing that this two priests are receiving money to act as they did for quite some time within different circuits of the Church.


4. Both pepople and Clergy preselected Bishops Ierotey and Mihail does not have compromats and are not easily blackmailed as a consequence as many others have, and are known in the public and common people in the Church to have a good Spiritual life in Christ and are famous for their good deeds and has already helped a lot of people in need both materially and spiritually and continue to do so as their faith for Christ is real and not nominal dictated only by public and material interests and that does not fit the overall agenda.

Ierotey has been part of Sliven's eparchy for 21 years and has been next to Metropolitan Joanikij (Yoanikius) for the last 10 years and has been his Vicar Bishop and has taken care about the Graceful elder Metropolitan Joanikij while he was on a deadbed, was his spiritual Childrean of him and knows pretty well the things in the Eparchy.

While Mihail who is also serious monk and has lived a secluded life in Greek monastery and a notorious Greek Elder near Athens and has been proven to also a Quality good and Highly spiritual person and monk. 

Even though it is logical and expected by people for Ierotey to be the selected candidate as he is already known with the people for 21 years and people know them and love him.
Mihail is also a good suit because he has a good spiritual base, even though being ordered as bishop much later than Ierotey and having much less experience as such.

After the cassation the Elders did not come with an official explanation on why really the cassation was made. Secondly they had come up with a later news on bg-patriarshia.bg which is the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, with a very cloudy message that the voting is cancelled with no explanations.

Just recently after 3 of the other Metropolitans who has been against the cassation came with a very thoroughful and clearly explained position, on why changing the rules for a Metropolitan selection while the selection is ongoing is anti-Church deed which is not accepted and they throughfully explained why chaing the Church statue rules, to be legal should be made on an official Church National Assembly gathering as it was used to accept the Church statue rules after all.
In the same Church statue rules, it has been pointed that the Church rules are most important Church Organ after, Holy Bible, Holy Tradition and Canons. Church canonists of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church specialist on the topic has been already explained why a dead of changing the Church statue rules without taking in consideration the members of the church the layman and the low clergy priests, monks is totally unchurch and evil.

Intesrestingly enough two brother priests (or better say fake priests as their deeds are not worthy for priesthood) Silvestar and Evgeni ( Yanakievi ) of the Sliven Eparchy who created a lot of scandals historically in the Bulgarian Church and has pressed and harmed many normal people, has preached a lot of ultras ideas and neven stick to their right hierarchical place (presenting themselves as saints and truthful lovers of Bulgarian faiths and traditions, often rioting the people are the main people who have been 'sceaming' and attacking about venerating the legal choice of Sliven's eparchy people and priest.

In a very unscrupulous way they spread lies about people in facebook and everywhere and are presenting themselves as the protectors of truth and Christianity and people who care about the 'clearness of faith' etc. Those scandal personalities continue to put more and more disturbance in facebook and the media preaching open lies that are against the Authority and personal dignity of Bishop Ierotey who.

They publicly claim Bishop Ierotey has been making money, by selling Church lands belonging to Pomorie Monastery who he has been a bishop of, those false claims that Ierotey has stole and sold land of monastery has been publicly shown as false by official documents and are available to be seen here.

Many Church important figures such as Profesor Ivan Zhelev (who has for 25 years has been official translator of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church) and many other has given already his opinion that the situation within the Church is absurd some, can see behind the strange coincident and indeaquate reactions of most of Synodal Elders a conspiracy with some specific aims such as creating a planned Schism within the Church or complete take over of the Church highest government bodies by the Mafia in Bulgaria Underground world or / and the Secret Services (DS) who after communist are well known to have a very good connections.

Nomatter what is the reason behind the Synod activies, one thing is clear people in the Bulgarian Church are not so stupid as they thought and such an unwalfulness is not going to be tolarated by people in the mask of humility as they want to convince her!
Protests in front of Slivent's synodal palace has taken place already, and such protests are about to continue as a follow up in front of Synod especially as people want their voice to be heard and not be commanded as a dumb flock as some people seems to want, breaking all democratic norms !!!

Unfortunately the Bulgarian Orthodox Church Synod with those last indeaquate and inadequate decisions puts another spot on the reputation of the Church which anyways is not so high as of today, because of certain Metropolitans indeate talks, decisions and acts, pretty much like it happened in official govenment.
That is sad and anti-people as obviously now the recent unwalfulness was tried to be shown as absolutely canonical and good and for the good of people that decisions on who should be governing an eparchy of Bulgarian Church has to be only taken by the so called 'Elders', many of whom as today in difference with the past their ancestors has neven been a serious monks not succeeded in any spiritual deeds and has been made bihops and monks with breaking church canons or rules.

The best one could do in that terrible situation to help resolve is to sign up a petition against the unwalful decision of the Synod to cancel the vote decision made for new Sliven Metropolitan.

Lord have mercy over the Bulgarian Holy Church and keep her out of those wolves in sheeps cloting, who try to destroy your Church and flock !!!

How to do a port redirect to localhost service with socat or ncat commands to open temporary access to service not seen on the network

Friday, February 23rd, 2024

socat-simple-redirect-tcp-port-on-linux-bsd-logo

You know sometimes it is necessery to easily and temporary redirect network TCP ports to be able to be accessible from Internal DMZ-ed Network via some Local Network IP connection or if the computer system is Internet based and has an external "'real" Internet Class A / B address to be reachable directly from the internet via lets say a modern Internet browser such as Mozilla Firefox / Google Chrome Browser etc.

Such things are easy to be done with iptables if you need to do the IP redirect permanent with Firewall rule changes on Linux router with iptables.
One way to create a TCP port redirect using firewall would include few iptable rules  like for example:

1. Redirect port traffic from external TCP port source to internal one

# iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp –dport 10000 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 80
# iptables -t nat -I OUTPUT -p tcp -o lo –dport 10000 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 80
# iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -o lo -d 127.0.0.1 -p tcp –dport 80 -j DNAT  –to-destination 192.168.0.50:10000
# iptables -t nat -I OUTPUT –source 0/0 –destination 0/0 -p tcp –dport 80 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 10000


Then you will have 192.168.00.50:10000 listener (assuming that the IP is already configured on some of the host network interface, plugged in to the network).

 But as messing up with the firewall is not the best thing to do especially, if you need to just temporary redirect external listener port to a service configured on the server to only run on TCP port on loopback address 127.0.0.1, you can do it instead with another script or command for simplicy.

One simple way to do a port redirect on the fly on GNU / Linux or FreeBSD / OpenBSD is with socat command.

Lets say you have a running statistics of a web server Apache / Nginx / Haproxy frontend / backend statistics or whatever kind of web TCP service on port 80 on your server and this interface is on purpose configured to be reachable only on localhost interface port 80, so you can either access it by creating an ssh tunnel towards the service on 127.0.0.1 or by accessing it by redirecting the traffic towards another external TCP port, lets say 10000.

Here is how you can achieve

2. Redirect Local network accessible IP on all configured Server network interfaces port 10000 to 127.0.0.1 TCP 80 with socat

# socat tcp-l:10000,fork,reuseaddr tcp:127.0.0.1:80

If you need to access later the redirected port in a Browser, pick up the machine first configured IP and open it in a browser (assuming there is no firewall filter prohibiting access to redirected port).

root@pcfreak:~# ifconfig eth0
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 109.104.212.130  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 109.104.212.255
        ether 91:f8:51:03:75:e5  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 652945510  bytes 598369753019 (557.2 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 10541  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 619726615  bytes 630209829226 (586.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Then in a browser open http://102.104.212.130 or https://102.104.212.130 (depending on if remote service has SSL encryption enabled or not) and you're done, the configured listener Server service should pop-up on the screen.

3. Redirect IP Traffic from External IP to Localhost loopback interface with netcat ( ncat ) swiss army knife hackers and sysadmins tool

If you need to redirect lets say TCP / IP port 8000 to Port a server local binded service on TCP 80 with ncat, instead of socat (if lets say socat is not pre-installed on the machine), you can do it by simply running those two commands:

[root@server ~]# mkfifo svr1_to_svr2
[root@server ~]# ncat -vk -l 8000 < svr1_to_svr2 | ncat 127.0.0.1 80 > svr1_to_svr2
Ncat: Version 7.92 ( https://nmap.org/ncat )
Ncat: Listening on 0.0.0.0:10000
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39:51813.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39:23179.

 

I you don't care to log what is going on the background of connection and you simply want to background the process with a one liner command you can achive that with:


[root@server /tmp]# cd tmp; mkfifo svr1_to_svr2; (ncat -vk -l 8000 < svr1_to_svr2 | ncat 127.0.0.1 80 > svr1_to_svr2 &)
 

Then you can open the Internal Machine Port 80 TCP service on 8000 in a browser as usual.

For those who want a bit of more sophisticated proxy like script I would suggest you take a look at using netcat and a few lines of shell script loop, that can simulate a raw and very primitive proxy with netcat this is exampled in my previous article Create simple proxy server with netcat ( nc ) based utility.

Hope this article is helpful to anyone, there is plenty of other ways to do a port redirect with lets say perl, python and perhaps other micro tools. If you know of one liners or small scripts, that do it please share in comments, so we can learn from each other ! 

Enjoy ! 🙂
 

Create Bootable Windows installer USB from a MAC PC, MacBook host or Linux Desktop computer

Thursday, February 8th, 2024

Creating Windows bootable installer with Windows Media Creation tool is easy, but sometimes if you're a geek like me you don't have a Windows personal PC at home and your Work PC is so paranoidly restricted by its administrator through paranoid Domain Controller Policies, that you can only copy from a USB drive towards the Win PC but you cannot write to the USB. 

1. Preparing Linux installer USB via Mac's Boot Camp Assistant

If you're lucky you might have a MAC Book Air or some kind of other mac PC, if that is the case you can burn the Windows Installer iso, with the Native Mac tool called BootCamp Assistant, by simply downloading the Win Boot ISO, launching the app and burning it:

Finder > Applications > Utilities and open Boot Camp Assistant.

create-windows-10-bootable-installer-usb-mac-screenshot.png

2. Preparing Bootable Windows installer on Linux host machine

On DEBIAN / UBUNTU and other Deb based Linuxes

# apt install gddrescue 

On CENTOS / FEDORA :

# dnf install ddrescue

To install the Windows Image to the right USB drive, first find it out with fdisk and list it:

# fdisk -l
 

Disk /dev/sdb: 14.41 GiB, 15472047104 bytes, 30218842 sectors
Disk model: DataTraveler 3.0
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xc23dc587

Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdb1           8192 30216793 30208602 14.4G  7 HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sdb2       30216794 30218841     2048    1M  e W95 FAT16 (LBA)

Then Use ddrescue to create the bootable MS windows Installer USB disk.

# ddrescue windows10.iso /dev/sd1 –force -D

3. Using GUI Linux tool WoeUSB-ng to prepare Microsoft Windows start up USB drive

If you're a lazy Linux user and you plan to prepare up to date Windows image files regularly, perhaps the WoeUSB-ng Graphical tool will suit you better, to use it you will have to install a bunch of python libraries.
 

On Ubuntu Linux:

# apt install git p7zip-full python3-pip python3-wxgtk4.0 grub2-common grub-pc-bin
# pip3 install WoeUSB-ng

On Fedora Linux:

dnf install git p7zip p7zip-plugins python3-pip python3-wxpython4
# sudo pip3 install WoeUSB-ng

Launch the WoeUSB-ng program :

 

$ python3 /usr/local/bin/woeusbgui

 

Download, the latest Version of Windows Installer .ISO IMAGE file, plug in your USB flash disk and let the program burn the ISO and create the GRUB boot loader, that will make WIndows installer bootable on your PC.

WoeUSB-ng-python-burn-windows-installer.-tool-screenshot

With WoeUSB-ng you have to be patient, it will take some time to prepare and copy the Windows installer content and will take about 15 to 20 minutes from my experience to finalize the GRUB records required, that will make the new burnt ISO bootable.


Then just plug it in to your Desktop PC or laptop, virtual machine, whatever where you would like to install the Windows from its latest installation Source image and Go on with doing the necessery evil to have Microsoft Spy on you permanently.

P.S. I just learned, from colleagues from Kvant Serviz (a famous hardware second hand, shop and repair shop here in Bulgaria, that nowadays Windows has evolved to the points, they can and they actually do overwrite the PC BIOS / UEFI as part of updates without any asking the end user !!!
At first I disbelived that, but after a short investigation online it turned out this is true, 
there are discussions online from people complaining, that WIndows updates has ovewritten their current BIOS settings and people complaining BIOS versions are ovewritten.

Enjoy your new personal Spy OS ! 🙂

Debugging routing and network issues on Linux common approaches. A step by step guide to find out why routing or network service fails

Thursday, November 30th, 2023

For system administrators having a Network issue is among the Hell-ish stuff that can happen every now and then. That is especially true in Heterogenous / Hybrid and complicated Network topologies (with missing well crafted documentation), that were build without an initial overview "on the fly".
Such a networking connectivity or routing issues are faced by every novice, mid or even expert system administrators as the Company's Network IT environments are becoming more and more complicated day by day.

When the "Disaster" of being unable to connect two servers or at times  home laptops / PCs to see each other even though on the Physical layer / Transport Layer (Hardware such as external Switches / Routers / Repeaters / Cabling etc.) is Present machines are connected and everything on the 1 Physical Layer from OSI layears is present happens, then it is time to Debug it with some software tools and methods.

To each operating system the tools and methods to test networking connection and routings is a bit different but generally speaking most concepts are pretty much the same across different types of operating systems (Linux ditros / OpenBSD / FreeBSD / Mac OS / Android / iOS / HP-UX / IBM AIX / DOS / Windows etc.).

Debugging network issues across separate operating systems has its variations but in this specific (ideas) are much close to this article. As the goal at that guide will be to point out how to debug network issues on Linux, in future if I have the time or need to debug other OS-es from Linux, I'll try to put an article on how to debug Network issues on Windows when have some time to do it.

Consider to look for the issue following the basic TCP / IP OSI Level model, every system administrator should have idea about it already, it is part of most basic networking courses such as Cisco's CCNA

TCPIP_OSI_model-networking-levels

1. Check what is the Link status of the Interface with ethtool
 

root@freak:~# ethtool eno1
Settings for eno1:
    Supported ports: [ TP ]
    Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Supported pause frame use: Symmetric
    Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
    Supported FEC modes: Not reported
    Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
    Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
    Advertised FEC modes: Not reported
    Speed: 100Mb/s
    Duplex: Full
    Auto-negotiation: on
    Port: Twisted Pair
    PHYAD: 1
    Transceiver: internal
    MDI-X: on (auto)
    Supports Wake-on: pumbg
    Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
                               drv probe link
    Link detected: yes

 

root@freak:~# ethtool eno2
Settings for eno2:
    Supported ports: [ TP ]
    Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Supported pause frame use: Symmetric
    Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
    Supported FEC modes: Not reported
    Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
    Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
    Advertised FEC modes: Not reported
    Speed: 1000Mb/s
    Duplex: Full
    Auto-negotiation: on
    Port: Twisted Pair
    PHYAD: 1
    Transceiver: internal
    MDI-X: on (auto)
    Supports Wake-on: pumbg
    Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
                               drv probe link
    Link detected: yes

 

For example lets check only if Cable of Network card is plugged in and detected to have a network connection to remote node or switch and show the connection speed on which the 'autoneg on' (autonegiation option) of the LAN card has detected the network exat maximum speed:

root@pcfreak:~# ethtool eth0|grep -i 'link detected'; ethtool eth0 |grep 'Speed: '
    Link detected: yes
    Speed: 100Mb/s


1. Check ip command network configuration output

root@freak:~# ip addr show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eno1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    altname enp7s0
3: eno2: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:17 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    altname enp8s0
4: xenbr0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:13 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.7/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global dynamic xenbr0
       valid_lft 7361188sec preferred_lft 7361188sec
5: xenbr1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.0.5/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global dynamic xenbr1
       valid_lft 536138sec preferred_lft 536138sec
10: vif2.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
11: vif2.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
12: vif3.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
13: vif3.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
14: vif4.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
15: vif4.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
16: vif5.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
17: vif5.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
18: vif6.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
19: vif6.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
30: vif17.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
31: vif17.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
34: vif21.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
35: vif21.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
48: vif25.0-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr0 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
49: vif25.1-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr1 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
50: vif25.0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
51: vif25.1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
118: vif47.0-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr0 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
119: vif47.1-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr1 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
120: vif47.0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
121: vif47.1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
root@freak:~# 

ip a s (is a also a shortcut command alias) you can enjoy if you have to deal with ip command frequently.

2. Check the status of the interfaces

Old fashioned way is to just do:

/sbin/ifconfig

 

root@freak:~# ifconfig 
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 52366502  bytes 10622469320 (9.8 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 242622195  bytes 274688121244 (255.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb200000-fb27ffff  

eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:17  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 220995454  bytes 269698276095 (251.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 7  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 192319925  bytes 166233773782 (154.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb100000-fb17ffff  

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 14517375  bytes 133226551792 (124.0 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 139688950  bytes 145111993017 (135.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 86113294  bytes 156944058681 (146.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 181513904  bytes 267892940821 (249.4 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 1521875  bytes 88282472 (84.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152691174  bytes 278372314505 (259.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 454915  bytes 81069760 (77.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 266953989  bytes 425692364876 (396.4 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 26 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 20043711  bytes 1283926794 (1.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 141580485  bytes 277396881113 (258.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73004  bytes 3802174 (3.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267151006  bytes 425621892663 (396.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2736348  bytes 295661367 (281.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 260385509  bytes 265751226663 (247.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 200 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 145387  bytes 36011655 (34.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 370314760  bytes 394725961081 (367.6 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 55382861  bytes 130042280927 (121.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 99040097  bytes 147929196318 (137.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5132631  bytes 295493762 (281.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 262314199  bytes 425416945203 (396.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 16 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4902015  bytes 615387539 (586.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 149342891  bytes 277802504143 (258.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 276927  bytes 30720101 (29.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267132395  bytes 425745668273 (396.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 208745  bytes 20096596 (19.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 110905731  bytes 110723486135 (103.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 140517  bytes 14596061 (13.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 150831959  bytes 162931572456 (151.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2030528  bytes 363988589 (347.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152264264  bytes 278131541781 (259.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4169244  bytes 1045889687 (997.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 263561100  bytes 424894400987 (395.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 300242  bytes 16210963 (15.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 153909576  bytes 278461295620 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 43  bytes 1932 (1.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 154205631  bytes 278481298141 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.8  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 13689902  bytes 923464162 (880.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12072932  bytes 1307055530 (1.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.3  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 626995  bytes 180026901 (171.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12815  bytes 942092 (920.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

 

root@freak:~# ifconfig        
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 52373358  bytes 10623034427 (9.8 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 242660000  bytes 274734018669 (255.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb200000-fb27ffff  

eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 221197892  bytes 269978137472 (251.4 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 7  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 192573206  bytes 166491370299 (155.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb100000-fb17ffff  

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 14519247  bytes 133248290251 (124.0 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 139708738  bytes 145135168676 (135.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 86206104  bytes 157189755115 (146.3 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 181685983  bytes 268170806613 (249.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 1522072  bytes 88293701 (84.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152712638  bytes 278417240910 (259.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 454933  bytes 81071616 (77.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267218860  bytes 426217224334 (396.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 26 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 20045530  bytes 1284038375 (1.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 141601066  bytes 277441739746 (258.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73010  bytes 3802474 (3.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267415889  bytes 426146753845 (396.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2736576  bytes 295678097 (281.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 260429831  bytes 265797660906 (247.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 200 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 145425  bytes 36018716 (34.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 370770440  bytes 395263409640 (368.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 55392503  bytes 130064444520 (121.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 99052116  bytes 147951838129 (137.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5133054  bytes 295517366 (281.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 262578665  bytes 425941777243 (396.6 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 16 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4902949  bytes 615496460 (586.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 149363618  bytes 277847322538 (258.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 276943  bytes 30721141 (29.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267397268  bytes 426270528575 (396.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 208790  bytes 20100733 (19.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 110950236  bytes 110769932971 (103.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 140551  bytes 14599509 (13.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 151287643  bytes 163469024604 (152.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2030676  bytes 363997181 (347.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152285777  bytes 278176471509 (259.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4169387  bytes 1045898303 (997.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 263825846  bytes 425419251935 (396.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 300266  bytes 16212271 (15.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 153931212  bytes 278506234302 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 43  bytes 1932 (1.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 154227291  bytes 278526238467 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.8  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 13690768  bytes 923520126 (880.7 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12073667  bytes 1307127765 (1.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.3  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 627010  bytes 180028847 (171.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12815  bytes 942092 (920.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

 

To see ethernet interfaces that seem up and then do a ifconfig -a to check whether some interfaces are down (e.g. not shown in the simple ifconfig list).
/sbin/ifconfig -a

! Please note that some virtual IP configurations might not appear and noly be visible in an (ip addr show) command.

 

3. Check iproute2 for special rt_tables (Routing Tables) rules
 

By default Linux distributions does not have any additional rules in /etc/iproute2/rt_tables however some Linux router machines, needs to have a multiple Gateways. Perhaps the most elegant way to do multiple routings with Linux is to use iproute2's routing tables rt_tables.

Here is example of an OpenXEN system that has 2 Internet providers attached and routes different traffic via

 

root@freak:~# cat /etc/iproute2/rt_tables
#
# reserved values
#
255    local
254    main
253    default

100    INET1
200     INET2
0    unspec
#
# local
#
#1    inr.ruhep

 

root@freak:~# ip rule list
0:    from all lookup local
32762:    from all to 192.168.1.8 lookup INET2
32763:    from 192.168.1.8 lookup INET2
32764:    from all to 192.168.0.3 lookup INET1
32765:    from 192.168.0.3 lookup INET1
32766:    from all lookup main
32767:    from all lookup default
root@freak:~# 
 

4. Using ip route get to find out traffic route (path)

root@freak:~# ip route get 192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1 via 192.168.0.1 dev xenbr1 src 192.168.0.3 uid 0 
    cache 

 

root@freak:~# /sbin/route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
0.0.0.0         192.168.1.1     0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 xenbr0
192.168.0.0     192.168.0.1     255.255.255.0   UG    0      0        0 xenbr1
192.168.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 xenbr1
192.168.1.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 xenbr0
root@freak:~# 

root@freak:~# ip route show
default via 192.168.1.1 dev xenbr0 
192.168.0.0/24 via 192.168.0.1 dev xenbr1 
192.168.0.0/24 dev xenbr1 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.0.3 
192.168.1.0/24 dev xenbr0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.1.8 


If you find that gateway is missing you might want to add it with:

root@freak:~#  ip route add default via 192.168.5.1

If you need to add a speicic network IP range via separate gateways, you can use commands like:

To add routing for 192.168.0.1/24 / 192.168.1.1/24 via 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.1.1

# /sbin/route add -net 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.1 dev eth1
# /sbin/route add -net 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.0.1 dev eth1

 

If you need to delete a configured wrong route with ip command

# ip route del 192.168.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 dev eth1
# ip route del 192.168.0.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 dev eth1

5. Use ping (ICMP protocol) the Destionation IP
 

root@freak:~# ping -c 3 192.168.0.1
PING 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.219 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.295 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.270 ms

— 192.168.0.1 ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2048ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.219/0.261/0.295/0.031 ms
root@freak:~# ping -c 3 192.168.0.39
PING 192.168.0.39 (192.168.0.39) 56(84) bytes of data.
From 192.168.1.80: icmp_seq=2 Redirect Host(New nexthop: 192.168.0.39)
From 192.168.1.80: icmp_seq=3 Redirect Host(New nexthop: 192.168.0.39)
From 192.168.1.80 icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Unreachable


— 192.168.0.39 ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +1 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2039ms
pipe 3

 

Note that sometimes you might get 100% traffic loss but still have connection to the destionation in case if the ICMP protocol is filtered for security.

However if you get something like Network is unreachable that is usually an indicator of some routing problem or wrongly configured network netmask.

root@freak:~# ping 192.168.0.5
ping: connect: Network is unreachable

Test network with different packet size. To send 8972 bytes of payload in a Ethernet frame without fragmentation, the following command can be used:

root@pcfreak:~# ping -s 8972 -M do -c 4 freak
PING xen (192.168.1.8) 8972(9000) bytes of data.
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
^C
— xen ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +3 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2037ms

root@pcfreak:~# 


 -M pmtudisc_opt
           Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.  pmtudisc_option may be either do (prohibit fragmentation, even local one), want (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size is
           large), or dont (do not set DF flag).

 

root@pcfreak:~# ping -s 8972 -M want -c 4 freak
PING xen (192.168.1.8) 8972(9000) bytes of data.
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=2.18 ms
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.90 ms
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=2.10 ms
^C
— xen ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.901/2.059/2.178/0.116 ms

root@pcfreak:~# 

  • -M do: prohibit fragmentation
  • -s 8972 8972 bytes of data
  • ICMP header: 8 bytes
  • IP header: 20 bytes (usually, it can be higher)
  • 8980 bytes of bytes is the IP payload
     

These commands can be used to capture for MTU (maximum transmition units) related issues between hosts that are preventing for hosts to properly send traffic between themselves.
A common issue for Linux hosts to be unable to see each other on the same network is caused by Jumbo Frames (MTU 9000) packets enabled on one of the sides and MTU of 1500 on the other side.
Thus it is always a good idea to thoroughully look up all configured MTUs for all LAN Devices on each server.

6. Check traceroute path to host

If there is no PING but ip route get shows routing is properly configured and the routes existing in the Linux machine routing tables, next step is to check the output of traceroute / tracepath / mtr

 

raceroute to 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
 1  pcfreak (192.168.0.1)  0.263 ms  0.166 ms  0.119 ms
root@freak:~# tracepath 192.168.1.1
 1?: [LOCALHOST]                      pmtu 1500
 1:  vivacom-gigabit-router                                0.925ms reached
 1:  vivacom-gigabit-router                                0.835ms reached
     Resume: pmtu 1500 hops 1 back 1 

 

It might be useful to get a frequent output of the command (especially on Linux hosts) where mtr command is not installed with:

 

root@freak:~# watch -n 0.1 traceroute 192.168.0.1

 

root@freak:~# traceroute -4 google.com
traceroute to google.com (172.217.17.110), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
 1  vivacom-gigabit-router (192.168.1.1)  0.657 ms  1.280 ms  1.647 ms
 2  213.91.190.130 (213.91.190.130)  7.983 ms  8.168 ms  8.097 ms
 3  * * *
 4  * * *
 5  212-39-66-222.ip.btc-net.bg (212.39.66.222)  16.613 ms  16.336 ms  17.151 ms
 6  * * *
 7  142.251.92.65 (142.251.92.65)  18.808 ms  13.246 ms 209.85.254.242 (209.85.254.242)  15.541 ms
 8  142.251.92.3 (142.251.92.3)  14.223 ms 142.251.227.251 (142.251.227.251)  14.507 ms 142.251.92.3 (142.251.92.3)  15.328 ms
 9  ams15s29-in-f14.1e100.net (172.217.17.110)  14.097 ms  14.909 ms 142.251.242.230 (142.251.242.230)  13.481 ms
root@freak:~# 

If you have MTR then you can get plenty of useful additional information such as the Network HOP name or the Country location of the HOP.

 

To get HOP name:

 

root@freak:~# mtr -z google.com

 

To get info on where (which Country) exactly network HOP is located physically:

root@freak:~# mtr -y 2 google.com

 

7. Check iptables INPUT / FORWARD / OUTPUT rules are messing with something
 

# iptables -L -n 

# iptables -t nat -L -n


Ideally you would not have any firewall

# iptables -L -n 

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

# iptables -t nat -L -n
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
 


In case if something like firewalld is enabled as a default serviceto provide some modern Linux firewall as Ubuntu and Redhat / CentOS / Fedoras has it often turned on as a service stop and disable the service

# systemctl stop firewalld

# systemctl disable firewalld

 

8. Debug for any possible MAC address duplicates
 

root@pcfrxen:~# arp -an
? (192.168.1.33) at 00:16:3e:59:96:9e [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.1) at 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.1) at 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.1) at 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.11) at 7c:0a:3f:89:b6:fa [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.17) at <incomplete> on eth0
? (192.168.1.37) at 00:16:3e:ea:05:ce [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.80) at 8c:89:a5:f2:e7:d8 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.11) at 7c:0a:3f:89:a5:fa [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.30) at 00:16:3e:bb:46:45 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.210) at 00:16:3e:68:d9:55 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.30) at 00:16:3e:bb:46:45 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.18) at 00:16:3e:0d:40:05 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.211) at 00:16:3e:4d:41:05 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.35) at 00:16:3e:d1:8f:77 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.18) at 00:16:3e:0d:43:05 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.28) at 00:16:3e:04:12:1c [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.3) at 70:e2:84:13:43:12 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.208) at 00:16:3e:51:de:9c [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.241) at 00:16:3e:0d:48:06 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.28) at 00:16:3e:04:12:1c [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.33) at 00:16:3e:59:97:8e [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.241) at 00:16:3e:0d:45:06 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.0.209) at 00:16:3e:5c:df:96 [ether] on eth1

root@pcfrxen:~# ip neigh show
192.168.1.33 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:59:96:9e REACHABLE
192.168.1.1 dev eth1 lladdr 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 STALE
192.168.0.1 dev eth1 lladdr 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 REACHABLE
192.168.1.1 dev eth0 lladdr 18:45:93:c6:d9:01 REACHABLE
192.168.1.11 dev eth1 lladdr 7c:0a:3f:89:a6:fb STALE
192.168.1.17 dev eth0  FAILED
192.168.1.37 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:ea:06:ce STALE
192.168.1.80 dev eth0 lladdr 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 REACHABLE
192.168.1.11 dev eth0 lladdr 7c:0a:3f:89:a7:fa STALE
192.168.1.30 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:bb:45:46 STALE
192.168.0.210 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:68:d8:56 REACHABLE
192.168.1.30 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:bb:45:46 STALE
192.168.1.18 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:04 STALE
192.168.0.211 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:4d:40:04 STALE
192.168.1.35 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:d2:8f:76 STALE
192.168.1.18 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:06 STALE
192.168.1.28 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:04:11:2c STALE
192.168.0.3 dev eth1 lladdr 70:e2:84:13:44:13 STALE
192.168.0.208 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:51:de:9c REACHABLE
192.168.0.241 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:07 STALE
192.168.1.28 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:04:12:1c REACHABLE
192.168.1.33 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:59:96:9e STALE
192.168.0.241 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:49:06 STALE
192.168.0.209 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:5c:dd:97 STALE
root@pcfrxen:~# 


9. Check out with netstat / ss for any irregularities such as high amount of error of faulty ICMP / TCP / UDP network packs

 

For example check out the netstat network stack output

# netstat -s

 

root@pcfrxen:~# netstat -s
Ip:
    Forwarding: 2
    440044929 total packets received
    1032 with invalid addresses
    0 forwarded
    0 incoming packets discarded
    439988902 incoming packets delivered
    396161852 requests sent out
    3 outgoing packets dropped
    100 dropped because of missing route
Icmp:
    1025 ICMP messages received
    540 input ICMP message failed
    ICMP input histogram:
        destination unreachable: 1014
        timeout in transit: 11
    519 ICMP messages sent
    0 ICMP messages failed
    ICMP output histogram:
        destination unreachable: 519
IcmpMsg:
        InType3: 1014
        InType11: 11
        OutType3: 519
Tcp:
    1077237 active connection openings
    1070510 passive connection openings
    1398236 failed connection attempts
    111345 connection resets received
    83 connections established
    438293250 segments received
    508143650 segments sent out
    42567 segments retransmitted
    546 bad segments received
    329039 resets sent
Udp:
    1661295 packets received
    278 packets to unknown port received
    0 packet receive errors
    1545720 packets sent
    0 receive buffer errors
    0 send buffer errors
    IgnoredMulti: 33046
UdpLite:
TcpExt:
    1 invalid SYN cookies received
    1398196 resets received for embryonic SYN_RECV sockets
    1737473 packets pruned from receive queue because of socket buffer overrun
    1118775 TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer
    638 time wait sockets recycled by time stamp
    656 packetes rejected in established connections because of timestamp
    2218959 delayed acks sent
    2330 delayed acks further delayed because of locked socket
    Quick ack mode was activated 7172 times
    271799723 packet headers predicted
    14917420 acknowledgments not containing data payload received
    171078735 predicted acknowledgments
    52 times recovered from packet loss due to fast retransmit
    TCPSackRecovery: 337
    Detected reordering 1551 times using SACK
    Detected reordering 1501 times using reno fast retransmit
    Detected reordering 61 times using time stamp
    9 congestion windows fully recovered without slow start
    38 congestion windows partially recovered using Hoe heuristic
    TCPDSACKUndo: 241
    104 congestion windows recovered without slow start after partial ack
    TCPLostRetransmit: 11550
    1 timeouts after reno fast retransmit
    TCPSackFailures: 13
    3772 fast retransmits
    2 retransmits in slow start
    TCPTimeouts: 24104
    TCPLossProbes: 101748
    TCPLossProbeRecovery: 134
    TCPSackRecoveryFail: 3
    128989224 packets collapsed in receive queue due to low socket buffer
    TCPBacklogCoalesce: 715034
    TCPDSACKOldSent: 7168
    TCPDSACKOfoSent: 341
    TCPDSACKRecv: 16612
    150689 connections reset due to unexpected data
    27063 connections reset due to early user close
    17 connections aborted due to timeout
    TCPDSACKIgnoredOld: 158
    TCPDSACKIgnoredNoUndo: 13514
    TCPSpuriousRTOs: 9
    TCPSackMerged: 1191
    TCPSackShiftFallback: 1011
    TCPDeferAcceptDrop: 699473
    TCPRcvCoalesce: 3311764
    TCPOFOQueue: 14289375
    TCPOFOMerge: 356
    TCPChallengeACK: 621
    TCPSYNChallenge: 621
    TCPSpuriousRtxHostQueues: 4
    TCPAutoCorking: 1605205
    TCPFromZeroWindowAdv: 132380
    TCPToZeroWindowAdv: 132441
    TCPWantZeroWindowAdv: 1445495
    TCPSynRetrans: 23652
    TCPOrigDataSent: 388992604
    TCPHystartTrainDetect: 69089
    TCPHystartTrainCwnd: 3264904
    TCPHystartDelayDetect: 4
    TCPHystartDelayCwnd: 128
    TCPACKSkippedPAWS: 3
    TCPACKSkippedSeq: 2001
    TCPACKSkippedChallenge: 2
    TCPWinProbe: 123043
    TCPKeepAlive: 4389
    TCPDelivered: 389507445
    TCPAckCompressed: 7343781
    TcpTimeoutRehash: 23311
    TcpDuplicateDataRehash: 8
    TCPDSACKRecvSegs: 17335
IpExt:
    InMcastPkts: 145100
    OutMcastPkts: 9429
    InBcastPkts: 18226
    InOctets: 722933727848
    OutOctets: 759502627470
    InMcastOctets: 58227095
    OutMcastOctets: 3284379
    InBcastOctets: 1756918
    InNoECTPkts: 440286946
    InECT0Pkts: 936

 

  • List all listening established connections to host

# netstat -ltne

  • List all UDP / TCP connections

# netstat -ltua

or if you prefer to do it with the newer and more comprehensive tool ss:
 

  • List all listening TCP connections 

# ss -lt

  • List all listening UDP connections 

# ss -ua

  • Display statistics about recent connections

root@pcfrxen:~# ss -s
Total: 329
TCP:   896 (estab 70, closed 769, orphaned 0, timewait 767)

Transport Total     IP        IPv6
RAW      0         0         0        
UDP      40        36        4        
TCP      127       118       9        
INET      167       154       13       
FRAG      0         0         0 

  • If you need to debug some specific sport or dport filter out the connection you need by port number

# ss -at '( dport = :22 or sport = :22 )'

 

Debug for any possible issues with ICMP unreachable but ports reachable with NMAP / telnet / Netcat
 

# nc 192.168.0.1 -vz

root@pcfrxen:/ # nc 192.168.0.1 80 -vz
pcfreak [192.168.0.1] 80 (http) open


root@pcfrxen:/ # nc 192.168.0.1 5555 -vz
pcfreak [192.168.0.1] 5555 (?) : Connection refused

 

root@pcfrxen:/# telnet 192.168.0.1 3128
Trying 192.168.0.1…
Connected to 192.168.0.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
^]
telnet> quit
Connection closed.

 

root@pcfrxen:/# nmap -sS -P0 192.168.0.1 -p 443 -O
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-11-27 19:51 EET
Nmap scan report for pcfreak (192.168.0.1)
Host is up (0.00036s latency).

PORT    STATE SERVICE
443/tcp open  https
MAC Address: 8C:89:A5:F2:E8:D8 (Micro-Star INT'L)
Warning: OSScan results may be unreliable because we could not find at least 1 open and 1 closed port
Aggressive OS guesses: Linux 3.11 (96%), Linux 3.1 (95%), Linux 3.2 (95%), AXIS 210A or 211 Network Camera (Linux 2.6.17) (94%), Linux 2.6.32 (94%), Linux 3.10 (94%), Linux 2.6.18 (93%), Linux 3.2 – 4.9 (93%), ASUS RT-N56U WAP (Linux 3.4) (93%), Linux 3.16 (93%)
No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal).
Network Distance: 1 hop

OS detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 6.24 seconds
root@pcfrxen:/# 

10. Add static MAC address to Ethernet Interface (if you find a MAC address being wrongly assigned to interface)

Sometimes problems with network unrechability between hosts is caused by wrongly defined MAC addresses on a Switch that did not correspond correctly to the ones assigned on the Linux host.
The easiest resolution here if you don't have access to Switch in work environment is to reassign the default MAC addresses of interfaces to proper MAC addresses, expected by remote router.

 

root@pcfrxen:/#  ​/sbin/ifconfig eth2 hw ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d6

root@pcfrxen:/#  /sbin/ifconfig eth1 hw ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d5

 

root@pcfrxen:/#  ifconfig eth0|grep -i ether
        ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d6 txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)

 

11. Check for Network Address Translation (NAT) misconfigurations

If you do use some NAT-ing between Linux host and the remote Network Device you cannot reach, make sure IP Forwarding is enabled (i.e. /etc/sysctl.conf was not mistakenly overwritten by a script or admin for whatever reason).
 

root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding
net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding = 1

root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 0

12. Check for Resolving DNS irregularities with /etc/resolv.conf


If network connectivity is okay on TCP / IP , UDP Level but problems with DNS of course, check what you have configured inside /etc/resolv.conf

And if use newer Linux distributions and have resolving managed by systemd check status of resolvectl
 

root@server:~# cat /etc/resolv.conf
# Dynamic resolv.conf(5) file for glibc resolver(3) generated by resolvconf(8)
#     DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE BY HAND — YOUR CHANGES WILL BE OVERWRITTEN
# 127.0.0.53 is the systemd-resolved stub resolver.
# run "resolvectl status" to see details about the actual nameservers.

nameserver 127.0.0.1
search pc-freak.net
domain pc-freak.net
nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4
nameserver 109.104.195.2
nameserver 109.104.195.1
nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220
options timeout:2 rotate

root@pcfreak:~# 

 

root@server:~# resolvectl status
Global
       Protocols: -LLMNR -mDNS -DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=no/unsupported
resolv.conf mode: stub

Link 2 (ens3)
    Current Scopes: DNS
         Protocols: +DefaultRoute +LLMNR -mDNS -DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=no/unsupported
Current DNS Server: 192.168.5.1
       DNS Servers: 192.168.5.1

 

  As seen see, the systemd-resolved service is used to provide domain names resolution and we can modify its configuration file /etc/systemd/resolved.conf to add the DNS server – the following line is set (two DNS servers’ addresses are added):

For example …

DNS=8.8.8.8 

13. Fix problems with wrongly configured Network Speed between hosts

It is not uncommon to have a Switch between two Linux hosts that is set to communicate on a certain maximum amount of Speed but a Linux host is set to communicate or lesser or more of Speed, this might create network issues so in such cases make sure either you use the Auto Negitionation network feature
or set both sides to be communicating on the same amount of network speed.

To turn on auto negotiation for ether interface 

# ethtool -s eth1 speed 1000 duplex full autoneg on


For example to set a Linux network interface to communicate on 1 Gigabit speed and switch off autonegotiation off.

# ethtool -s eth1 speed 1000 duplex full autoneg off

14. Check arp and icmp traffic with tcpdump

On both sides where the IPs can't see each other we can run a tcpdump to check the ARP and ICMP traffic flowing between the hosts.
 

# tcpdump -i eth1 arp or icmp

cpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v[v]… for full protocol decode
listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), snapshot length 262144 bytes
15:29:07.001841 IP freak-eth1 > pcfr_hware_local_ip: ICMP echo request, id 13348, seq 65, length 64
15:29:07.001887 IP pcfr_hware_local_ip > freak-eth1: ICMP echo reply, id 13348, seq 65, length 64
15:29:07.598413 ARP, Request who-has pcfr_hware_local_ip tell zabbix-server, length 46
15:29:07.598425 ARP, Reply pcfr_hware_local_ip is-at 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d8 (oui Unknown), length 28
15:29:07.633055 ARP, Request who-has freak_vivacom_auto_assigned_dhcp_ip tell 192.168.1.1, length 46
15:29:08.025824 IP freak-eth1 > pcfr_hware_local_ip: ICMP echo request, id 13348, seq 66, length 64
15:29:08.025864 IP pcfr_hware_local_ip > freak-eth1: ICMP echo reply, id 13348, seq 66, length 64

 

# tcpdump -i eth1 -vvv

 

If you want to sniff for TCP protocol and specific port and look up for DATA transfered for SMTP you can use something like:

 

# tcpdump -nNxXi eth0 -s 0 proto TCP and port 25​

 

If you need a bit more thorough explanation on what it would do check out my previous article How to catch / track mail server traffic abusers with tcpdump
 

15. Debugging network bridge issues

Having bridge network interface is another brink where things could go totally wrong.
If you have network bridges configured, check out what is the status of the bridge.
 

root@freak:/etc/network# brctl show
bridge name    bridge id        STP enabled    interfaces
xenbr0        8000.70e284134411    yes        eno1
                            vif1.0
                            vif10.0
                            vif16.0
                            vif16.0-emu
                            vif2.0
                            vif3.0
                            vif4.0
                            vif5.0
                            vif6.0
                            vif9.0
                            vif9.0-emu
xenbr1        8000.70e284134412    yes        eno2
                            vif1.1
                            vif10.1
                            vif16.1
                            vif16.1-emu
                            vif2.1
                            vif3.1
                            vif4.1
                            vif5.1
                            vif6.1
                            vif9.1
                            vif9.1-emu


Check out any configurations such as /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* are not misconfigured if on Redhat / CentOS / Fedora.
Or if on Debian / Ubuntu and other deb based Linuxes look up for /etc/network/interfaces config problems that might be causing the bridge to misbehave.

For example one bridge network issue, I've experienced recently is related to bridge_ports variable configured as bridge_ports all.
This was causing the second bridge xenbr1 to be unable to see another local network that was directly connected with a cable to it.

The fix was bridge_ports none. Finding out this trivial issue caused by a restored network config from old backup took me days to debug.
As everything seemed on a network level to be perfect just like in Physical layer, same way and on Software level, routings were okay.

Checked everything multiple times and did not see anything irregular. ping was missing and hosts cannot see each other even though having the right netmask and
network configuration in place.

Below is my /etc/network/interfaces configuration with the correct bridge_ports none changed.

root@freak:/etc/network# cat /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
 

auto eno1
allow-hotplug eno1
iface eno1 inet manual
dns-nameservers 127.0.0.1 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 207.67.222.222 208.67.220.220
auto eno2
allow-hotplug eno2
iface eno2 inet manual
dns-nameservers 127.0.0.1 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 207.67.222.222 208.67.220.220

auto xenbr0
allow-hotplug xenbr0
 # Bridge setup
# fetching dhcp ip from 192.168.1.20 (vivacom fiber optics router) routing traffic via 1Gigabit network
 iface xenbr0 inet dhcp
    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11
#    address 192.168.1.5/22
    address 192.168.1.5
    netmask 255.255.252.0
    # address 192.168.1.8 if dhcp takes from vivacom dhcpd
    bridge_ports eno1
    gateway 192.168.1.20
    bridge_stp on
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports none
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4

auto xenbr1
# fetching dhcp ip from pc-freak.net (192.168.0.1) bergon.net routing traffic through it
allow-hotplug xenbr1
 iface xenbr1 inet dhcp
    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11
##    address 192.168.0.3/22
    address 192.168.0.8
    netmask 255.255.252.0
   # address 192.168.0.8 if dhcp takes from vivacom dhcpd (currently mac deleted from vivacom router)
   # address 192.168.0.9 if dhcp takes from pc-freak.net hware host
#    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:13
    gateway 192.168.0.1
    bridge_ports eno2
    bridge_stp on
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports none
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4
root@freak:/etc/network# 
 

 

root@freak:/etc/network# brctl showstp xenbr0
xenbr0
 bridge id        8000.70e284134411
 designated root    8000.70e284134411
 root port           0            path cost           0
 max age          20.00            bridge max age          20.00
 hello time           2.00            bridge hello time       2.00
 forward delay          15.00            bridge forward delay      15.00
 ageing time           0.00
 hello timer           1.31            tcn timer           0.00
 topology change timer       0.00            gc timer           0.00
 flags            


eno1 (1)
 port id        8001            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost          19
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8001            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif1.0 (2)
 port id        8002            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8002            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif10.0 (12)
 port id        800c            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800c            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif16.0 (13)
 port id        800d            state               disabled
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800d            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.00
 flags            

vif16.0-emu (14)
 port id        800e            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800e            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif2.0 (4)
 port id        8004            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8004            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif3.0 (5)
 port id        8005            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8005            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif4.0 (3)
 port id        8003            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8003            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif5.0 (6)
 port id        8006            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8006            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif6.0 (7)
 port id        8007            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8007            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif9.0 (10)
 port id        800a            state               disabled
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800a            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.00
 flags            

vif9.0-emu (11)
 port id        800b            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800b            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

root@freak:/etc/network# 


Sum it up

We have learned how to debug various routing issues, how to add and remote default gateways, check network reachability with ICMP protocol with ping, traceroute as well check for DNS issues and given some hints how to resolve DNS misconfigurations.
We also learned how to check the configured Network interfaces certain settings and resolve issues caused by Network sides max Speed misconfigurations as well how to track and resolve communication issues caused by wrongly configured MAC addresses.
Further more learned on how to do a basic port and protocol debugging of state of Network packets with netstat and nc and check problems related to iptables Firewall and IP Forwarding misconfigurations.
Finally we learned some basic usage of tcpdump on how to track arp and MAC traffic and look up for a specific TCP / UDP protocol  and its contained data.
There is certainly things this article is missing as the topic of debugging network connectivity issues on Linux is a whole ocean, especially as the complexity of Linux has grown dramatically these days.
I gues it is worthy to mention that unable to see remote network could be caused by wrong VLAN configurations on Linux or even buggy switches and router devices, due to hardware or software,
but I hope this article at least covers the very basics of network debugging and Linux. 

Enjojy 🙂

How to set up Notify by email expiring local UNIX user accounts on Linux / BSD with a bash script

Thursday, August 24th, 2023

password-expiry-linux-tux-logo-script-picture-how-to-notify-if-password-expires-on-unix

If you have already configured Linux Local User Accounts Password Security policies Hardening – Set Password expiry, password quality, limit repatead access attempts, add directionary check, increase logged history command size and you want your configured local user accounts on a Linux / UNIX / BSD system to not expire before the user is reminded that it will be of his benefit to change his password on time, not to completely loose account to his account, then you might use a small script that is just checking the upcoming expiry for a predefined users and emails in an array with lslogins command like you will learn in this article.

The script below is written by a colleague Lachezar Pramatarov (Credit for the script goes to him) in order to solve this annoying expire problem, that we had all the time as me and colleagues often ended up with expired accounts and had to bother to ask for the password reset and even sometimes clearance of account locks. Hopefully this little script will help some other unix legacy admin systems to get rid of the account expire problem.

For the script to work you will need to have a properly configured SMTP (Mail server) with or without a relay to be able to send to the script predefined email addresses that will get notified. 

Here is example of a user whose account is about to expire in a couple of days and who will benefit of getting the Alert that he should hurry up to change his password until it is too late 🙂

[root@linux ~]# date
Thu Aug 24 17:28:18 CEST 2023

[root@server~]# chage -l lachezar
Last password change                                    : May 30, 2023
Password expires                                        : Aug 28, 2023
Password inactive                                       : never
Account expires                                         : never
Minimum number of days between password change          : 0
Maximum number of days between password change          : 90
Number of days of warning before password expires       : 14

Here is the user_passwd_expire.sh that will report the user

# vim  /usr/local/bin/user_passwd_expire.sh

#!/bin/bash

# This script will send warning emails for password expiration 
# on the participants in the following list:
# 20, 15, 10 and 0-7 days before expiration
# ! Script sends expiry Alert only if day is Wednesday – if (( $(date +%u)==3 )); !

# email to send if expiring
alert_email='alerts@pc-freak.net';
# the users that are admins added to belong to this group
admin_group="admins";
notify_email_header_customer_name='Customer Name';

declare -A mails=(
# list below accounts which will receive account expiry emails

# syntax to define uid / email
# [“account_name_from_etc_passwd”]="real_email_addr@fqdn";

#    [“abc”]="abc@fqdn.com"
#    [“cba”]="bca@fqdn.com"
    [“lachezar”]="lachezar.user@gmail.com"
    [“georgi”]="georgi@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct3”]="acct3@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct4”]="acct4@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct5”]="acct5@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct6”]="acct6@fqdn-mail.com"
#    [“acct7”]="acct7@fqdn-mail.com"
#    [“acct8”]="acct8@fqdn-mail.com"
#    [“acct9”]="acct9@fqdn-mail.com"
)

declare -A days

while IFS="=" read -r person day ; do
  days[“$person”]="$day"
done < <(lslogins –noheadings -o USER,GROUP,PWD-CHANGE,PWD-WARN,PWD-MIN,PWD-MAX,PWD-EXPIR,LAST-LOGIN,FAILED-LOGIN  –time-format=iso | awk '{print "echo "$1" "$2" "$3" $(((($(date +%s -d \""$3"+90 days\")-$(date +%s)))/86400)) "$5}' | /bin/bash | grep -E " $admin_group " | awk '{print $1 "=" $4}')

#echo ${days[laprext]}
for person in "${!mails[@]}"; do
     echo "$person ${days[$person]}";
     tmp=${days[$person]}

#     echo $tmp
# each person will receive mails only if 20th days / 15th days / 10th days remaining till expiry or if less than 7 days receive alert mail every day

     if  (( (${tmp}==20) || (${tmp}==15) || (${tmp}==10) || ((${tmp}>=0) && (${tmp}<=7)) )); 
     then
         echo "Hello, your password for $(hostname -s) will expire after ${days[$person]} days.” | mail -s “$notify_email_header_customer_name $(hostname -s) server password expiration”  -r passwd_expire ${mails[$person]};
     elif ((${tmp}<0));
     then
#          echo "The password for $person on $(hostname -s) has EXPIRED before{days[$person]} days. Please take an action ASAP.” | mail -s “EXPIRED password of  $person on $(hostname -s)”  -r EXPIRED ${mails[$person]};

# ==3 meaning day is Wednesday the day on which OnCall Person changes

        if (( $(date +%u)==3 ));
        then
             echo "The password for $person on $(hostname -s) has EXPIRED. Please take an action." | mail -s "EXPIRED password of  $person on $(hostname -s)"  -r EXPIRED $alert_email;
        fi
     fi  
done

 


To make the script notify about expiring user accounts, place the script under some directory lets say /usr/local/bin/user_passwd_expire.sh and make it executable and configure a cron job that will schedule it to run every now and then.

# cat /etc/cron.d/passwd_expire_cron

# /etc/cron.d/pwd_expire
#
# Check password expiration for users
#
# 2023-01-16 LPR
#
02 06 * * * root /usr/local/bin/user_passwd_expire.sh >/dev/null

Script will execute every day morning 06:02 by the cron job and if the day is wednesday (3rd day of week) it will send warning emails for password expiration if 20, 15, 10 days are left before account expires if only 7 days are left until the password of user acct expires, the script will start sending the Alarm every single day for 7th, 6th … 0 day until pwd expires.

If you don't have an expiring accounts and you want to force a specific account to have a expire date you can do it with:

# chage -E 2023-08-30 someuser


Or set it for new created system users with:

# useradd -e 2023-08-30 username


That's it the script will notify you on User PWD expiry.

If you need to for example set a single account to expire 90 days from now (3 months) that is a kind of standard password expiry policy admins use, do it with:

# date -d "90 days" +"%Y-%m-%d"
2023-11-22


Ideas for user_passwd_expire.sh script improvement
 

The downside of the script if you have too many local user accounts is you have to hardcode into it the username and user email_address attached to and that would be tedios task if you have 100+ accounts. 

However it is pretty easy if you already have a multitude of accounts in /etc/passwd that are from UID range to loop over them in a small shell loop and build new array from it. Of course for a solution like this to work you will have to have defined as user data as GECOS with command like chfn.
 

[georgi@server ~]$ chfn
Changing finger information for test.
Name [test]: 
Office []: georgi@fqdn-mail.com
Office Phone []: 
Home Phone []: 

Password: 

[root@server test]# finger georgi
Login: georgi                       Name: georgi
Directory: /home/georgi                   Shell: /bin/bash
Office: georgi@fqdn-mail.com
On since чт авг 24 17:41 (EEST) on :0 from :0 (messages off)
On since чт авг 24 17:43 (EEST) on pts/0 from :0
   2 seconds idle
On since чт авг 24 17:44 (EEST) on pts/1 from :0
   49 minutes 30 seconds idle
On since чт авг 24 18:04 (EEST) on pts/2 from :0
   32 minutes 42 seconds idle
New mail received пт окт 30 17:24 2020 (EET)
     Unread since пт окт 30 17:13 2020 (EET)
No Plan.

Then it should be relatively easy to add the GECOS for multilpe accounts if you have them predefined in a text file for each existing local user account.

Hope this script will help some sysadmin out there, many thanks to Lachezar for allowing me to share the script here.
Enjoy ! 🙂

How to log multiple haproxy / apache / mysql instance via haproxy log-tagging / Segregating log management for multiple HAProxy instances using rsyslog

Tuesday, May 23rd, 2023

rsyslog-logo-picture-use-programname-and-haproxy-log-tag-directives-together-to-log-as-many-process-streams-as-you-like

 

Introduction

This article provides a guide on refining haproxy  logging mechanism by leveraging the `programname` property in rsyslog, coupled with the `log-tag` directive in haproxy.
This approach will create a granular logging setup, separating logs according to their originating services and specific custom tags, enhancing overall log readability.

Though the article is written concretely for logging multiple log streams from haproxy this can be successfully applied
for any other Linux service to log as many concrete log-tagged data streams as you prefer.

Scope

The guide focuses on tailoring the logging mechanisms for two haproxy  instances named `haproxy` and `haproxyssl`, utilizing the `programname` property in rsyslog and the `log-tag` directive in haproxy for precise log management.

The haproxy and haproxyssl instances are two separate systemd config file prepared instances.
haproxy instance is simple haproxy proxying tcp traffic in non-encrypted form, whether haproxyssl is a special instance
prepared to tunnel the incoming http traffic in ssl form. Both instances of haproxy runs as a separate processes on the server.

Here is the systemd configuration of haproxy systemd service file:

# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/haproxy.service
[Unit]
Description=HAProxy Load Balancer
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Environment="CONFIG=/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg" "PIDFILE=/run/haproxy.pid"
EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/haproxy
ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/haproxy -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/haproxy -Ws -f $CONFIG -p $PIDFILE $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/haproxy -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR2 $MAINPID
SuccessExitStatus=143
KillMode=mixed
Type=notify

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


As well as the systemd service configuration for haproxyssl:
 

# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/haproxyssl.service
[Unit]
Description=HAProxy Load Balancer
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Environment="CONFIG=/etc/haproxy/haproxy_ssl_prod.cfg" "PIDFILE=/run/haproxy_ssl_prod.pid"
EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/haproxy
ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/haproxyssl -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/haproxyssl -Ws -f $CONFIG -p $PIDFILE $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/haproxyssl -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR2 $MAINPID
SuccessExitStatus=143
KillMode=mixed
Type=notify

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

 

Step 1: Configuring HAProxy instances with `log-tag`
 

To distinguish between logs from two HAProxy instances, `log-tag` directive is used to add tags to logs. This tag is used to filter these logs in rsyslog.
Modify the HAProxy configuration file in `/etc/haproxy/haproxy.*.cfg`

HAProxy Instance 1 (haproxy)
 

#———————————————————————
# Global settings
#———————————————————————
global
      log          127.0.0.1 local6 debug
      log-tag      haproxy

HAProxy Instance 2 (haproxyssl)


#———————————————————————
# Global settings
#———————————————————————
global
    log          127.0.0.1 local5 debug
    log-tag      haproxyssl

 

Step 2: Implementing rsyslog configuration for haproxy logs
 

Next, create a new rsyslog configuration file, stored in /etc/rsyslog.d/. Ensure the new configuration file ends in `.conf`

HAProxy Instance 1 (haproxy)

Now add rsyslog rules to filters logs based on the `programname` and the custom log tag:
 

# vi /etc/rsyslog.d/55_haproxy.conf
if $programname == 'haproxy' then /var/log/haproxy.log
&stop

HAProxy Instance 2 (haproxyssl)
# vi /etc/rsyslog.d/51_haproxy_ssl.conf
if $programname == 'haproxy_ssl' then /var/log/haproxy_ssl.log
&stop


These rules filter logs that originate from haproxy  and contain the respective string haproxy   or haproxy_ssl , directing them to their respective log files. The `& stop` directive ensures that rsyslog stops processing the log once a match is found, preventing dublication.

Finally, restart both the haproxy and rsyslog services for the changes to take effect:

# systemctl restart haproxy
# systemctl restart haproxyssl
# systemctl restart rsyslog


Reading References

haproxy:   log-tag directive

rsyslog:    rsyslogd documentation

This is a guest article originally written by: Dimitar Paskalev, guest blogging with good interesting articles is always mostly welcome 

The Holy Martyrs of Novo Selo Monastery “Holy Trinity” Selo Bulgaria. The holy priest-martyrs and martyrs who suffered by the Turks on May 9, 1876, canonized on April 3, 2011

Wednesday, May 10th, 2023

Saints-of-Monastery-of-Novo-Selo-today-city-of-Apriltzi-monastery-of-Holy_Trinity

There are many saints who labored hard over the centuries, but there are few known that has done their feat in the Bulgarian lands. We Christian honor of the saints for centuries and whose memory is marked in the Church calendar of Saints, but there are some less known but not lesser in their confessory saints than the ancients. The Lord honors with eternal wreaths not only the sufferers of the early Christian times (during the early periods of persecution 1st and 2nd century) , but also those who are much closer to us in time and place and have endured persecutions and torments no less than the ancients.

We know about them from history, but it is not history that will join us to the sacrificial table, that will gather us in the church temple and that will strengthen us in faith. The signs of holiness are given to us from above, but our participation to accept it is also necessary, our "Let it be, Oh Lord!", another knowledge, so that we can pluck holiness from the depths of oblivion, be part of its path, tell about it and we bear witness to her miracles.

Today is another day of reaffirmation of holiness, deserved before God and known to people for a time.
Today, our thoughts and prayers are directed to the foothills of the Central Balkans (mountains) and to the Holy Trinity Monastery, illuminated by the martyrdom of the sisters, whose feet once touched the ground here and prayer chants rose day and night along with the fragrant smoke from the incense in the temple. And indeed, this monastery is like a candlestick placed on high, so that the light from it, which illuminated our land in the time of April's bloody harvest (on 20th of April 1976, The April Revolt against the Ottoman turks yoke has arised) never goes out and shines again, especially when our Church needs it.

Although it is not ancient, like others that glorify the Lord in the Slavic language over the centuries, the virgin monastery "Holy Trinity" was built around 1830 – when the Orthodox faith, like a vine, daily burned by non-believers, instead of withering – strengthened , and the thought of liberation more and more embraces souls and gives hope. For decades girls from the most awake and enlightened Orthodox families – not only from Novo Selo, but also from the neighboring places – put themselves under the protection of the One God the Holy Trinity. The inhabitants of Novo Selo ( Novoseltsi ) are famous with his zeal – both to the Church and to good morals.

Indeed, Novo Selo is a place worthy of raising and offering to the Most High the animate sacrifices of the true faith. To work for the pleasing to God, every wealthy family gave its contribution – and not only in form of money donations, lands and all kind of donations for the maintenance of the temples, the monastery, but also in the selection of worthy priests who would lay down their souls for their (flock) pasoms. And it is enough to mention only the two who received from the Savior a bright crown for their martyrdom, so that through their holy endurance and faith be be praised through them all the priests, guardians of the Christian faith who put their live for the herd during the many years of slavery that Bulgarians, Serbians, Greek, Romanians and many other Christians has suffered from the unfaithful.

With what words can we describe the zeal of priest Nikola Barbulov, a teacher and presbyter with a wise soul, who worked hard to successfully complete his studies in Bessarabia (nowadays Moldavia). He was fond of books, prosperous as a teacher, worthy as a priest, and educated many pupils; his spiritual children were the most active part of the Church body, among which many received priesthood as well.

Saint Pope Nicholas is similar to the great patriarch Euthymius, because he stayed to the end to guard his verbal flock; moreover, he was not a bloodless martyr, but a sufferer, put to death in terrible torments without renouncing his faith.


And with what words should we call the priest Georgi Dylgodreiski?

A warrior of Christ, as if a second Saint George, he fought not only against the thought, but also against the living enemy of the Cross. The new passion sufferer did not defend himself in the single combat with the Agarians (ottoman turks), he did not defend himself, he did not think about himself, but how to slow down the hordes of beasts and give the weak and helpless at least a little time to escape or hide from the ferocious infidels.

He guarded the House of God (the Church) and accepted circumcision as a grace, because he knew that through it he received eternal life.
We will not have enough words to praise the strength of those fragile nuns – fragile by nature, but strong in their faith.

The testimony of their life and death are the stories passed down from generation to generation in the new village families. There are not many memories, but the grace of their martyrdom is like an invisible light above the earth and, even without mentioning them, without praying to them, they are intercessors for those in trouble. There is no need for descriptions of their existence, because it is before the eyes of all who know the order in Orthodox monasteries. The sisters lived a celibate and angelic life – in deeds and prayers, in common breathing. Through their association they were a model and a guarantee of virtue to each one of them.
They prayed not only for their souls and for the salvation and well-being of their neighbors, but also for what was then in the heart of every Bulgarian – that God's destinies would be fulfilled and the Fatherland would once again become an independent Christian state.
Raised from childhood in piety and firm confession, entrusted by their relatives to God and the Mother of God, the brides of Christ humbly and daily wore the sweet yoke of Christ.

 

Every good deed of theirs – both prayer and manual work (following the example of the ancients saints of the path of ‘ora and labora’ – added oil to the lamps with which they would welcome the Bridegroom and enter with Him into the Kingdom of God.

The abbess of the monastery at that time was Susana, daughter of the mayor of the village, the fighter for faith and family Tsonko Somlev.

She worthily carries the burden of the board, making sure that the sisters reside according to the statute drawn up for them on Mount Athos by hieromonk Spyridon.
The ordeal of the priests and nuns whose martyrdom we celebrate today began when, on May 1, 1876, a mutiny signal was given on Mount Baban.

During this very harsh times for Bulgarian enslaved people in attempt to revolt against the unrighteess system of Ottoman empire not honoring the liberty and rights of people, the drunkenness of the breath of freedom raised the people to their feet, and the very next day the leaders announced the Novosel Republic (as a separate entity from the Ottoman Empire). During the several days of celebration, bells ring the valley, and prayer chants invite everyone to experience a moment of earthly joy, but also to call on the Lord of hosts to be their helper in the coming sorrows …

In the following days, the Christians tried to organize themselves and resist the Agarians, which hearing about the desire of people to self-govern themselves in a new tiny Christian country.

The unexpected cold and snow tormented the Chetniks (armed group part of Cheta a small battalion of armed liberation forces) of Tsanko Dyustabanov, and hunger weakened severely their strength.

And here the thirty nuns of the "Holy Trinity," adding to their prayers and service with the strength of their godly devotion, give no sleep to their eyes, nor slumber to their eyelids, but some alternate in the kitchen and bakery, and others took constant care for the under-shoeed and under-dressed boys, collecting everything that could serve them as clothing – socks knitted manually by them, scarfs, warm flannels…

And just according to the Gospel of Christ, anticipating the close meeting with the Bridegroom, they repeat the words of the Psalmist: "My heart is ready, God, my heart is ready…" (Ps. 56:8).

At that time, an army gathered around Sevlievo and Pleven, but not regular soldiers, to fight only against the armed chetniks and to keep the many innocent peaceful villants who officially did not took the guns but only supported and beseeched for the freedom of the darkness of harsh taxes and lack of rights as the ordinary muslims.

A blasphemous congregation of Abazis and Circassians is coming and multiplying around the monastery.

Adding to their natural demonic cruelty the orders of their leader, the thrice-cursed Deli Nejib Agha, they, seized with depravity and a desire to kill, slither like locusts, consigning to death and scorn all living things in their path..
Some of the residents, known for the approaching bashi-bazouk (irregular soldiers of Ottomans army rised in times of war), are hiding in the mountains, others are running in panic to the fields, and some of the houses in the new village are already engulfed in flames.

However, most of the nuns remain in the monastery.
In vain they hope that the hordes will not dare to desecrate the Holy presanctified heavenly place of God, the Holy Trinity monastery.

The priest Georgi Hristov, holed up in the upper floor of one of the monastery buildings, tries to slow down the enemy and give at least some of the fleeing time to escape.

There, once captured his body was cut down bit by bit by the enraged Circassians who burst through the monastery gate…

The last refuge of some of the nuns is the church building. One of them fails to enter with the others and is cut with a scythe (turkish half moon shaped sword) at the threshold of the temple.

We know about the last moments of the earthly life of the new martyrs from the shocking stories of four of the nuns who survived after having inflicted unbearable sufferings.

For the rest of their lives, they relive their humiliation and humiliation and vilify those of their sisters who took the martyrdom wreath.

The ungodly infidels shoot through the windows and hit several of the sisters.
Then they enter the church and start cutting whoever they want – both the living and the dead.
In front of the Church altar and inside it, Mother Abbess Susana, six other nuns and one laywoman died.

The abuses of the innocent victims, according to the testimonies, are inhumanly cruel. When they begin to strip everyone of their clothes and see that one of the sisters is still alive, the demonic minions blind and suffocate her, stuffing her eyes and mouth with mortar. The enraged and embittered instruments of the devil indulge in robbery and violence, not only in the church and the monastery, but everywhere in the settlement.

And so for the hearth (in glory) of the Bulgarian Orthodox true Christian faith, which was destroyed by the permission of the all-powerful providence. Ehat was said came true: "They shed their blood like water around Jerusalem and there was no one to bury them: they left the corpses of the slaves for food for the birds of the sky and the bodies of your reverends – for the earthly beasts."

But what is happening in Novo Selo is even more terrible – the Agarians not only desecrate the bodies of their victims. In the monastery church, they cut the icons into splinters, ransacked everything, and finally began to burn both the holy abode and the houses, so that there was nothing left to bury and mourn, and everywhere the abomination of desolation reigned.

But in the temple, the fire does not completely destroy the remains of the martyrs, so that later the dry bones can speak to everyone who looks at them with believing eyes and bows before their feat. And the testimony of our words is the ossuary of the "Holy Trinity" monastery rebuilt from the ashes, where one feels the invisible spiritual power and God's grace flowing from the remains – the holy relics – of the martyrs.

And let us from today on May 9, on the day of their suffering death, call them by their names, so that we also have their holy intercession prayers: you, newly martyred holy nuns
Susanna, Sophia, Elisaveta, Ephrosinia, Christina, Calista and Ekaterina,

and you, Susana Chorbadjieva, who during her lifetime was not able to join the sisters, but through your blood received a place in their image, as well as you, newly martyred priests Nicholai and Georgi, a couple of sympathizers and namesakes of the Glorious 9 Martyrs of Serdika (martyred near city of Sofia), together with all others who suffered for the faith and family, whose names now only the Lord knows, because they are all with Him in eternal and endless life, pray to the Holy Trinity, call on the Holy Mother of God and all the saints and give us strength to preserve your memory, so that you will be mentioned in future generations and forever. Amen.

* Novo selo – now a district of the town of Apriltsi Bulgaria.

Translated with minor inclusions from Official site of Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Origianl Bulgarian text Source : Holy Metropolis of Lovchan, Bulgaria
Note:
The Holy Novoselski Muchenici was canonized by the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, after following a canonization procedures and affirmation of the saintship of the martyrs of Novoselo decided to officially
canonize the saints together with the Martyrs Saints of Batak
.
Canonization of the Nove Selo Monastery saints, was officially announced with a Holy Liturgy in Sofia Capital, Church Saint Alexander Nevski  on April 3, 2011.

Short history on how 8 of March Woman International Day (IWD) made up feast replaced the Real Woman Day celebrated on the Christian feast of Annunciation

Wednesday, March 8th, 2023

International Woman's day short history - 8 of march beautiful flowers - Triumph of Woman
International Woman's Day was first observed in 1911, by more than a million people around the world.
​Today is therefore the centennial observance, which is being celebrated with events in more than 100 countries, including Israel.

The International Woman Day (IWD) or the Triumph of Women has been growing as a great day to celebrate the achievemts of woman in history and their significance but most people know little or near nothing regarding that feast, that was disguised by the free world as it was connected to Communist countries of the United States of Soviet Republic (USSR) and today's People's Republic of China and Vietnam and only in 1975 accepted to be the International Woman Day be the United Nations.

Origin of 8 of March Woman's day

The earliest reported Women's Day observance, called "National Woman's Day", was held on February 28, 1909, in New York City, organized by the Socialist Party of America[14] at the suggestion of activist Theresa Malkiel.There have been claims that the day was commemorating a protest by women garment workers in New York on March 8, 1857, but researchers have alleged this to be a myth intended to detach International Women's Day from its socialist origin.

In August 1910, an International Socialist Women's Conference was organized ahead of the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, Denmark. However, what made history for the modern celebration of International Women's Day, according to the ILO, was the fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York City on March 25, 1911, which killed 146 young workers, most of whom were immigrants.
Inspired in part by the American socialists, German delegates Clara Zetkin, Käte Duncker, Paula Thiede, and others proposed the establishment of an annual "Women's Day", although no date was specified. The 100 delegates, representing 17 countries, agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights, including women's suffrage.
 
The following year, on March 19, 1911, the first International Women's Day was marked by over a million people in Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland. In Austria-Hungary alone, there were 300 demonstrations,with women parading on the Ringstrasse in Vienna, carrying banners honoring the martyrs of the Paris Commune. Across Europe, women demanded the right to vote and to hold public office, and protested against employment sex discrimination.
IWD initially had no set date, though it was generally celebrated in late February or early March. Americans continued to observe "National Women's Day" on the last Sunday in February, while Russia observed International Women's Day for the first time in 1913, on the last Saturday in February (albeit based on the Julian calendar, as in the Gregorian calendar, the date was March 8).

In 1914, International Women's Day was held on March 8 for the first time in Germany, possibly because that date was a Sunday. As elsewhere, Germany's observance was dedicated to women's right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918. Concurrently, there was a march in London in support of women's suffrage, during which Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square.

8 of March in Modern Times the socialist faux for Annunciation

However as the Soviet system of USSR collapsed in the 1992, the feast started to take heet among other Western countries quickly, now to the point that even some country regions in Western europe do celebrate 8 of March in some kind of a form, today it is under some form celebrated or marked to more than 100+ countries.

The feast started originally in America (United States) on 27 February 1909 in New Year and has walked its way until it become official with many turmoils, public strikes of woman and woman rage. A key

What has to be said is 8 of March has been a Public feast of Great importance among all the countries from Soviet Russia (USSR) and its satellites for many years now. 

In ex-USSR not venerating the woman nearby by at least flower giving is near a crime deed, and even for a traditionally Orthodox Christian countries, where there is already a feast of triumph and Veneration of woman the day of Annunciation, 8 of March is continuously celebrated even though nowadays the original meaning of the feast as a riot of woman against unequality in socity has nearly turn to a cult towards the woman for a day.

Every year, thousands of inhabitants of the planet will celebrate a world holiday – International Women's Day, which is celebrated on March 8.

But we as Christians who live in the Church should celebrate the feast of the saint commemorated respectively and not the public holiday, which of this year is Saint Teophilakt (Bishop of Necomedia).

Many of the Christian women will accept flowers from their husbands and children, many of them especially from ex-Soviet space will celebrate women's day and even require, their portion of flowers or feel ignored if they don't.

We will celebrate it too, wishfully or not almost forced  … forgetting that the real day of the Mother and the woman is on March 25 on the Great and Beautiful feast of Annunciation, the date on which the Holy Theotokos (Virgin Mary) has received the Angel with the good news that she is about to become a Mother of The Lord Jesus Christ.

For the historical reference it is worthy to make a short historic review of the International Woman Day, for those who still value the feast as a feast that fits well together with the Christian doctrines.

March 8 – Women's Day, this holiday was first celebrated on February 28, 1909 in the USA at the initiative of the American Socialist Party and later become one of the leverages for Communist party worldwide to put attractiveness to their agendas.

The idea of creating an international women's day appeared after the rapid industrialization and economic expansion of the early 20th century, which gave rise to woman protests for the improvement of working conditions.

Historic time of the day is associated with the first mass demonstration of women workers, which took place on March 8, 1857 in New York.

Women from sewing and textile enterprises come out to protest against poor working conditions and low wages, which had a good point as America was a country which still tolerated even Black slavery of the time.

The female workers protesters were attacked and dispersed by the police, as this was seen as a social misconduct dangerous for society by the police officers back then.

Two years later, on the same month, these women formed their first trade union.

In the following years, other protests followed, the most famous of which was in 1908, when women organized a march through New York with demands for a shorter working day, better payment fees and the right to vote.

In 1965, March 8 was officially announced as a non-working day and women's holiday in the USSR. And even today the day is non-working in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union – Belarus, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, as well as in Macedonia and Mongolia etc as well as in Communist China and Vietnam.

In my homeland country Bulgaria (the history of the feast is entangled with the history of socialist oriented parties in it).
March 8 was initially "celebrated" with orgnized public talks in a narrow circle of socialists in 1911, in 1915 was the first public celebration, but the kingship and government back of the day did not look well towards this trend, even though tolerated it.

As a general standard Bulgarian holiday, March 8 began to be celebrated after September 9, 1944 with the raise of communism (and the communist revolution – that was very much externally imported by the USSR sent agents) at the finalizing days of World War II.

At first, following the trend of the newly installed pro-bolshevik governments, different meetings were held in various nationalized enterprises, factories, and institutions, where the contribution of women in production, culture, science, and public life was taken into account and praised.

After 1960, the celebration took on particularly wide proportions and became a favorite holiday of women and men of all ages, especially in government offices, perhaps also as an attempts for communist to show the betternes of the socialist regime installed in the country. To reinburse the feeling of the importance of the feast the day was made official non-working day, together with other partheon of imaginative feasts without much meaning, like is for example 1st of March, The day of Labor, the day of the Shepherd and other artificial communist party members made up ones.

The day since then has become a public holiday in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Cuba, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Montenegro and Vietnam.

As the Communist led countries parties did not have a good set of traditions, they had to set new ones and started the trend to celebrate the feast through men giving flowers to the women around them – mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues. As the times of Communist isolation and dictatorship in this countries was harsh time for the people, any kind of feast that can give some freshness to the gray daily routine of the working class was well and quickly accepted by society.

Gifting a flower was also advantegous for many people, as this was another way to sell flowers and make some extra cash for the poor 🙂

Internetioanl Woman Day in some of the mentioned countries including Bulgaria in the past was celebrated as the equivalent of Mother's Day, where children give small gifts to their mothers and grandmothers.

And I remember when I was still in the kindergarden, we had a task to prepare special post-cards for mom with a photo of ourselves and a written text like “Mother I love you”.

After reading this short story, it will not become clear, but for the elder people it was that the holiday was not really of a big importance and was one of the many inventions of the party to build the new communist man “homo sovieticus”.

Why 8 of March was not a considered big deal in the past?

Because in 1944, the socialist party changed a traditional holiday in Bulgaria, Mother's Day, and instead of the Annunciation, that was already a public holiday dedicated to the mother / women on 25 of March, the date was moved to March 8.

A proof to that is in history, here is what was said in a message to Radio Sofia in year 1943.
– "On the Annunciation., His Eminence Metropolitan Stefan will celebrate in the metropolitan church "Saint Sophia", a temple holiday of the same, the bishop's Holy Liturgy, and the day before – a great bishop's vespers with Pentecost at 6 p.m. In 4:30 p.m. on the occasion of Mother's Day, on behalf of the church and the women's committee from the brotherhood, our famous writer and public figure Konstantin Petkanov will speak in the "Saint Sophia" church, on the topic: The Christian heart of the Bulgarian woman ". Before and after the story, the church choir will perform appropriate chants.”

This is how our ancestors celebrated mother's day, on the day of the Mother of God, when the archangel announced the great joy that the Messiah would come to redeem the world from sin. And about whether the Christian woman is equal to the man, that should be clear, for anything who has a head. By simple physiologyand psycho-somatism, woman and man are different, however in spiritual sense in the eyes of God both male and female are equal and wonderfully made by the Good god.
A proof for the spiritual equality of man and woman are the words of Saint Apostle Paul, who says:

"There is neither Jew nor Greek; there is neither slave nor free; there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus." (Gal. 3:28).

In the Church, this is also the interesting and captivating thing, that everyone has their place there where he is set on, their work, their home, everyone is given his own talent to develop.

Eight of March Epitaph

Showing respect and appreciation for a woman by bying her a flower on 8th of March is a good thing, but then again this can be done any other day and each of us man who love and venerate our mothers and wifes do it every now and then.
There is also little known facts, that one who digs deeper in history of 8 of March will certainly found, which can stun him and not everything around the feast is so white and shiny as most people thing nowadays. 
But of course it is rather better to make the flower gift on the true feast when the Church and the elements and universe together with it celebartes it, and on the date when our ancestors venerated their woman too for hundreds of years before us on the Annunciation.

Saint Martyr Kirana of Solun (Thessaloniki) a Bulgarian macedonian saint martyred on 28 February 1751

Tuesday, February 28th, 2023

saint_Kyranna-of-Thessaloniki

Saint Martyr Kirana (Kerana) was born in the first half of the 18th century 1731 A.D. in the Thessaloniki village of (Ossa) Avisona, in the family of pious Christians in Ottoman Macedonia which at that times was highly inhabited with Bulgarians who held that name of the time, and even today many Bulgarian have this archaic name.

A slim and beautiful girl, she was taken by a janissary (stolen kids from Bulgarian or other non-turkish nations who were grown and included in the Ottoman empire’s governance or army) who was a subashiya (tax collector who collected 10% of all the non-turks income) in her village with the idea to make her one of his wifes. After Kirana rejected him, he abducted her with a gang of janissaries.

He took her to Thessalonica, where his friends testified falsely that the girl had promised to become his wife and accept their faith. Kirana proved to be a brave and steadfast Christian – she neither wanted to marry the rapist nor convert to Islam. Because of this, she was chained and thrown into prison. The commandant of the fortress, Ali Bey, allowed the janissaries to enter to Kirana’s prison and torture her as they wished. As we read from her left Biography:

"One beat her with a tree, – another – with a knife, a third – with kicks, a fourth – with fists, until they left her near dead…

And at night the locksmith of the prison hung her by the arms and grabbed any tree found and beat her mercilessly…".


sveta_Kiriana-Solunska

Thus, for a week, Kirana was severely tortured. On the seventh day (February 28, 1751) she died. And then a miracle happened –

28-02-crkvensveta-Kiranna-Solunska-ikona

"… a great light shone in the prison, came down from above from the roof like lightning, which surrounded the body of the martyr, spilled over the whole prison and illuminated it as if the whole sun had entered inside. It was then the fourth or fifth hour of the night (t . f. 10-11 o'clock at night)." In the morning, the Turks allowed the Christians to take the body of the martyr. They buried her outside the city, in the Christian cemetery there. Her clothes were divided among the faithful as sacred. Later, an unknown scribe compiled her life in Greek. The Church honors the memory of the holy martyr Kirana and commemorates her on February 28.

Biography source: Plamen Pavlov, Hristo Temelski Saints and spiritual leaders from Macedonia with minor modifications