Posts Tagged ‘com’

Saint Georgi of Sofia “the Newest” Bulgarian Confessor Christian saint martyred 1534 AD during reign of Turkish Sultan Selim in Medieval Serdika (Sofia)

Tuesday, June 1st, 2021

Saint-Martyr-George-of-Sofia-Georgi-Sofijski-in-traditional-wear-kalpak

Troparion, voice 4
With a soul wounded by the love of your God, the wise George the Glorious, he preached to the ungodly, Christ God, trampled with his feeth, the Turkish heresy; and when he adorned himself with the crown of martyrdom, you ascended to the heavenly multitudes: ask Christ God to preserve your homeland, this city (Sofia) and the people who always worship your deeds.

On 26-th of May the Bulgarian Orthodox Church celebrates the memory of one of the great Bulgarian Martyr saints Saint Georgi the Newest.
С~тый Геԝ̀ргїй Софїѝскїй Новѣ̀йшїй) St. Georgi (The Bulgarian equivalent name of George) is one of the 3 saints holding the name Georgi which has confessed Christianity refused to accept islam and accepted Martyrdom for Christ in period of 1396 till year 1530 and one of the 9 famous Sofia city saints. Saint Georgi of Sofia the Newest was named after the highly venerated in Bulgarian just like in whole Christian world saint George.

saint-Georgi-Sofijski-saint-great-martyr-George-and-The-Mother-of-God-iconostasis

St. Georgi was born in the city of Medieval Sofia (Sredetz), fortress of Serdika today’s Sofia in a family of Ivan and Maria – a wealthy and society recognized family of that time. He has born after a fervent and lengthly prayers of his parents who couldn’t have children for a long time and has been given a kid by the prayers of Saint Great Martyr George
It is important to say Georgi (the newest) celebrated on 26-th of May is a different saint from St. Georgi called “the new” whose memory in the Church is commemorated on 11-th of February.

saint-Georgi-Sofijski-noveishij-icon

Miracle making icon of saint Georgi Sofiyski (currently in the Church in yard of Alexandrovska Hospital Sofia)

The young Georgi quickly learned to write and read, a skills that only the most educated people usually coming from noble families could do. His favourite activity
in his free time when he was not in help of his parents was reading the Holy Scriptures.
He was grown by his parents in Christian goodness and fervency for the Christian faith.

Sveti_Georgi_Novi-Sofijski-wall-painting-icon-st-George-Sofia
Aged 25 he orphaned as his beloved father passed away to Christ. Georgi posessesed an extraordinary beauty, sharp mind and virtues, seeing the young man in his grief the local Turkish authorities tried as they usually do to attract the youngster to the islamic faith to make their way to interact with Georgi and do their business easier and most importantly have Georgi in their auhotirities congregation consisting only of people belonging to the islam as it was up to the Ottoman Turkish consistution law of the day.

To attract Georgi, turks first tried with hypocritical kindness and a care for the young to help him raise in the power of authorities of the city, not succeeding with that they have, they have forcefully wrapper the Muslim turban on his head and proclaimed him officially Muslim. Feeling offended by the ungodly deed of this enemies of Christ, immediately the saint throw the imposed turban on the ground and trampled on it.
The enraged muslim crowd seing his public offence for the prophet Muhammed handed him over to the Qadi in the court.

Neither the seductive promises of high office nor the cruel tortures could break the unshakable firmness of his Christian faith. The judge ordered that his body be cut into strips from head to toe and that the wounds received be scorched with dirty candles, which made the martyr’s body so hot that his face could not be seen. But all efforts were in vain.

The final verdict of the judge followed – Georgi to be hanged on the main barn in the city of Sofia, where there was a furnace for melting iron and copper ore. The execution command also stated that his body should remain on the gallows for three days in order to begin to decay, so that the faith of the Christians in the incorruptible relics of the saints and in the resurrection of the dead to be refuted and hence disgrace christianity. However, exhausted from his suffering mrtr. Georgi died at the hands of the executioners before they managed to hang him. To fulfill the command turks, anyhow hung him on a rope to show the sentence has been successfully carried out.

For three days the body hung on the gallows without any sign of decomposition, and on the contrary, an unusual fragrance of the holy relics of the martyr wafted through the barn. His mother sat under the gallows and grieving his beloved son hugged her son’s legs, staying next three three days to her son. The hanging took place on May 26, 1530 (according to other document sources in 1534). Thus on 26th of may the Church set a service in memoriam.

Ancient-Church-ROtonda-St-George-Sofia-Bulgaria

5-th Century Church of Rotonda St. George Centre of Sofia

The-Grave-of-Saint-Georgi-Sofiyski-Grobat-na-sv-Georgi-nai-novi

Saint Georgi Sofiyski / Saint George of Sofia the Newest grave near Rotonda Church Saint George in City Center of Sofia, Bulgari

After the expiration of the sentence, the kadi handed over the body of the martyr to be buried in a Christian way, and the burial was solemnly performed by the then Metropolitan of Sofia Jeremiah in the church “St. the great martyr George the Victorious ”. Now these relics are in obscurity. The mother of the martyr died on the 40th day of George’s death and was buried at her son’s feet.

These events took place during the reign of Sultan Suleiman I Kanuni (the Legislator) also known as Suleiman the Magnificent. This “Golden Age” for the Ottoman Empire was a time of unheard of atrocities against Christians in the territory of the empire and very difficult times for the Bulgarian people. The reign of Suleiman I and his father Selim I was a time of obscurantism and severe persecution of the Christian population, a time during which many Christian new martyrs on Balkans had the courage to defend their faith.

saint-Georgi-Sofijski-newest-icon-painting

The capture, trial and torture of St. George of Sofia The latest took place near the then Sofia. Today the place is located in the yard of the famous Alexandrovska Hospital which was a King’s hospital during the times of Kingdom of Bulgaria after liberation took place from the Turks in 1878 y.. The exact location where martyrdom occured is between street St. Georgi Sofiyski ”and“ Pencho Slaveykov ”Blvd.

There was a large stone cross with an inscription on the site, which a few years after 1944, due to the risk of being destroyed, was collected by Sofia priests and is still preserved in the altar of the church “St. Georgi Pobedonosets ”on Blvd. Partriarch Euthymius”. Until the 1940s, a liturgical procession was held from the place of death of the saint to the Rotunda on May 26.
Nowadays happily, the old Lithia tradition is being renewed and a small Lithia is conducted by Bulgarian Orthodox Christian clergy and layman.

In the garden next to the building of the Second Surgical Clinic there was a stone cross, which indicated the place and history of the martyrdom of the saint, and today a temple was built in honor of the saint.

Church-of-saint-Georgi-Sofijski-in-Alexandrovska-hospital-Sofia-Bulgaria-the-place-of-martyrdom-of-saint-Georgi-Sofijski
source: Lives of the Saints. Synodal Publishing House, Sofia, 1991, edited by Parthenius, Bishop of Lefkada and Archimandrite Dr. Athanasius (Bonchev).

Saint_Georgi-naj-novi_Sofijski

HOLY MARTYR GEORGE OF SOFIA THE NEWEST, PRAY GOD FOR US!

Adding custom user based host IP aliases load custom prepared /etc/hosts from non root user on Linux – Script to allow define IPs that doesn’t have DNS records to user preferred hostname

Wednesday, April 14th, 2021

adding-custom-user-based-host-aliases-etc-hosts-logo-linux

Say you have access to a remote Linux / UNIX / BSD server, i.e. a jump host and you have to remotely access via ssh a bunch of other servers
who have existing IP addresses but the DNS resolver recognized hostnames from /etc/resolv.conf are long and hard to remember by the jump host in /etc/resolv.conf and you do not have a way to include a new alias to /etc/hosts because you don't have superuser admin previleges on the hop station.
To make your life easier you would hence want to add a simplistic host alias to be able to easily do telnet, ssh, curl to some aliased name like s1, s2, s3 … etc.


The question comes then, how can you define the IPs to be resolvable by easily rememberable by using a custom User specific /etc/hosts like definition file? 

Expanding /etc/hosts predefined host resolvable records is pretty simple as most as most UNIX / Linux has the HOSTALIASES environment variable
Hostaliases uses the common technique for translating host names into IP addresses using either getaddrinfo(3) or the obsolete gethostbyname(3). As mentioned in hostname(7), you can set the HOSTALIASES environment variable to point to an alias file, and you've got per-user aliases

create ~/.hosts file

linux:~# vim ~/.hosts

with some content like:
 

g google.com
localhostg 127.0.0.1
s1 server-with-long-host1.fqdn-whatever.com 
s2 server5-with-long-host1.fqdn-whatever.com
s3 server18-with-long-host5.fqdn-whatever.com

linux:~# export HOSTALIASES=$PWD/.hosts

The caveat of hostaliases you should know is this will only works for resolvable IP hostnames.
So if you want to be able to access unresolvable hostnames.
You can use a normal alias for the hostname you want in ~/.bashrc with records like:

alias server-hostname="ssh username@10.10.10.18 -v -o stricthostkeychecking=no -o passwordauthentication=yes -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null"
alias server-hostname1="ssh username@10.10.10.19 -v -o stricthostkeychecking=no -o passwordauthentication=yes -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null"
alias server-hostname2="ssh username@10.10.10.20 -v -o stricthostkeychecking=no -o passwordauthentication=yes -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null"

then to access server-hostname1 simply type it in terminal.

The more elegant solution is to use a bash script like below:

# include below code to your ~/.bashrc
function resolve {
        hostfile=~/.hosts
        if [[ -f “$hostfile” ]]; then
                for arg in $(seq 1 $#); do
                        if [[ “${!arg:0:1}” != “-” ]]; then
                                ip=$(sed -n -e "/^\s*\(\#.*\|\)$/d" -e "/\<${!arg}\>/{s;^\s*\(\S*\)\s*.*$;\1;p;q}" "$hostfile")
                                if [[ -n “$ip” ]]; then
                                        command "${FUNCNAME[1]}" "${@:1:$(($arg-1))}" "$ip" "${@:$(($arg+1)):$#}"
                                        return
                                fi
                        fi
                done
        fi
        command "${FUNCNAME[1]}" "$@"
}

function ping {
        resolve "$@"
}

function traceroute {
        resolve "$@"
}

function ssh {
        resolve "$@"
}

function telnet {
        resolve "$@"
}

function curl {
        resolve "$@"
}

function wget {
        resolve "$@"
}

 

Now after reloading bash login session $HOME/.bashrc with:

linux:~# source ~/.bashrc

ssh / curl / wget / telnet / traceroute and ping will be possible to the defined ~/.hosts IP addresses just like if it have been defined global wide on System in /etc/hosts.

Enjoy
 

Listing installed RPMs by vendor installed on CentOS / RedHat Linux

Friday, January 8th, 2021

Listing installed RPMs by vendor installed on CentOS / RedHat Linux

Listing installed RPMs by vendor is useful sysadmin stuff if you have third party software installed that is not part of official CentOS / RedHat Linux and you want to only list this packages, here is how this is done

 

[root@redhat ~]# rpm -qa –qf '%{NAME} %{VENDOR} %{PACKAGER} \n' | grep -v 'CentOS' | sort

criu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
gskcrypt64 IBM IBM
gskssl64 IBM IBM
ipxe-roms-qemu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libevent (none) (none)
libguestfs-appliance Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs-tools-c Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlcommon Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk-python Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlxmlmodel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libtcmu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvcmmd Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-client Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-interface Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-network Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nodedev Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nwfilter Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-qemu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-core Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-kvm Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-libs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-python Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzevent Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
openvz-logos Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
p7zip-plugins Fedora Project Fedora Project
ploop-lib Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
ploop Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prlctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disk-tool Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disp-service Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
python2-lockfile Fedora Project Fedora Project
python2-psutil Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-daemon Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-subprocess32 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-img-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-common-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
rkhunter Fedora Project Fedora Project
seabios-bin Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
seavgabios-bin Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
spfs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
TIVsm-API64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-APIcit IBM (none)
TIVsm-BAcit IBM (none)
TIVsm-BA IBM (none)
vcmmd Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vmauth Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt-lib Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
zabbix-agent (none) (none)

 


That instructs rpm to output each package's name and vendor, then we exclude those from "Red Hat, Inc." (which is the exact string Red Hat conveniently uses in the "vendor" field of all RPMs they pacakge).

By default, rpm -qa uses the format '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE}', and it's nice to see version and release, and on 64-bit systems, it's also nice to see the architecture since both 32- and 64-bit packages are often installed. Here's how I did that:

[root@redhat ~]# rpm -qa –qf '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE}.%{ARCH} %{VENDOR} %{PACKAGER} \n' | grep -v 'CentOS' | sort

criu-3.10.0.23-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
gskcrypt64-8.0-55.17.x86_64 IBM IBM
gskssl64-8.0-55.17.x86_64 IBM IBM
ipxe-roms-qemu-20170123-1.git4e85b27.1.vz7.5.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libevent-2.0.22-1.rhel7.x86_64 (none) (none)
libguestfs-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs-appliance-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs-tools-c-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlcommon-7.0.162-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk-7.0.226-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk-python-7.0.226-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlxmlmodel-7.0.80-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libtcmu-1.2.0-16.2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvcmmd-7.0.22-3.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-client-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-interface-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-network-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nodedev-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nwfilter-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-qemu-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-core-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-kvm-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-libs-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-python-3.9.0-1.vz7.1.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzctl-7.0.506-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzevent-7.0.7-5.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
openvz-logos-70.0.13-1.vz7.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
p7zip-plugins-16.02-10.el7.x86_64 Fedora Project Fedora Project
ploop-7.0.137-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
ploop-lib-7.0.137-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prlctl-7.0.164-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disk-tool-7.0.43-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disp-service-7.0.925-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
python2-lockfile-0.11.0-17.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
python2-psutil-5.6.7-1.el7.x86_64 Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-daemon-1.6-4.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-subprocess32-3.2.7-1.vz7.5.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-img-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-common-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qt-4.8.7-2.vz7.2.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
rkhunter-1.4.6-2.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
seabios-bin-1.10.2-3.1.vz7.3.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
seavgabios-bin-1.10.2-3.1.vz7.3.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
spfs-0.09.0010-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
TIVsm-API64-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-APIcit-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-BA-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-BAcit-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
vcmmd-7.0.160-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vmauth-7.0.10-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzctl-7.0.194-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel-3.10.0-862.11.6.vz7.64.7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel-3.10.0-862.20.2.vz7.73.29.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt-7.0.63-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker-7.0.2-1.vz7.i686 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker-7.0.2-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt-lib-7.0.63-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
zabbix-agent-3.2.11-1.el7.x86_64 (none) (none)

How to redirect / forward all postfix emails to one external email address?

Thursday, October 29th, 2020

Postfix_mailserver-logo-howto-forward-email-with-regular-expression-or-maildrop

Lets say you're  a sysadmin doing email migration of a Clustered SMTP and due to that you want to capture for a while all incoming email traffic and redirect it (forward it) towards another single mailbox, where you can review the mail traffic that is flowing for a few hours and analyze it more deeper. This aproach is useful if you have a small or middle sized mail servers and won't be so useful on a mail server that handels few  hundreds of mails hourly. In below article I'll show you how.

How to redirect all postfix mail for a specific domain to single external email address?

There are different ways but if you don't want to just intercept the traffic and a create a copy of email traffic using the always_bcc integrated postfix option (as pointed in my previous article postfix copy every email to a central mailbox).  You can do a copy of email flow via some custom written dispatcher script set to be run by the MTA on each mail arriva, or use maildrop filtering functionality below is very simple example with maildrop in case if you want to filter out and deliver to external email address only email targetted to specific domain.

If you use maildrop as local delivery agent to copy email targetted to specifidc domain to another defined email use rule like:

if ( /^From:.*domain\.com/:h ) {
  cc "!someothermail@domain2.com"
}


To use maildrop to just forward email incoming from a specific sender towards local existing email address on the postfix to an external email address  use something like:

if ( /^From: .*linus@mail.example.com.*/ )
{
        dotlock "forward.lock" {
          log "Forward mail"
          to "|/usr/sbin/sendmail linuxbox@collector.example.com"
        }
}

Then to make the filter active assuming the user has a physical unix mailbox, paste above to local user's  $HOME/.mailfilter.

What to do if your mail delivered via your Email-Server.com are sent from a monitoring and alarming scripts that are sending towards many mailboxes that no longer exist after the migration?

To achive capturing all normal attempted to be sent traffic via the mail server, we can forward all served mails towards a single external mail address you can use the nice capability of postfix to understand PCRE perl compatible regular expressions. Regular expressions in postfix of course has its specific I recommend you take a look to the postfix regexp table documentation here, as well as check the Postfix Regex / Tester / Debugger online tool – useful to validate a regexp you want to implement.

How to use postfix regular expression to do a redirect of all sent emails via your postfix mail relayhost towards external mail servers?

 

In main.cf /etc/postfix/main.cf include this line near bottom or as a last line:

virtual_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual, regexp:/etc/postfix/virtual-regexp

One defines the virtual file which can be used to define any of your virtual domains you want to simulate as present on the local postfix, the regexp: does load the file which is read by postfix where you can type the regular expression applied to every incoming email via SMTP port 25 or encrypted MTA ports 385 / 995 etc.

So how to redirect all postfix mail to one external email address for later analysis?

Create file /etc/postfix/virtual-regexp

/.+@.+/ external-forward-email@gmail.com

Next build the mapfile (this will generate /etc/postfix/virtual-regexp.db )
 

# postmap /etc/postfix/virtual-regexp

This also requires a virtual.db to exist. If it doesn't create an empty file called virtual and run again postmap postfix .db generator

# touch /etc/postfix/virtual && postmap /etc/postfix/virtual


Note in /etc/postfix/virtual you can add your postfix mail domains for which you want the MTA to accept mail as a local mail.

In case you need to view all postfix defined virtual domains configured to accept mail locally on the mail server.
 

$ postconf -n | grep virtual
virtual_alias_domains = mydomain.com myanotherdomain.com
virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual


The regexp /.+@.+/ external-forward-email@gmail.com applied will start forwarding mails immediately after you reload the MTA with:

# systemctl restart postfix


If you want to exclude target mail domains to not be captured by above regexp, in /etc/postfix/virtual-regexp place:

/.+@exclude-domain1.com/ @exclude-domain1.com
/.+@exclude-domain2.com/ @exclude-domain2.com

Time for a test. Send a test email


Next step is to Test it mail forwarding works as expected
 

# echo -e "Tseting body" | mail -s "testing subject" -r "testing@test.com" whatevertest-user@mail-recipient-domain.com

Postfix copy every email to a central mailbox (send a copy of every mail sent via mail server to a given email)

Wednesday, October 28th, 2020

Postfix-logo-always-bcc-email-option-send-all-emails-to-a-single-address-with-postfix.svg

Say you need to do a mail server migration, where you have a local configured Postfix on a number of Linux hosts named:

Linux-host1
Linux-host2
Linux-host3

etc.


all configured to send email via old Email send host (MailServerHostOld.com) in each linux box's postfix configuration's /etc/postfix/main.cf.
Now due to some infrastructure change in the topology of network or anything else, you need to relay Mails sent via another asumably properly configured Linux host relay (MailServerNewHost.com).

Usually such a migrations has always a risk that some of the old sent emails originating from local running scripts on Linux-host1, Linux-Host2 … or some application or anything else set to send via them might not properly deliver emails to some external Internet based Mailboxes via the new relayhost MailServerNewHost.com.

E.g. in /etc/postfix/main.cf Linux-Host* machines, you have below config after the migration:

relayhost = [MailServerNewHost.com]

Lets say that you want to make sure, that you don't end up with lost emails as you can't be sure whether the new email server will deliver correctly to the old repicient emails. What to do then?

To make sure will not end up in undelivered state and get lost forever after a week or so (depending on the mail queue configuration retention period made on Linux sent MTAs and mailrelay MailServerNewHost.com, it is a very good approach to temprorary set all email communication that will be sent via MailServerNewHost.com a BCC emaills (A Blind Carbon Copy) of each sent mail via relay that is set on your local configured Postfix-es on Linux-Host*.

In postfix to achieve that it is very easy all you have to do is set on your MailServerNewHost.com a postfix config variable always_bcc smartly included by postfix Mail Transfer Agent developers for cases exactly like this.

To forward all passed emails via the mail server just place in the end of /etc/postfix/mail.conf after login via ssh on MailServerNewHost.com

always_bcc=All-Emails@your-diresired-redirect-email-address.com


Now all left is to reload the postfix to force the new configuration to get loaded on systemd based hosts as it is usually today do:

# systemctl reload postfix


Finally to make sure all works as expected and mail is sent do from do a testing via local MTAs. 
 

Linux-Host:~# echo -e "Testing body" | mail -s "testing subject" -r "testing@test.com" georgi.stoyanov@remote-user-email-whatever-address.com

Linux-Host:~# echo -e "Testing body" | mail -s "testing subject" -r "testing@test.com" georgi.stoyanov@sample-destination-address.com


As you can see I'm using the -r to simulate a sender address, this is a feature of mailx and is not available on older Linux Os hosts that are bundled with mail only command.
Now go to and open the All-Emails@your-diresired-redirect-email-address.com in Outlook (if it is M$ Office 365 MX Shared mailbox), Thunderbird or whatever email fetching software that supports POP3 or IMAP (in case if you configured the common all email mailbox to be on some other Postfix / Sendmail / Qmail MTA). and check whether you started receiving a lot of emails 🙂

That's all folks enjoy ! 🙂

Cracking zip protected password files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD

Wednesday, October 5th, 2011

crack-zip-freebsd

Its not very common, but sometimes it happens you have to crack some downloaded file from thepiratebay.com or some other big torrent tracker. An example scenario would be downloading a huge words dictionary (a rainbow tables) dictionary etc., which was protected by the author with a password and zipped.

Fortunately Mark Lehmann developed a software called fcrackzip which is capable of brute forcing zip protected file passwords straight on UNIX like operating systems (GNU/Linux, FreeBSD).

fcrackzip is available from package repositories on Debian and Ubuntu Linuces to install via apt:

linux:~# apt-get install frackzip
...

fcrackzip is also available on FreeBSD via the ports tree and can be installed with:

freebsd# cd /usr/ports/security/fcrackzip
freebsd# make install cleam

On Debian it's worthy to have a quick look on the README file:

linux:~# cat /usr/share/doc/fcrackzip/READMESee fcrackzip.txt (which is derived from the manpage), or fcrackzip.html

There is a web page with more information at
http://lehmann.home.ml.org/fcrackzip.html or
http://www.goof.com/pcg/marc/fcrackzip.html

A sample password-protected .zip file is included as "noradi.zip". It's
password has 6 lower case characters, and fcrackzip will find it (and a
number of false positives) with

fcrackzip -b -c a -p aaaaaa ./noradi.zip

which will take between one and thirty minutes on typical machines.

To find out which of these passwords is the right one either try them out
or use the –use-unzip option.

Marc

Cracking the noradi.zip password protected sample file on my dual core 1.8 ghz box with 2gb, it took 30 seconds.

linux:~# time fcrackzip -u -b -c a -p aaaaaa noradi.zip

PASSWORD FOUND!!!!: pw == noradi

real 0m29.627s
user 0m29.530s
sys 0m0.064s

Of course the sample set password for noradi.zip is pretty trivial and with more complex passwords, sometimes cracking the password can take up to 30 minutes or an hour and it all depends on the specific case, but at least now we the free software users have a new tool in the growing arsenal of free software programs 😉

Here are the options passed on to the above fcrackzip command:

-uTry to decompress with the detected possible archive passwords using unzip (This is necessery to precisely find the archive password, otherwise it will just print out a number of possible matching archive passwords and you have to try each of the passwords one by one. Note that this option depends on a working unzip version installed.)

-c ainclude all charsets to be tried with the generated passwords

-bSelect brute force mode – Tries all possible combinations of letters specified

-p aaaaaainit-password string (Look up for a password between the password length 6 characters long)

FCrackZip is partly written in assembler and thus is generally works fast, to reduce the CPU load fcrackzip will put on the processor its also capable of using external words dictionary file by passing it the option:

-DThe file should be in a format one word per line and be preliminary alphabetically sorted with let's say sort

Also fcrackzip supports parallel file brute force, for example if you have 10 zip files protected with passwords it can paralelly try to brute force the pwds.

As of time of writting frackzip reached version 1.0 and seems to be pretty stable. Happy cracking.
Just to make sure fcrackzip's source is not lost somewhere in the line in the long future to come, I've created a fcrackzip download mirror here

Preparing your Linux to work with the Cloud providers – Installing aws , gcloud, az, oc, cf CLI Cloud access command interfaces

Wednesday, October 10th, 2018

howto Install-Cloud-access-tools-for-google-aws-azure-openshift-cloud-foundryCloud_computing-explained-on-linux.svg

If you're a sysadmin / developer whose boss requires a migration of Stored Data, Database structures or Web Objects to Amazon Web Services / Google Clourd or you happen to be a DevOps Engineer you will certainly need to have installed as a minimumum amazon AWS and Google Clouds clients to do daily routines and script stuff in managing cloud resources without tampering to use the Web GUI interface.

Here is how to install the aws, gcloud, oc, az and cf next to your kubernetes client (kubectl) on your Linux Desktop.
 

1. Install Google Cloud  gcloud (to manage Google Cloud platform resources and developer workflow
 

google-cloud-logo

Here is few cmds to run to install  gcloud, gcloud alpha, gcloud beta, gsutil, and bq commands to manage your Google Cloud from CLI

a.) On Debian / Ubuntu / Mint or any other deb based distro

# Create environment variable for correct distribution
export CLOUD_SDK_REPO="cloud-sdk-$(lsb_release -c -s)"

 

# Add the Cloud SDK distribution URI as a package source
# echo "deb http://packages.cloud.google.com/apt $CLOUD_SDK_REPO main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google-cloud-sdk.list

 

# Import the Google Cloud Platform public key
$ sudo curl https://packages.cloud.google.com/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | sudo apt-key add –

 

# Update the package list and install the Cloud SDK
$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install google-cloud-sdk


b) On CentOS, RHEL, Fedora Linux and other rpm based ones
 

$ sudo tee -a /etc/yum.repos.d/google-cloud-sdk.repo << EOM
[google-cloud-sdk]
name=Google Cloud SDK
baseurl=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/repos/cloud-sdk-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
repo_gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
       https://packages.cloud.google.com/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOM

# yum install google-cloud-sdk

 

That's all now the text client to talk to Google Cloud's API gcloud is installed under
/usr/bin/gcloud

Latest install instructions of Google Cloud SDK are here.


2. Install AWS Cloud command line interface tool for managing AWS (Amazon Web Services)
 

AmazonWebservices_Logo.svg

AWS client is dependent on Python PIP so before you proceed you will have to install python-pip deb package if on Debian / Ubuntu Linux use apt:

 

# apt-get install –yes python-pip

 

It is also possible to install newest version of PIP a tiny shell script provided by Amazon get-pip.py

 

# curl -O https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py
# python get-pip.py –user

 

# pip install awscli –upgrade –user

 

3. Install Azure Cloud Console access CLI command interface
 

Microsoft_Azure_Cloud-Logo.svg

On Debian / Ubuntu or any other deb based distro:

# AZ_REPO=$(lsb_release -cs)
# echo "deb [arch=amd64] https://packages.microsoft.com/repos/azure-cli/ $AZ_REPO main" | \
$ sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azure-cli.list

# curl -L https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc | sudo apt-key add –
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https azure-cli

 

Finaly to check that Azure CLI is properly installed run simple login with:

 

$ az login

 


$ sudo rpm –import https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc
$ sudo sh -c 'echo -e "[azure-cli]\nname=Azure CLI\nbaseurl=https://packages.microsoft.com/yumrepos/azure-cli\nenabled=1\ngpgcheck=1\ngpgkey=https://packages.microsoft.com/keys/microsoft.asc" > /etc/yum.repos.d/azure-cli.repo'
$ sudo yum install azure-cli

$ az login


For Latest install instructions check Amazon's documentation here

4. Install OpenShift OC CLI tool to access OpenShift Open Source Cloud

 

OpenShift-Redhat-cloud-platform

Even thought OpenShift has its original Redhat produced package binaries, if you're not on RPM distro it is probably
best to install using official latest version from openshift github repo.


As of time of writting this article this is done with:

 

# wget https://github.com/openshift/origin/releases/download/v1.5.1/openshift-origin-client-tools-v1.5.1-7b451fc-linux-64bit.tar.gz
tar –xvf openshift-origin-client-tools-v1.5.1-7b451fc-linux-64bit.tar.gz

 

# # mv openshift-origin-client-tools-v1.5.1-7b451fc-linux-64bit oc-tool

 

# cd oc-tool
# echo'export PATH=$HOME/oc-tool:$PATH' >> ~/.bashrc

 

To test openshift, try to login to OpenShift cloud:

 

$ oc login
Server [https://localhost:8443]: https://128.XX.XX.XX:8443


Latest install instructions on OC here

5. Install Cloud Foundry cf CLI Cloud access tool

cloud-foundry-cloud-logo

a) On Debian / Ubuntu Linux based distributions, do run:

 

$ wget -q -O – https://packages.cloudfoundry.org/debian/cli.cloudfoundry.org.key | sudo apt-key add –
$ echo "deb https://packages.cloudfoundry.org/debian stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cloudfoundry-cli.list
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install cf-cli

 

b) On RHEL Enterprise Linux / CentOS and Fedoras

 

$ sudo wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/cloudfoundry-cli.repo https://packages.cloudfoundry.org/fedora/cloudfoundry-cli.repo
$ sudo yum install cf-cli


For latest install insructions on cf cli check Cloud Foundry's install site

There plenty of other Cloud providers with the number exponentially growing and most have their own custom cli tools to access but as there use is not so common as the 5 ones mentioned below, I've omited 'em. If you're interested to know the complete list of Cloud Providers providing Cloud Services check here.

6. Install Ruby GEMs RHC tools collection

If you have to work with Redhat Cloud Storage / OpenShift you will perhaps want to install also (RHC) Redhat Collection Tools.

Assuming that the Linux system is running an up2date version of ruby programming language do run:

 

 

root@jeremiah:~# gem install rhc
Fetching: net-ssh-5.0.2.gem (100%)
Successfully installed net-ssh-5.0.2
Fetching: net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0.gem (100%)
Successfully installed net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0
Fetching: net-ssh-multi-1.2.1.gem (100%)
Successfully installed net-ssh-multi-1.2.1
Fetching: minitar-0.7.gem (100%)
The `minitar` executable is no longer bundled with `minitar`. If you are
expecting this executable, make sure you also install `minitar-cli`.
Successfully installed minitar-0.7
Fetching: hashie-3.6.0.gem (100%)
Successfully installed hashie-3.6.0
Fetching: powerbar-1.0.18.gem (100%)
Successfully installed powerbar-1.0.18
Fetching: minitar-cli-0.7.gem (100%)
Successfully installed minitar-cli-0.7
Fetching: archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1.gem (100%)
'archive-tar-minitar' has been deprecated; just install 'minitar'.
Successfully installed archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1
Fetching: highline-1.6.21.gem (100%)
Successfully installed highline-1.6.21
Fetching: commander-4.2.1.gem (100%)
Successfully installed commander-4.2.1
Fetching: httpclient-2.6.0.1.gem (100%)
Successfully installed httpclient-2.6.0.1
Fetching: open4-1.3.4.gem (100%)
Successfully installed open4-1.3.4
Fetching: rhc-1.38.7.gem (100%)
===========================================================================

 

If this is your first time installing the RHC tools, please run 'rhc setup'

===========================================================================
Successfully installed rhc-1.38.7
Parsing documentation for net-ssh-5.0.2
Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-5.0.2
Parsing documentation for net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0
Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-gateway-2.0.0
Parsing documentation for net-ssh-multi-1.2.1
Installing ri documentation for net-ssh-multi-1.2.1
Parsing documentation for minitar-0.7
Installing ri documentation for minitar-0.7
Parsing documentation for hashie-3.6.0
Installing ri documentation for hashie-3.6.0
Parsing documentation for powerbar-1.0.18
Installing ri documentation for powerbar-1.0.18
Parsing documentation for minitar-cli-0.7
Installing ri documentation for minitar-cli-0.7
Parsing documentation for archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1
Installing ri documentation for archive-tar-minitar-0.6.1
Parsing documentation for highline-1.6.21
Installing ri documentation for highline-1.6.21
Parsing documentation for commander-4.2.1
Installing ri documentation for commander-4.2.1
Parsing documentation for httpclient-2.6.0.1
Installing ri documentation for httpclient-2.6.0.1
Parsing documentation for open4-1.3.4
Installing ri documentation for open4-1.3.4
Parsing documentation for rhc-1.38.7
Installing ri documentation for rhc-1.38.7
Done installing documentation for net-ssh, net-ssh-gateway, net-ssh-multi, minitar, hashie, powerbar, minitar-cli, archive-tar-minitar, highline, commander, httpclient, open4, rhc after 10 seconds
13 gems installed
root@jeremiah:~#

To start with rhc next do:
 

rhc setup
rhc app create my-app diy-0.1


and play with it to install software create services on the Redhat cloud.

 

 

Closure

This are just of the few of the numerous tools available and I definitely understand there is much more to be said on the topic.
If you can remember other tools tor interesting cloud starting up tips about stuff to do on a fresh installed Linux PC to make life easier with Cloud / PaaS / SaaS / DevOps engineer please drop a comment.

How to install KVM Kernel-based Virtual Machine Virtualization on Linux

Sunday, October 14th, 2018

install-KVM-Kernel-based-Virtual-Machine-virtualization-on-Linux

If you want to run multiple virtual machines on GNU / Linux server or your Linux powered Desktop you have the possibility to use a couple of Virtual Machines just to name a few VirtualBox and VMWare are the option the native way to do it is using the Linux kernel via a loadable kernel module called KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine).
Though Oracle's Virtualbox generally works and you could add new test beds virtual machines (install multiple Linux / *BSD OS) it is not fully Free Software and not even fully open source licensed, VMWare even though superior as a Virtualization product is proprietary and its application costs a lot of money which not each develpoper or small / mid-sized company could afford.

Once the kvm.ko module is loaded your Linux kernel turns into a full-featured Virtual Machine Hypervisor.
Starting with Linux kernel 2.6.X the KVM Hypervisor is available and easy to install virtually all modern Linux distributions Redhat / CentOS Debian / Ubuntu etc. support it and its up to running few commands to install and start using the Power of Kernel embedded Virtualization.

KVM could be used to run in parallel multiple Operating Systems such as Windows / Linux / FreeBSD and others of BSDs family,  each running under a separate virtual machine with its private dedicated (isolated), disc, graphic card, network card etc.

To start up I assume you have already installed some kind of Linux distribution either locally or on a remote dedicated server.
 

1. Installing KVM on Debian GNU / Linux / Ubuntu / Mint and other deb based distros

 

Using APT tool install below packages:

 

root@jeremiah:~# apt install –yes qemu-kvm libvirt-clients libvirt-daemon-system bridge-utils libguestfs-tools genisoimage virtinst libosinfo-bin

 

2. Installing virt-manager GUI to manage Virtual servers

 

root@jeremiah:~# apt-cache show virt-manager|grep -i desc -A 1
Description-en: desktop application for managing virtual machines
 It presents a summary view of running domains and their live performance &

Description-md5: 9f7f584744b77cdacc2291f2a8ac220e
Homepage: http://virt-manager.et.redhat.com/

 

root@jeremiah:~# apt install –yes virt-manager

 


virtual-manager-kvm-gnu-linux-virtual-machines-cpu-hdd-load-statistics-screenshot

 

 

virtual-manager-fedora-28-linux-virtual-machine-settings-screenshot


3. Configure bridged networking to allow access to newly configured VMs

Bridging has to be added via /etc/network/interfaces therefore it is a good idea to create a backup of it before modifying:

 

# cp -rpf /etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces.bakup-$(echo $(date '+%Y-%m-%d-%H'))

 

# vim /etc/network/interfaces

auto br0
 iface br0 inet static
         address 10.15.44.26
         netmask 255.255.255.192
         broadcast 10.15.44.63
         dns-nameservers 10.0.80.11 10.0.80.12
         # set static route for LAN
      post-up route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 10.18.44.1
      post-up route add -net 161.26.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 10.18.44.1
         bridge_ports eth0
         bridge_stp off
         bridge_fd 0
         bridge_maxwait 0
 
 # br1 setup with static wan IPv4 with ISP router as a default gateway
 auto br1
 iface br1 inet static
         address 192.168.222.51
         netmask 255.255.255.248
         broadcast 192.168.222.55
         gateway 192.168.222.49
         bridge_ports eth1
         bridge_stp off
         bridge_fd 0
         bridge_maxwait 0

 

Once file is saved in vim editor restart the networking.

 

# systemctl restart network.manager

 

To verify whether the bridge has been succesfully upped.

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# brctl show
bridge name    bridge id        STP enabled    interfaces
virbr0        8000.525400cb1cd1    yes        virbr0-nic

 

4. List all installable Virtual OS images
 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# virt-builder -list
centos-6                 x86_64     CentOS 6.6
centos-7.0               x86_64     CentOS 7.0
centos-7.1               x86_64     CentOS 7.1
centos-7.2               aarch64    CentOS 7.2 (aarch64)
centos-7.2               x86_64     CentOS 7.2
centos-7.3               x86_64     CentOS 7.3
centos-7.4               x86_64     CentOS 7.4
centos-7.5               x86_64     CentOS 7.5
cirros-0.3.1             x86_64     CirrOS 0.3.1
cirros-0.3.5             x86_64     CirrOS 0.3.5
debian-6                 x86_64     Debian 6 (Squeeze)
debian-7                 sparc64    Debian 7 (Wheezy) (sparc64)
debian-7                 x86_64     Debian 7 (wheezy)
debian-8                 x86_64     Debian 8 (jessie)
debian-9                 x86_64     Debian 9 (stretch)
fedora-18                x86_64     Fedora® 18
fedora-19                x86_64     Fedora® 19
fedora-20                x86_64     Fedora® 20
fedora-21                aarch64    Fedora® 21 Server (aarch64)
fedora-21                armv7l     Fedora® 21 Server (armv7l)
fedora-21                ppc64      Fedora® 21 Server (ppc64)
fedora-21                ppc64le    Fedora® 21 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-21                x86_64     Fedora® 21 Server
fedora-22                aarch64    Fedora® 22 Server (aarch64)
fedora-22                armv7l     Fedora® 22 Server (armv7l)
fedora-22                i686       Fedora® 22 Server (i686)
fedora-22                x86_64     Fedora® 22 Server
fedora-23                aarch64    Fedora® 23 Server (aarch64)
fedora-23                armv7l     Fedora® 23 Server (armv7l)
fedora-23                i686       Fedora® 23 Server (i686)
fedora-23                ppc64      Fedora® 23 Server (ppc64)
fedora-23                ppc64le    Fedora® 23 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-23                x86_64     Fedora® 23 Server
fedora-24                aarch64    Fedora® 24 Server (aarch64)
fedora-24                armv7l     Fedora® 24 Server (armv7l)
fedora-24                i686       Fedora® 24 Server (i686)
fedora-24                x86_64     Fedora® 24 Server
fedora-25                aarch64    Fedora® 25 Server (aarch64)
fedora-25                armv7l     Fedora® 25 Server (armv7l)
fedora-25                i686       Fedora® 25 Server (i686)
fedora-25                ppc64      Fedora® 25 Server (ppc64)
fedora-25                ppc64le    Fedora® 25 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-25                x86_64     Fedora® 25 Server
fedora-26                aarch64    Fedora® 26 Server (aarch64)
fedora-26                armv7l     Fedora® 26 Server (armv7l)
fedora-26                i686       Fedora® 26 Server (i686)
fedora-26                ppc64      Fedora® 26 Server (ppc64)
fedora-26                ppc64le    Fedora® 26 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-26                x86_64     Fedora® 26 Server
fedora-27                aarch64    Fedora® 27 Server (aarch64)
fedora-27                armv7l     Fedora® 27 Server (armv7l)
fedora-27                i686       Fedora® 27 Server (i686)
fedora-27                ppc64      Fedora® 27 Server (ppc64)
fedora-27                ppc64le    Fedora® 27 Server (ppc64le)
fedora-27                x86_64     Fedora® 27 Server
fedora-28                i686       Fedora® 28 Server (i686)
fedora-28                x86_64     Fedora® 28 Server
freebsd-11.1             x86_64     FreeBSD 11.1
scientificlinux-6        x86_64     Scientific Linux 6.5
ubuntu-10.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid)
ubuntu-12.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 12.04 (Precise)
ubuntu-14.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty)
ubuntu-16.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial)
ubuntu-18.04             x86_64     Ubuntu 18.04 (bionic)
opensuse-13.1            x86_64     openSUSE 13.1
opensuse-13.2            x86_64     openSUSE 13.2
opensuse-42.1            x86_64     openSUSE Leap 42.1
opensuse-tumbleweed      x86_64     openSUSE Tumbleweed


5. Create Virtual Machine OS-es from scratch with virt-builder

Below we'll create two images one for Fedora 28 and 1 for Debian 9 using the virt-builder (a tool to build virtual images quickly), the images that could be used are shown through below virt-builder –list command.
 

# iso='fedora-28';
# iso1='debian-9';

 

# sudo virt-builder $iso \
     –size=10G \
     –format qcow2 -o /var/lib/libvirt/images/$iso-vm1.qcow2 \
     –hostname $iso-vm1 \
     –network \
     –timezone Europe/Sofia

 

[   3.3] Downloading: http://libguestfs.org/download/builder/fedora-28.xz
[   5.2] Planning how to build this image
[   5.2] Uncompressing
[  20.8] Resizing (using virt-resize) to expand the disk to 10.0G
[  50.8] Opening the new disk
[  53.7] Setting a random seed
[  53.7] Setting the hostname: fedora-28-vm1
[  53.7] Setting the timezone: Europe/Sofia
[  53.7] Setting passwords
virt-builder: Setting random password of root to YMTkxaJIkEU24Ytf

[  54.7] Finishing off
                   Output file: /var/lib/libvirt/images/fedora-28-vm1.qcow2
                   Output size: 10.0G
                 Output format: qcow2
            Total usable space: 9.3G
                    Free space: 8.2G (87%)

 

# sudo virt-builder $iso1 \
     –size=10G \
     –format qcow2 -o /var/lib/libvirt/images/$iso-vm1.qcow2 \
     –hostname $iso1-vm1 \
     –network \
     –timezone Europe/Sofia

 

[   3.2] Downloading: http://libguestfs.org/download/builder/debian-9.xz
[   4.1] Planning how to build this image
[   4.1] Uncompressing
[  16.9] Resizing (using virt-resize) to expand the disk to 10.0G
[  40.1] Opening the new disk
[  42.9] Setting a random seed
virt-builder: warning: random seed could not be set for this type of guest
[  42.9] Setting the hostname: debian-9-vm1
[  43.6] Setting the timezone: Europe/Sofia
[  43.6] Setting passwords
virt-builder: Setting random password of root to JtzEYGff9KxL5jCR
[  44.3] Finishing off
                   Output file: /var/lib/libvirt/images/debian-9-vm1.qcow2
                   Output size: 10.0G
                 Output format: qcow2
            Total usable space: 9.8G
                    Free space: 9.0G (91%)


vim bridged.xml

<network>
  <name>br0</name>
  <forward mode="bridge"/>
  <bridge name="br0"/>
</network>

 

# sudo virsh net-define –file bridged.xml
# sudo virsh net-autostart br0
# sudo virsh net-start br0

 

Above two commands will download pre-packaged KVM isos and store them inside /var/lib/libvirt/images/ you see also the root (administrator) password for both ISOs printed out.

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# ls -ld /var/lib/libvirt/images/*
-rw-r–r– 1 root         root         10739318784 Oct 12 23:45 /var/lib/libvirt/images/debian-9-vm1.qcow2
-rw-r–r– 1 root         root         10739318784 Oct 12 23:46 /var/lib/libvirt/images/fedora-28-vm1.qcow2

 

To access directly the new created VMs as we have specified the –vnc option it is possible to directly vnc to the new host with VNC client (in linux I use vncviewer), on Windows you can use something like TightVNC.
 

6. Use official Linux distributions ISO boot files to install into KVM VM


Those who would like to run inside KVM VM Linux could do it directly using installable ISO files and install the set of Linux with the required packages, just like installing a fresh new Linux on a bare-metal machine.
To do so download your ISO image from the net (either from official distro website or a mirror website, in case if you need to spin an older version) and use virt-install to run the installer inside KVM.

 

root@jeremiah:~# cd /var/lib/libvirt/boot/;
root@jeremiah:~# wget http://mirrors.netix.net/centos/7.5.1804/isos/x86_64/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1804.iso

 

# sudo virt-install \
–virt-type=kvm \
–name centos7 \
–ram 2048 \
–vcpus=2 \
–os-variant=centos7.0 \
–virt-type=kvm \
–hvm \
–cdrom=/var/lib/libvirt/boot/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1804.iso \
–network=bridge=br0,model=virtio \
–network=bridge=br1,model=virtio \
–graphics vnc \
–disk path=/var/lib/libvirt/images/centos7.qcow2,size=40,bus=virtio,format=qcow2


7. List newly created VMs with Virsh command

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# virsh list –all
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 3     fedora-28                      running
 –     debian9                        shut off

 

The –all parameter lists all available VMs ready to spin, if you want to check what are the VMs that are only running use instead:

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# virsh list
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 3     fedora-28                      running

 

8. Install Virtual Machine OS-es

Below lines will install 2 Virtual machines one Fedora 28 and Debian 9

 

 os='fedora-28';
virt-install –import –name $os \
    –ram 2048 \
    –vcpu 2 \
    –disk path=/var/lib/libvirt/images/$os-vm1.qcow2,format=qcow2 \
    –os-variant fedora-unknown \
    –network=bridge=br0,model=virtio \
    –noautoconsole \
  –hvm \
  –graphics vnc

os='debian9';
virt-install –import –name $os     \
–ram 2048     \
–vcpu 2     \
–disk path=/var/lib/libvirt/images/$os-vm1.qcow2,format=qcow2     \
–os-variant debian9     –network=bridge=br0,model=virtio     \
–noautoconsole \
–hvm \
–graphics vnc


To deploy more just change the virtual machine type in os variable and modify the –os-variant variable to match the distribution name, to get the correct –os-variant variables that can be passed use osinfo-query below is output of the cmd:

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo/kvm# osinfo-query os
 Short ID             | Name                                               | Version  | ID                                      
———————-+—————————————————-+———-+—————————————–
 altlinux1.0          | Mandrake RE Spring 2001                            | 1.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/1.0        
 altlinux2.0          | ALT Linux 2.0                                      | 2.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/2.0        
 altlinux2.2          | ALT Linux 2.2                                      | 2.2      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/2.2        
 altlinux2.4          | ALT Linux 2.4                                      | 2.4      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/2.4        
 altlinux3.0          | ALT Linux 3.0                                      | 3.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/3.0        
 altlinux4.0          | ALT Linux 4.0                                      | 4.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/4.0        
 altlinux4.1          | ALT Linux 4.1                                      | 4.1      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/4.1        
 altlinux5.0          | ALT Linux 5.0                                      | 5.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/5.0        
 altlinux6.0          | ALT Linux 6.0                                      | 6.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/6.0        
 altlinux7.0          | ALT Linux 7.0                                      | 7.0      | http://altlinux.org/altlinux/7.0        
 centos6.0            | CentOS 6.0                                         | 6.0      | http://centos.org/centos/6.0            
 centos6.1            | CentOS 6.1                                         | 6.1      | http://centos.org/centos/6.1            
 centos6.2            | CentOS 6.2                                         | 6.2      | http://centos.org/centos/6.2            
 centos6.3            | CentOS 6.3                                         | 6.3      | http://centos.org/centos/6.3            
 centos6.4            | CentOS 6.4                                         | 6.4      | http://centos.org/centos/6.4            
 centos6.5            | CentOS 6.5                                         | 6.5      | http://centos.org/centos/6.5            
 centos6.6            | CentOS 6.6                                         | 6.6      | http://centos.org/centos/6.6            
 centos6.7            | CentOS 6.7                                         | 6.7      | http://centos.org/centos/6.7            
 centos6.8            | CentOS 6.8                                         | 6.8      | http://centos.org/centos/6.8            
 centos6.9            | CentOS 6.9                                         | 6.9      | http://centos.org/centos/6.9            
 centos7.0            | CentOS 7.0                                         | 7.0      | http://centos.org/centos/7.0            
 debian1.1            | Debian Buzz                                        | 1.1      | http://debian.org/debian/1.1            
 debian1.2            | Debian Rex                                         | 1.2      | http://debian.org/debian/1.2            
 debian1.3            | Debian Bo                                          | 1.3      | http://debian.org/debian/1.3            
 debian2.0            | Debian Hamm                                        | 2.0      | http://debian.org/debian/2.0            
 debian2.1            | Debian Slink                                       | 2.1      | http://debian.org/debian/2.1            
 debian2.2            | Debian Potato                                      | 2.2      | http://debian.org/debian/2.2            
 debian3              | Debian Woody                                       | 3        | http://debian.org/debian/3              
 debian3.1            | Debian Sarge                                       | 3.1      | http://debian.org/debian/3.1            
 debian4              | Debian Etch                                        | 4        | http://debian.org/debian/4              
 debian5              | Debian Lenny                                       | 5        | http://debian.org/debian/5              
 debian6              | Debian Squeeze                                     | 6        | http://debian.org/debian/6              
 debian7              | Debian Wheezy                                      | 7        | http://debian.org/debian/7              
 debian8              | Debian Jessie                                      | 8        | http://debian.org/debian/8              
 debian9              | Debian Stretch                                     | 9        | http://debian.org/debian/9              
 debiantesting        | Debian Testing                                     | testing  | http://debian.org/debian/testing        
 fedora-unknown       | Fedora                                             | unknown  | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/unknown
 fedora1              | Fedora Core 1                                      | 1        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/1       
 fedora10             | Fedora 10                                          | 10       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/10      
 fedora11             | Fedora 11                                          | 11       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/11      
 fedora12             | Fedora 12                                          | 12       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/12      
 fedora13             | Fedora 13                                          | 13       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/13      
 fedora14             | Fedora 14                                          | 14       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/14      
 fedora15             | Fedora 15                                          | 15       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/15      
 fedora16             | Fedora 16                                          | 16       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/16      
 fedora17             | Fedora 17                                          | 17       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/17      
 fedora18             | Fedora 18                                          | 18       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/18      
 fedora19             | Fedora 19                                          | 19       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/19      
 fedora2              | Fedora Core 2                                      | 2        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/2       
 fedora20             | Fedora 20                                          | 20       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/20      
 fedora21             | Fedora 21                                          | 21       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/21      
 fedora22             | Fedora 22                                          | 22       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/22      
 fedora23             | Fedora 23                                          | 23       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/23      
 fedora24             | Fedora 24                                          | 24       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/24      
 fedora25             | Fedora 25                                          | 25       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/25      
 fedora26             | Fedora 26                                          | 26       | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/26      
 fedora3              | Fedora Core 3                                      | 3        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/3       
 fedora4              | Fedora Core 4                                      | 4        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/4       
 fedora5              | Fedora Core 5                                      | 5        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/5       
 fedora6              | Fedora Core 6                                      | 6        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/6       
 fedora7              | Fedora 7                                           | 7        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/7       
 fedora8              | Fedora 8                                           | 8        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/8       
 fedora9              | Fedora 9                                           | 9        | http://fedoraproject.org/fedora/9       
 freebsd1.0           | FreeBSD 1.0                                        | 1.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/1.0          
 freebsd10.0          | FreeBSD 10.0                                       | 10.0     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.0         
 freebsd10.1          | FreeBSD 10.1                                       | 10.1     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.1         
 freebsd10.2          | FreeBSD 10.2                                       | 10.2     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.2         
 freebsd10.3          | FreeBSD 10.3                                       | 10.3     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.3         
 freebsd10.4          | FreeBSD 10.4                                       | 10.4     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/10.4         
 freebsd11.0          | FreeBSD 11.0                                       | 11.0     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/11.0         
 freebsd11.1          | FreeBSD 11.1                                       | 11.1     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/11.1         
 freebsd2.0           | FreeBSD 2.0                                        | 2.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.0          
 freebsd2.0.5         | FreeBSD 2.0.5                                      | 2.0.5    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.0.5        
 freebsd2.2.8         | FreeBSD 2.2.8                                      | 2.2.8    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.2.8        
 freebsd2.2.9         | FreeBSD 2.2.9                                      | 2.2.9    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/2.2.9        
 freebsd3.0           | FreeBSD 3.0                                        | 3.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/3.0          
 freebsd3.2           | FreeBSD 3.2                                        | 3.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/3.2          
 freebsd4.0           | FreeBSD 4.0                                        | 4.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.0          
 freebsd4.1           | FreeBSD 4.1                                        | 4.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.1          
 freebsd4.10          | FreeBSD 4.10                                       | 4.10     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.10         
 freebsd4.11          | FreeBSD 4.11                                       | 4.11     | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.11         
 freebsd4.2           | FreeBSD 4.2                                        | 4.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.2          
 freebsd4.3           | FreeBSD 4.3                                        | 4.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.3          
 freebsd4.4           | FreeBSD 4.4                                        | 4.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.4          
 freebsd4.5           | FreeBSD 4.5                                        | 4.5      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.5          
 freebsd4.6           | FreeBSD 4.6                                        | 4.6      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.6          
 freebsd4.7           | FreeBSD 4.7                                        | 4.7      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.7          
 freebsd4.8           | FreeBSD 4.8                                        | 4.8      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.8          
 freebsd4.9           | FreeBSD 4.9                                        | 4.9      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/4.9          
 freebsd5.0           | FreeBSD 5.0                                        | 5.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.0          
 freebsd5.1           | FreeBSD 5.1                                        | 5.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.1          
 freebsd5.2           | FreeBSD 5.2                                        | 5.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.2          
 freebsd5.2.1         | FreeBSD 5.2.1                                      | 5.2.1    | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.2.1        
 freebsd5.3           | FreeBSD 5.3                                        | 5.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.3          
 freebsd5.4           | FreeBSD 5.4                                        | 5.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.4          
 freebsd5.5           | FreeBSD 5.5                                        | 5.5      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/5.5          
 freebsd6.0           | FreeBSD 6.0                                        | 6.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.0          
 freebsd6.1           | FreeBSD 6.1                                        | 6.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.1          
 freebsd6.2           | FreeBSD 6.2                                        | 6.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.2          
 freebsd6.3           | FreeBSD 6.3                                        | 6.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.3          
 freebsd6.4           | FreeBSD 6.4                                        | 6.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/6.4          
 freebsd7.0           | FreeBSD 7.0                                        | 7.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.0          
 freebsd7.1           | FreeBSD 7.1                                        | 7.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.1          
 freebsd7.2           | FreeBSD 7.2                                        | 7.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.2          
 freebsd7.3           | FreeBSD 7.3                                        | 7.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.3          
 freebsd7.4           | FreeBSD 7.4                                        | 7.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/7.4          
 freebsd8.0           | FreeBSD 8.0                                        | 8.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.0          
 freebsd8.1           | FreeBSD 8.1                                        | 8.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.1          
 freebsd8.2           | FreeBSD 8.2                                        | 8.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.2          
 freebsd8.3           | FreeBSD 8.3                                        | 8.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.3          
 freebsd8.4           | FreeBSD 8.4                                        | 8.4      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/8.4          
 freebsd9.0           | FreeBSD 9.0                                        | 9.0      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.0          
 freebsd9.1           | FreeBSD 9.1                                        | 9.1      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.1          
 freebsd9.2           | FreeBSD 9.2                                        | 9.2      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.2          
 freebsd9.3           | FreeBSD 9.3                                        | 9.3      | http://freebsd.org/freebsd/9.3          
 freedos1.2           | FreeDOS 1.2                                        | 1.2      | http://freedos.org/freedos/1.2          
 gnome-continuous-3.10 | GNOME 3.10                                         | 3.10     | http://gnome.org/gnome-continuous/3.10  
 gnome-continuous-3.12 | GNOME 3.12                                         | 3.12     | http://gnome.org/gnome-continuous/3.12  
 gnome-continuous-3.14 | GNOME 3.14                                         | 3.14     | http://gnome.org/gnome-continuous/3.14  
 gnome3.6             | GNOME 3.6                                          | 3.6      | http://gnome.org/gnome/3.6              
 gnome3.8             | GNOME 3.8                                          | 3.8      | http://gnome.org/gnome/3.8              
 macosx10.0           | MacOS X Cheetah                                    | 10.0     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.0            
 macosx10.1           | MacOS X Puma                                       | 10.1     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.1            
 macosx10.2           | MacOS X Jaguar                                     | 10.2     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.2            
 macosx10.3           | MacOS X Panther                                    | 10.3     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.3            
 macosx10.4           | MacOS X Tiger                                      | 10.4     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.4            
 macosx10.5           | MacOS X Leopard                                    | 10.5     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.5            
 macosx10.6           | MacOS X Snow Leopard                               | 10.6     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.6            
 macosx10.7           | MacOS X Lion                                       | 10.7     | http://apple.com/macosx/10.7            
 mageia1              | Mageia 1                                           | 1        | http://mageia.org/mageia/1              
 mageia2              | Mageia 2                                           | 2        | http://mageia.org/mageia/2              
 mageia3              | Mageia 3                                           | 3        | http://mageia.org/mageia/3              
 mageia4              | Mageia 4                                           | 4        | http://mageia.org/mageia/4              
 mageia5              | Mageia 5                                           | 5        | http://mageia.org/mageia/5              
 mageia6              | Mageia 6                                           | 6        | http://mageia.org/mageia/6              
 mandrake10.0         | Mandrake Linux 10.0                                | 10.0     | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/10.0       
 mandrake10.1         | Mandrake Linux 10.1                                | 10.1     | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/10.1       
 mandrake10.2         | Mandrake Linux 10.2                                | 10.2     | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/10.2       
 mandrake5.1          | Mandrake Linux 5.1                                 | 5.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/5.1        
 mandrake5.2          | Mandrake Linux 5.2                                 | 5.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/5.2        
 mandrake5.3          | Mandrake Linux 5.3                                 | 5.3      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/5.3        
 mandrake6.0          | Mandrake Linux 6.0                                 | 6.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/6.0        
 mandrake6.1          | Mandrake Linux 6.1                                 | 6.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/6.1        
 mandrake7.0          | Mandrake Linux 7.0                                 | 7.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/7.0        
 mandrake7.1          | Mandrake Linux 7.1                                 | 7.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/7.1        
 mandrake7.2          | Mandrake Linux 7.2                                 | 7.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/7.2        
 mandrake8.0          | Mandrake Linux 8.0                                 | 8.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/8.0        
 mandrake8.1          | Mandrake Linux 8.1                                 | 8.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/8.1        
 mandrake8.2          | Mandrake Linux 8.2                                 | 8.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/8.2        
 mandrake9.0          | Mandrake Linux 9.0                                 | 9.0      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/9.0        
 mandrake9.1          | Mandrake Linux 9.1                                 | 9.1      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/9.1        
 mandrake9.2          | Mandrake Linux 9.2                                 | 9.2      | http://mandriva.com/mandrake/9.2        
 mandriva2006.0       | Mandriva Linux 2006.0                              | 2006.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2006.0     
 mandriva2007         | Mandriva Linux 2007                                | 2007     | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2007       
 mandriva2007.1       | Mandriva Linux 2007 Spring                         | 2007.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2007.1     
 mandriva2008.0       | Mandriva Linux 2008                                | 2008.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2008.0     
 mandriva2008.1       | Mandriva Linux 2008 Spring                         | 2008.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2008.1     
 mandriva2009.0       | Mandriva Linux 2009                                | 2009.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2009.0     
 mandriva2009.1       | Mandriva Linux 2009 Spring                         | 2009.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2009.1     
 mandriva2010.0       | Mandriva Linux 2010                                | 2010.0   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2010.0     
 mandriva2010.1       | Mandriva Linux 2010 Spring                         | 2010.1   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2010.1     
 mandriva2010.2       | Mandriva Linux 2010.2                              | 2010.2   | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2010.2     
 mandriva2011         | Mandriva Linux 2011                                | 2011     | http://mandriva.com/mandriva/2011       
 mbs1.0               | Mandriva Business Server 1.0                       | 1.0      | http://mandriva.com/mbs/1.0             
 mes5                 | Mandriva Enterprise Server 5.0                     | 5.0      | http://mandriva.com/mes/5.0             
 mes5.1               | Mandriva Enterprise Server 5.1                     | 5.1      | http://mandriva.com/mes/5.1             
 msdos6.22            | Microsoft MS-DOS 6.22                              | 6.22     | http://microsoft.com/msdos/6.22         
 netbsd0.8            | NetBSD 0.8                                         | 0.8      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/0.8            
 netbsd0.9            | NetBSD 0.9                                         | 0.9      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/0.9            
 netbsd1.0            | NetBSD 1.0                                         | 1.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.0            
 netbsd1.1            | NetBSD 1.1                                         | 1.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.1            
 netbsd1.2            | NetBSD 1.2                                         | 1.2      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.2            
 netbsd1.3            | NetBSD 1.3                                         | 1.3      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.3            
 netbsd1.4            | NetBSD 1.4                                         | 1.4      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.4            
 netbsd1.5            | NetBSD 1.5                                         | 1.5      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.5            
 netbsd1.6            | NetBSD 1.6                                         | 1.6      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/1.6            
 netbsd2.0            | NetBSD 2.0                                         | 2.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/2.0            
 netbsd3.0            | NetBSD 3.0                                         | 3.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/3.0            
 netbsd4.0            | NetBSD 4.0                                         | 4.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/4.0            
 netbsd5.0            | NetBSD 5.0                                         | 5.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/5.0            
 netbsd5.1            | NetBSD 5.1                                         | 5.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/5.1            
 netbsd6.0            | NetBSD 6.0                                         | 6.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/6.0            
 netbsd6.1            | NetBSD 6.1                                         | 6.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/6.1            
 netbsd7.0            | NetBSD 7.0                                         | 7.0      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/7.0            
 netbsd7.1            | NetBSD 7.1                                         | 7.1      | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/7.1            
 netbsd7.1.1          | NetBSD 7.1.1                                       | 7.1.1    | http://netbsd.org/netbsd/7.1.1          
 netware4             | Novell Netware 4                                   | 4        | http://novell.com/netware/4             
 netware5             | Novell Netware 5                                   | 5        | http://novell.com/netware/5             
 netware6             | Novell Netware 6                                   | 6        | http://novell.com/netware/6             
 openbsd4.2           | OpenBSD 4.2                                        | 4.2      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.2          
 openbsd4.3           | OpenBSD 4.3                                        | 4.3      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.3          
 openbsd4.4           | OpenBSD 4.4                                        | 4.4      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.4          
 openbsd4.5           | OpenBSD 4.5                                        | 4.5      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.5          
 openbsd4.8           | OpenBSD 4.8                                        | 4.8      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.8          
 openbsd4.9           | OpenBSD 4.9                                        | 4.9      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/4.9          
 openbsd5.0           | OpenBSD 5.0                                        | 5.0      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.0          
 openbsd5.1           | OpenBSD 5.1                                        | 5.1      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.1          
 openbsd5.2           | OpenBSD 5.2                                        | 5.2      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.2          
 openbsd5.3           | OpenBSD 5.3                                        | 5.3      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.3          
 openbsd5.4           | OpenBSD 5.4                                        | 5.4      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.4          
 openbsd5.5           | OpenBSD 5.5                                        | 5.5      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.5          
 openbsd5.6           | OpenBSD 5.6                                        | 5.6      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.6          
 openbsd5.7           | OpenBSD 5.7                                        | 5.7      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.7          
 openbsd5.8           | OpenBSD 5.8                                        | 5.8      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.8          
 openbsd5.9           | OpenBSD 5.9                                        | 5.9      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/5.9          
 openbsd6.0           | OpenBSD 6.0                                        | 6.0      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/6.0          
 openbsd6.1           | OpenBSD 6.1                                        | 6.1      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/6.1          
 openbsd6.2           | OpenBSD 6.2                                        | 6.2      | http://openbsd.org/openbsd/6.2          
 opensolaris2009.06   | OpenSolaris 2009.06                                | 2009.06  | http://sun.com/opensolaris/2009.06      
 opensuse-factory     | openSUSE                                           | factory  | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/factory    
 opensuse-unknown     | openSUSE                                           | unknown  | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/unknown    
 opensuse10.2         | openSUSE 10.2                                      | 10.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/10.2       
 opensuse10.3         | openSUSE 10.3                                      | 10.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/10.3       
 opensuse11.0         | openSUSE 11.0                                      | 11.0     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.0       
 opensuse11.1         | openSUSE 11.1                                      | 11.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.1       
 opensuse11.2         | openSUSE 11.2                                      | 11.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.2       
 opensuse11.3         | openSUSE 11.3                                      | 11.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.3       
 opensuse11.4         | openSUSE 11.4                                      | 11.4     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/11.4       
 opensuse12.1         | openSUSE 12.1                                      | 12.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/12.1       
 opensuse12.2         | openSUSE 12.2                                      | 12.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/12.2       
 opensuse12.3         | openSUSE 12.3                                      | 12.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/12.3       
 opensuse13.1         | openSUSE 13.1                                      | 13.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/13.1       
 opensuse13.2         | openSUSE 13.2                                      | 13.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/13.2       
 opensuse42.1         | openSUSE Leap 42.1                                 | 42.1     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/42.1       
 opensuse42.2         | openSUSE Leap 42.2                                 | 42.2     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/42.2       
 opensuse42.3         | openSUSE Leap 42.3                                 | 42.3     | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/42.3       
 opensusetumbleweed   | openSUSE Tumbleweed                                | tumbleweed | http://opensuse.org/opensuse/tumbleweed
 rhel-atomic-7.0      | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7.0           | 7.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel-atomic/7.0       
 rhel-atomic-7.1      | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7.1           | 7.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel-atomic/7.1       
 rhel-atomic-7.2      | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7.2           | 7.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel-atomic/7.2       
 rhel2.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1                       | 2.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1              
 rhel2.1.1            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 1  
/etc/bind/masters/elinvent.com            | 2.1.1    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.1            
 rhel2.1.2            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 2              | 2.1.2    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.2            
 rhel2.1.3            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 3              | 2.1.3    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.3            
 rhel2.1.4            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 4              | 2.1.4    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.4            
 rhel2.1.5            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 5              | 2.1.5    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.5            
 rhel2.1.6            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 6              | 2.1.6    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.6            
 rhel2.1.7            | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 Update 7              | 2.1.7    | http://redhat.com/rhel/2.1.7            
 rhel3                | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3                         | 3        | http://redhat.com/rhel/3                
 rhel3.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 1                | 3.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.1              
 rhel3.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 2                | 3.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.2              
 rhel3.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 3                | 3.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.3              
 rhel3.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 4                | 3.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.4              
 rhel3.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 5                | 3.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.5              
 rhel3.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 6                | 3.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.6              
 rhel3.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 7                | 3.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.7              
 rhel3.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 8                | 3.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.8              
 rhel3.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 Update 9                | 3.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/3.9              
 rhel4.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0                       | 4.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.0              
 rhel4.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.1                       | 4.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.1              
 rhel4.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.2                       | 4.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.2              
 rhel4.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.3                       | 4.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.3              
 rhel4.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.4                       | 4.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.4              
 rhel4.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.5                       | 4.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.5              
 rhel4.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.6                       | 4.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.6              
 rhel4.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.7                       | 4.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.7              
 rhel4.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.8                       | 4.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.8              
 rhel4.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.9                       | 4.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/4.9              
 rhel5.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0                       | 5.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.0              
 rhel5.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1                       | 5.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.1              
 rhel5.10             | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.10                      | 5.10     | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.10             
 rhel5.11             | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.11                      | 5.11     | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.11             
 rhel5.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2                       | 5.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.2              
 rhel5.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.3                       | 5.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.3              
 rhel5.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4                       | 5.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.4              
 rhel5.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5                       | 5.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.5              
 rhel5.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.6                       | 5.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.6              
 rhel5.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.7                       | 5.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.7              
 rhel5.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8                       | 5.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.8              
 rhel5.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.9                       | 5.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/5.9              
 rhel6.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0                       | 6.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.0              
 rhel6.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1                       | 6.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.1              
 rhel6.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2                       | 6.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.2              
 rhel6.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3                       | 6.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.3              
 rhel6.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4                       | 6.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.4              
 rhel6.5              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5                       | 6.5      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.5              
 rhel6.6              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6                       | 6.6      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.6              
 rhel6.7              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.7                       | 6.7      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.7              
 rhel6.8              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.8                       | 6.8      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.8              
 rhel6.9              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.9                       | 6.9      | http://redhat.com/rhel/6.9              
 rhel7.0              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0                       | 7.0      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.0              
 rhel7.1              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.1                       | 7.1      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.1              
 rhel7.2              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2                       | 7.2      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.2              
 rhel7.3              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.3                       | 7.3      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.3              
 rhel7.4              | Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.4                       | 7.4      | http://redhat.com/rhel/7.4              
 rhl1.0               | Red Hat Linux 1.0                                  | 1.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/1.0               
 rhl1.1               | Red Hat Linux 1.1                                  | 1.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/1.1               
 rhl2.0               | Red Hat Linux 2.0                                  | 2.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/2.0               
 rhl2.1               | Red Hat Linux 2.1                                  | 2.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/2.1               
 rhl3.0.3             | Red Hat Linux 3.0.3                                | 3.0.3    | http://redhat.com/rhl/3.0.3             
 rhl4.0               | Red Hat Linux 4.0                                  | 4.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/4.0               
 rhl4.1               | Red Hat Linux 4.1                                  | 4.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/4.1               
 rhl4.2               | Red Hat Linux 4.2                                  | 4.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/4.2               
 rhl5.0               | Red Hat Linux 5.0                                  | 5.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/5.0               
 rhl5.1               | Red Hat Linux 5.1                                  | 5.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/5.1               
 rhl5.2               | Red Hat Linux 5.2                                  | 5.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/5.2               
 rhl6.0               | Red Hat Linux 6.0                                  | 6.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/6.0               
 rhl6.1               | Red Hat Linux 6.1                                  | 6.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/6.1               
 rhl6.2               | Red Hat Linux 6.2                                  | 6.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/6.2               
 rhl7                 | Red Hat Linux 7                                    | 7        | http://redhat.com/rhl/7                 
 rhl7.1               | Red Hat Linux 7.1                                  | 7.1      | http://redhat.com/rhl/7.1               
 rhl7.2               | Red Hat Linux 7.2                                  | 7.2      | http://redhat.com/rhl/7.2               
 rhl7.3               | Red Hat Linux 7.3                                  | 7.3      | http://redhat.com/rhl/7.3               
 rhl8.0               | Red Hat Linux 8.0                                  | 8.0      | http://redhat.com/rhl/8.0               
 rhl9                 | Red Hat Linux 9                                    | 9        | http://redhat.com/rhl/9                 
 sled10               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10                   | 10       | http://suse.com/sled/10                 
 sled10sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP1               | 10.1     | http://suse.com/sled/10.1               
 sled10sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP2               | 10.2     | http://suse.com/sled/10.2               
 sled10sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP3               | 10.3     | http://suse.com/sled/10.3               
 sled10sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 10 SP4               | 10.4     | http://suse.com/sled/10.4               
 sled11               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11                   | 11       | http://suse.com/sled/11                 
 sled11sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP1               | 11.1     | http://suse.com/sled/11.1               
 sled11sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP2               | 11.2     | http://suse.com/sled/11.2               
 sled11sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP3               | 11.3     | http://suse.com/sled/11.3               
 sled11sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 11 SP4               | 11.4     | http://suse.com/sled/11.4               
 sled12               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12                   | 12       | http://suse.com/sled/12                 
 sled12sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12 SP1               | 12.1     | http://suse.com/sled/12.1               
 sled12sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 12 SP2               | 12.2     | http://suse.com/sled/12.2               
 sled9                | SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 9                    | 9        | http://suse.com/sled/9                  
 sles10               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10            
/etc/bind/masters/elinvent.com        | 10       | http://suse.com/sles/10                 
 sles10sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP1                | 10.1     | http://suse.com/sles/10.1               
 sles10sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP2                | 10.2     | http://suse.com/sles/10.2               
 sles10sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP3                | 10.3     | http://suse.com/sles/10.3               
 sles10sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP4                | 10.4     | http://suse.com/sles/10.4               
 sles11               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11                    | 11       | http://suse.com/sles/11                 
 sles11sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP1                | 11.1     | http://suse.com/sles/11.1               
 sles11sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP2                | 11.2     | http://suse.com/sles/11.2               
 sles11sp3            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP3                | 11.3     | http://suse.com/sles/11.3               
 sles11sp4            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 SP4                | 11.4     | http://suse.com/sles/11.4               
 sles12               | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12                    | 12       | http://suse.com/sles/12                 
 sles12sp1            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1                | 12.1     | http://suse.com/sles/12.1               
 sles12sp2            | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP2                | 12.2     | http://suse.com/sles/12.2               
 sles9                | SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9                     | 9        | http://suse.com/sles/9                  
 solaris10            | Solaris 10                                         | 10       | http://sun.com/solaris/10               
 solaris11            | Oracle Solaris 11                                  | 11       | http://oracle.com/solaris/11            
 solaris9             | Solaris 9                                          | 9        | http://sun.com/solaris/9                
 ubuntu10.04          | Ubuntu 10.04 LTS                                   | 10.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/10.04          
 ubuntu10.10          | Ubuntu 10.10                                       | 10.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/10.10          
 ubuntu11.04          | Ubuntu 11.04                                       | 11.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/11.04          
 ubuntu11.10          | Ubuntu 11.10                                       | 11.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/11.10          
 ubuntu12.04          | Ubuntu 12.04 LTS                                   | 12.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/12.04          
 ubuntu12.10          | Ubuntu 12.10                                       | 12.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/12.10          
 ubuntu13.04          | Ubuntu 13.04                                       | 13.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/13.04          
 ubuntu13.10          | Ubuntu 13.10                                       | 13.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/13.10          
 ubuntu14.04          | Ubuntu 14.04 LTS                                   | 14.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/14.04          
 ubuntu14.10          | Ubuntu 14.10                                       | 14.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/14.10          
 ubuntu15.04          | Ubuntu 15.04                                       | 15.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/15.04          
 ubuntu15.10          | Ubuntu 15.10                                       | 15.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/15.10          
 ubuntu16.04          | Ubuntu 16.04                                       | 16.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/16.04          
 ubuntu16.10          | Ubuntu 16.10                                       | 16.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/16.10          
 ubuntu17.04          | Ubuntu 17.04                                       | 17.04    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/17.04          
 ubuntu17.10          | Ubuntu 17.10                                       | 17.10    | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/17.10          
 ubuntu4.10           | Ubuntu 4.10                                        | 4.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/4.10           
 ubuntu5.04           | Ubuntu 5.04                                        | 5.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/5.04           
 ubuntu5.10           | Ubuntu 5.10                                        | 5.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/5.10           
 ubuntu6.06           | Ubuntu 6.06 LTS                                    | 6.06     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/6.06           
 ubuntu6.10           | Ubuntu 6.10                                        | 6.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/6.10           
 ubuntu7.04           | Ubuntu 7.04                                        | 7.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/7.04           
 ubuntu7.10           | Ubuntu 7.10                                        | 7.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/7.10           
 ubuntu8.04           | Ubuntu 8.04 LTS                                    | 8.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/8.04           
 ubuntu8.10           | Ubuntu 8.10                                        | 8.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/8.10           
 ubuntu9.04           | Ubuntu 9.04                                        | 9.04     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/9.04           
 ubuntu9.10           | Ubuntu 9.10                                        | 9.10     | http://ubuntu.com/ubuntu/9.10           
 win1.0               | Microsoft Windows 1.0                              | 1.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/1.0            
 win10                | Microsoft Windows 10                               | 10.0     | http://microsoft.com/win/10             
 win2.0               | Microsoft Windows 2.0                              | 2.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/2.0            
 win2.1               | Microsoft Windows 2.1                              | 2.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/2.1            
 win2k                | Microsoft Windows 2000                             | 5.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k             
 win2k12              | Microsoft Windows Server 2012                      | 6.3      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k12           
 win2k12r2            | Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2                   | 6.3      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k12r2         
 win2k3               | Microsoft Windows Server 2003                      | 5.2      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k3            
 win2k3r2             | Microsoft Windows Server 2003 R2                   | 5.2      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k3r2          
 win2k8               | Microsoft Windows Server 2008                      | 6.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k8            
 win2k8r2             | Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2                   | 6.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/2k8r2          
 win3.1               | Microsoft Windows 3.1                              | 3.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/3.1            
 win7                 | Microsoft Windows 7                                | 6.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/7              
 win8                 | Microsoft Windows 8                                | 6.2      | http://microsoft.com/win/8              
 win8.1               | Microsoft Windows 8.1                              | 6.3      | http://microsoft.com/win/8.1            
 win95                | Microsoft Windows 95                               | 4.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/95             
 win98                | Microsoft Windows 98                               | 4.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/98             
 winme                | Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition               | 4.9      | http://microsoft.com/win/me             
 winnt3.1             | Microsoft Windows NT Server 3.1                    | 3.1      | http://microsoft.com/winnt/3.1          
 winnt3.5             | Microsoft Windows NT Server 3.5                    | 3.5      | http://microsoft.com/winnt/3.5          
 winnt3.51            | Microsoft Windows NT Server 3.51                   | 3.51     | http://microsoft.com/winnt/3.51         
 winnt4.0             | Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0                    | 4.0      | http://microsoft.com/winnt/4.0          
 winvista             | Microsoft Windows Vista                            | 6.0      | http://microsoft.com/win/vista          
 winxp                | Microsoft Windows XP                               | 5.1      | http://microsoft.com/win/xp  

 

9. Start / Stop listed KVM Virtual Machine

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh list –all
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 3     fedora-28                      running
 –     debian9                        shut off

 

To start debian9 linux virtual machine that is currently off

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh start fedora-28
Domain fedora-28 started

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh start debian9
error: Failed to start domain debian9
error: Requested operation is not valid: network 'default' is not active

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh net-list –all
Name                 State      Autostart     Persistent
———————————————————-
br0                  active     yes           yes
default              inactive   no            yes

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh net-start default
Network default started

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# virsh start debian9
Domain debian9 started

 

10. Attach to running VM with virsh or virt-manager

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh list
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 1     fedora-28                      running
 3     debian9                        running

root@jeremiah:~# virsh connect debian9

 


Note that to make the login prompt appear you have to press enter once after the ^] connection string appears


kvm-connect-to-virtual-machine-with-virsh-command-screenshot-howto

An alternative way is to use virt-manager GUI KVM desktop management interface and click over the Virtual Machine Guest name, in same fashion like in VirtualBox.

virtual-manager-virt-manager-screenshot-with-Virtual-Machines-inside-on-Debian-Linux

virt-manager-gui-interface-connect-to-fedora-28-virtual-machine

If you have KVM running on your Linux desktop PC / notebook you can also connect via VNC with virsh command.

 

root@jericho:~# virsh vncdisplay centos7


Another handy thing is to expose the Virtualized Guest OS with VNC in order to be able to connect and manage installation or further Linux configuration via VNC using an SSH Tunnel with port forwarding:

 

$ ssh hipo@www.pc-freak.net -L 5901:127.0.0.1:5901

 

11.  Start / Shutdown / Suspend / Reboot (safe reboot) a VM guest machine domain

 

 

root@jericho:~# virsh shutdown debian9
root@jericho:~# virsh start fedora-28
root@jericho:~# virsh suspend debian9
root@jericho:~# virsh reboot fedora-28

 

12. Remove / Delete KVM Virtual Machines domain

 

root@jeremiah:~# virsh undefine fedora-28
root@jeremiah:~# virsh destroy fedora-28


Closing words


Using KVM to experiment with different OS distributions is really fun just like you can easily run a number of the major most popular Linux Distributions and a set of different versions. It takes few minutes to have a fully functional Linux to play with and it saves a lot of hassles when dealing with GNU / Linux and FreeBSD, doing so in Virtualbox for me prooved to be much more complicated (not to mention that often Virtualbox had an ugly bugs so even Importing an Appliance as a Guest VM with an official distro OS-es failed with weird errors.
One other very practical use of Kerkel-based Virtualization is if you want to run your servers using own Micro-Services architecture (e.g. run multiple Linux OS-es each running a separate Apache / Nginx / MySQL / PostGreSQL / Backup / Storage) etc. all of it running on a single dedicated server or a self-hosted bare-metal
There are plenty of Web Interfaces for Management KVM (proprietary and free software) that could even futher simplify the use and deploy / destory of KVM VMs.
All that makes possible running your own Linux or Web hosting provider a relatively easy task and seriously could cut business expenses and operational (maintenance) costs.

If you plan to run youw own hosting company, I can help you establish your infrastructure and advise you on the right technologies to use.

 

Qmail redirect mail to another one and keep local Mailbox copy with .qmail file – Easy Set up email forwarding Qmail

Saturday, August 11th, 2018

Qmail redirect mail box to another one with .Qmail file dolphin artistic logo

QMail (Considered to be the most secure Mail server out there whose modified version is running on Google – Gmail.com and Mail Yahoo! and Yandex EMail (SMTP) servers, nowadays has been highly neglected and considered obsolete thus most people prefer to use postfix SMTP or EXIM but still if you happen to be running a number of qmail old rack Mail servers (running a bunch of Email addresses and Virtual Domains straight on the filesystem – very handy by the way for administration much better than when you have a Qmail Mail server configured to store its Mailboxes within MySQL / PostgreSQL or other Database server – because simple vpopmail configured to play nice with Qmail and store all user emails directly on Filesystem (though considered more insecure the email correspondence can be easily red, if the server is hacked it is much better managable for a small and mid-sized mailserver) or have inherited them from another sys admin and you wonder how to redirect a single Mailbox:

(under domain lets say domain's email  my-server1.com should forward to to SMTP domain my-server-whatever2.com (e.g. your-email-username@server-whatever1.com is supposed to forward to your-email-username2@server-whatever2.com).
To achieve it create new file called .qmail

Under the Qmail or VirtualDomain location for example:

/var/qmail/mailnames/myserver1.com/username/.qmail

 

e.g
 

root@qmail-server:~# vim /var/qmail/mailnames/myserver1.com/your-email-username/.qmail
&your-email-username@server-whatever1.com

your-email-username@example1.com
/home/vpopmail/domains/server-whatever2.com/your-email-username/Maildir/


!!! NOTE N.B. !!! the last slash / after Maildir (…Maildir/) is important to be there otherwise mail will not get delivered
That's all now send a test email, just to make sure redirection works properly, assuming the .qmail file is created by root, by default the file permissions will be with privileges root:root.

Note
 

That shouldn't be a problem at all. That's all now enjoy emails being dropped out to the second mail 🙂

 

Installing the phpbb forum on Debian (Squeeze/Sid) Linux

Saturday, September 11th, 2010

howto-easily-install-phpbb-on-debian-gnu-linux

I've just installed the phpbb forum on a Debian Linux because we needed a goodquick to install communication media in order to improve our internal communication in a student project in Strategic HR we're developing right now in Arnhem Business School.

Here are the exact steps I followed to have a properly it properly instlled:

1. Install the phpbb3 debian package
This was pretty straight forward:

debian:~# apt-get install phpbb3

At this point of installation I've faced a dpkg-reconfigure phpbb deb package configuration issue:
I was prompted to pass in the credentials for my MySQL password right after I've selected the MySQL as my preferred database back engine.
I've feeded my MySQL root password as well as my preferred forum database name, however the database installation failed because, somehow the configuration procedure tried to connect to my MySQL database with the htcheck user.
I guess this has to be a bug in the package itself or something from my previous installation misconfigured the way the debian database backend configuration was operating.
My assumption is that my previously installed htcheck package or something beforehand I've done right after the htcheck and htcheck-php packages installation.

after the package configuration failed still the package had a status of properly installed when I reviewed it with dpkg
I've thought about trying to manually reconfigure it using the dpkg-reconfigure debian command and I gave it a try like that:

debian:~# dpkg-reconfigure phpbb3

This time along with the other fields I've to fill in the ncurses interface I was prompted for a username before the password prompted appeared.
Logically I tried to fill in the root as it's my global privileges MySQL allowed user.
However that didn't helped at all and again the configuration tried to send the credentials with user htcheck to my MySQL database server.
To deal with the situation I had to approach it in the good old manual way.

2. Manually prepare / create the required phpbb forum database

To completet that connected to the MySQL server with the mysql client and created the proper database like so:

debian:~# mysql -u root -p
mysql>
CREATE database phpbb3forum;

3. Use phpmyadmin or the mysql client command line to create a new user for the phpbb forum

Here since adding up the user using the phpmyadmin was a way easier to do I decided to go that route, anyways using the mysql cli is also an option.

From phpmyadmin It's pretty easy to add a new user and grant privileges to a certain database, to do so navigate to the following database:

Privileges -> -> Add a new user ->

Now type your User name: , Host , Password , Re-type password , also for a Host: you have to choose Local from the drop down menu.

Leave the Database for user field empty as we have already previously created our desired database in step 2 of this article

Now press the "Go" button and the user will get created.

Further after choose the Privileges menu right on the bottom of the page once again, select through the checkbox the username you have just created let's say the previously created user is phpbb3

Go to Action (There is a picture with a man and a pencil on the right side of this button

Scroll down to the page part saying Database-specific privileges and in the field Add privileges on the following database: fill in your previosly created database name in our case it's phpbb3forum

and then press the "Go" button once again.
A page will appear where you will have to select the exact privileges you would like to grant on the specific selected database.
For some simplicity just check all the checkbox to grant as many privilegs to your database as you could.
Then again you will have to press the "Go" button and there you go you should have already configured an username and database ready to go with your new phpbb forum.

4. Create a virtualhost if you would like to have the forum as a subdomain or into a separate domain

If you decide to have the forum on a separate sub-domain or domain as I did you will have to add some kind of Virtualhost into either your Apache configuration /etc/apache2/apache2.conf or into where officially the virutualhosts are laid in Debian Linux in /etc/apache2/sites-available
I've personally created a new file like for instance /etc/apache2/sites-available/mysubdomain.mydomain.com

Here is an example content of the new Virtualhost:

<VirtualHost *>
ServerAdmin admin-email@domain.com
ServerName mysubdomain.domain.com

# Indexes + Directory Root.
DirectoryIndex index.php index.php5 index.htm index.html index.pl index.cgi index.phtml index.jsp index.py index.asp

DocumentRoot /usr/share/phpbb3/www/

# Logfiles
ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/yourdomain/error.log
CustomLog /var/log/apache2/yourdomain/access.log combined
# CustomLog /dev/null combined
<Directory /usr/share/phpbb3/www/>
Options FollowSymLinks MultiViews -Includes ExecCGI
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
allow from all </Directory>
</VirtualHost>

In above Virtualhost just change the values for ServerAdmin , ServerName , DocumentRoot , ErrorLog , CustomLog and Directory declaration to adjust it to your situation.

5. Restart the Apache webserver for the new Virtualhost to take affect

debian:~# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Now accessing your http://mysubdomain.domain.com should display the installed phpbb3 forum
The default username and password for your forum you can use straight are:

username: admin
password: admin

So far so good you by now have the PHPBB3 forum properly installed and running, however if you try to Register a new user in the forum you will notice that it's impossible because of a terrible ugly message reading:

Sorry but this board is currently unavailable.

I've spend few minutes online to scrape through the forums before I can understand what I have to stop that annoying message from appearing and allow new users to register in the phpbb forum

The solution came natural and was a setting that had to be changed with the forum admin account, thus login as admin and look at the bottom of the page, below the text reading Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group you will notice a link with Administration Control Panel
just press there a whole bunch of menus will appear on the screen allowing you to do numerous things, however what you will have to do is go to
Board Settings -> Disable Board

and change the radio button there to say No

That's all now your forum will be ready to go and your users can freely register and if the server where the forum is installed has an already running mail server, they will receive an emails with a registration data concerning their new registrations in your new phpbb forum.
Cheers and Enjoy your new shiny phpbb Forum 🙂