Posts Tagged ‘How to’

How to do a port redirect to localhost service with socat or ncat commands to open temporary access to service not seen on the network

Friday, February 23rd, 2024

socat-simple-redirect-tcp-port-on-linux-bsd-logo

You know sometimes it is necessery to easily and temporary redirect network TCP ports to be able to be accessible from Internal DMZ-ed Network via some Local Network IP connection or if the computer system is Internet based and has an external "'real" Internet Class A / B address to be reachable directly from the internet via lets say a modern Internet browser such as Mozilla Firefox / Google Chrome Browser etc.

Such things are easy to be done with iptables if you need to do the IP redirect permanent with Firewall rule changes on Linux router with iptables.
One way to create a TCP port redirect using firewall would include few iptable rules  like for example:

1. Redirect port traffic from external TCP port source to internal one

# iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp –dport 10000 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 80
# iptables -t nat -I OUTPUT -p tcp -o lo –dport 10000 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 80
# iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -o lo -d 127.0.0.1 -p tcp –dport 80 -j DNAT  –to-destination 192.168.0.50:10000
# iptables -t nat -I OUTPUT –source 0/0 –destination 0/0 -p tcp –dport 80 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 10000


Then you will have 192.168.00.50:10000 listener (assuming that the IP is already configured on some of the host network interface, plugged in to the network).

 But as messing up with the firewall is not the best thing to do especially, if you need to just temporary redirect external listener port to a service configured on the server to only run on TCP port on loopback address 127.0.0.1, you can do it instead with another script or command for simplicy.

One simple way to do a port redirect on the fly on GNU / Linux or FreeBSD / OpenBSD is with socat command.

Lets say you have a running statistics of a web server Apache / Nginx / Haproxy frontend / backend statistics or whatever kind of web TCP service on port 80 on your server and this interface is on purpose configured to be reachable only on localhost interface port 80, so you can either access it by creating an ssh tunnel towards the service on 127.0.0.1 or by accessing it by redirecting the traffic towards another external TCP port, lets say 10000.

Here is how you can achieve

2. Redirect Local network accessible IP on all configured Server network interfaces port 10000 to 127.0.0.1 TCP 80 with socat

# socat tcp-l:10000,fork,reuseaddr tcp:127.0.0.1:80

If you need to access later the redirected port in a Browser, pick up the machine first configured IP and open it in a browser (assuming there is no firewall filter prohibiting access to redirected port).

root@pcfreak:~# ifconfig eth0
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 109.104.212.130  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 109.104.212.255
        ether 91:f8:51:03:75:e5  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 652945510  bytes 598369753019 (557.2 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 10541  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 619726615  bytes 630209829226 (586.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Then in a browser open http://102.104.212.130 or https://102.104.212.130 (depending on if remote service has SSL encryption enabled or not) and you're done, the configured listener Server service should pop-up on the screen.

3. Redirect IP Traffic from External IP to Localhost loopback interface with netcat ( ncat ) swiss army knife hackers and sysadmins tool

If you need to redirect lets say TCP / IP port 8000 to Port a server local binded service on TCP 80 with ncat, instead of socat (if lets say socat is not pre-installed on the machine), you can do it by simply running those two commands:

[root@server ~]# mkfifo svr1_to_svr2
[root@server ~]# ncat -vk -l 8000 < svr1_to_svr2 | ncat 127.0.0.1 80 > svr1_to_svr2
Ncat: Version 7.92 ( https://nmap.org/ncat )
Ncat: Listening on 0.0.0.0:10000
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39:51813.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39:23179.

 

I you don't care to log what is going on the background of connection and you simply want to background the process with a one liner command you can achive that with:


[root@server /tmp]# cd tmp; mkfifo svr1_to_svr2; (ncat -vk -l 8000 < svr1_to_svr2 | ncat 127.0.0.1 80 > svr1_to_svr2 &)
 

Then you can open the Internal Machine Port 80 TCP service on 8000 in a browser as usual.

For those who want a bit of more sophisticated proxy like script I would suggest you take a look at using netcat and a few lines of shell script loop, that can simulate a raw and very primitive proxy with netcat this is exampled in my previous article Create simple proxy server with netcat ( nc ) based utility.

Hope this article is helpful to anyone, there is plenty of other ways to do a port redirect with lets say perl, python and perhaps other micro tools. If you know of one liners or small scripts, that do it please share in comments, so we can learn from each other ! 

Enjoy ! 🙂
 

How to run SSH server Mac OS X and set it to auto boot on Mac Book system start

Monday, February 5th, 2024

mac os X

How to run SSH Server on Mac OS X to administrate remotely your MAC OS to access remote MacBook Air or Mac OS 

Linux / UNIX users know it is pretty easy to run OpenSSH server on old Linux SystemV releases

it is done with cmd:

# /etc/init.d/sshd start


On newer Linux distros where systemd is the standard it is done wtih:

# systemctl start ssh.service

To enable ssh service on boot on systemd distros

# systemctl enable ssh.service


To enable SSH access on Mac OS X this is done wtih a simple command

To check the status of SSH server being on or OFF, either connect with netcat to TCP port 22, which is usually installed by default on most MAC OS-es or run:

# systemsetup -getremotelogin

To start and enable SSH service on Mac OS X run:

# systemsetup -setremotelogin on 


If you later need to turn off the SSH service

# systemsetup -setremotelogin off

Actually systemsetup command can do pretty much on MAC OS X and it is worthy to take a look at it, if you're running a MAC PC or Mac Book laptop.

systemsetup can set the current date, change time server host, set computer name (hostname) and much more.

sh-3.2# systemsetup -help

systemsetup Help Information
————————————-
Usage: systemsetup -getdate
        Display current date.

Usage: systemsetup -setdate <mm:dd:yy>
        Set current date to <mm:dd:yy>.

Usage: systemsetup -gettime
        Display current time.

Usage: systemsetup -settime <hh:mm:ss>
        Set current time to <hh:mm:ss>.

Usage: systemsetup -gettimezone
        Display current time zone.

Usage: systemsetup -settimezone <timezone>
        Set current time zone to <timezone>. Use "-listtimezones" to list time zones.

Usage: systemsetup -listtimezones
        List time zones supported by this machine.

Usage: systemsetup -getusingnetworktime
        Display whether network time is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setusingnetworktime <on off>
        Set using network time to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getnetworktimeserver
        Display network time server.

Usage: systemsetup -setnetworktimeserver <timeserver>
        Set network time server to <timeserver>.

Usage: systemsetup -getsleep
        Display amount of idle time until computer, display and hard disk sleep.

Usage: systemsetup -setsleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until computer, display and hard disk sleep to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getcomputersleep
        Display amount of idle time until computer sleeps.

Usage: systemsetup -setcomputersleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until compputer sleeps to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getdisplaysleep
        Display amount of idle time until display sleeps.

Usage: systemsetup -setdisplaysleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until display sleeps to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getharddisksleep
        Display amount of idle time until hard disk sleeps.

Usage: systemsetup -setharddisksleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until hard disk sleeps to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getwakeonmodem
        Display whether wake on modem is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setwakeonmodem <on off>
        Set wake on modem to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getwakeonnetworkaccess
        Display whether wake on network access is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setwakeonnetworkaccess <on off>
        Set wake on network access to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getrestartpowerfailure
        Display whether restart on power failure is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setrestartpowerfailure <on off>
        Set restart on power failure to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getrestartfreeze
        Display whether restart on freeze is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setrestartfreeze <on off>
        Set restart on freeze to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getallowpowerbuttontosleepcomputer
        Display whether the power button is able to sleep the computer.

Usage: systemsetup -setallowpowerbuttontosleepcomputer <on off>
        Enable or disable whether the power button can sleep the computer.

Usage: systemsetup -getremotelogin
        Display whether remote login is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setremotelogin <on off>
        Set remote login to either <on> or <off>. Use "systemsetup -f -setremotelogin off" to suppress prompting when turning remote login off.

Usage: systemsetup -getremoteappleevents
        Display whether remote apple events are on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setremoteappleevents <on off>
        Set remote apple events to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getcomputername
        Display computer name.

Usage: systemsetup -setcomputername <computername>
        Set computer name to <computername>.

Usage: systemsetup -getlocalsubnetname
        Display local subnet name.

Usage: systemsetup -setlocalsubnetname <name>
        Set local subnet name to <name>.

Usage: systemsetup -getstartupdisk
        Display current startup disk.

Usage: systemsetup -setstartupdisk <disk>
        Set current startup disk to <disk>.

Usage: systemsetup -liststartupdisks
        List startup disks on this machine.

Usage: systemsetup -getwaitforstartupafterpowerfailure
        Get the number of seconds after which the computer will start up after a power failure.

Usage: systemsetup -setwaitforstartupafterpowerfailure <seconds>
        Set the number of seconds after which the computer will start up after a power failure. The <seconds> value must be a multiple of 30 seconds.

Usage: systemsetup -getdisablekeyboardwhenenclosurelockisengaged
        Get whether or not the keyboard should be disabled when the X Serve enclosure lock is engaged.

Usage: systemsetup -setdisablekeyboardwhenenclosurelockisengaged <yes no>
        Set whether or not the keyboard should be disabled when the X Serve enclosure lock is engaged.

Usage: systemsetup -version
        Display version of systemsetup tool.

Usage: systemsetup -help
        Display help.

Usage: systemsetup -printCommands
        Display commands.

 

Enabling SSH in Mac OS X computers can be done also from Graphical interface for the lazy ones.

enable-ssh-mac-remote-login-from-mac-OS-X-gui

How to turn On or Off Screen Reader ORCA on Linux Desktop enabled by mistype or a kid smash on the keyboard

Wednesday, November 22nd, 2023

orca-screen-reader-communication-services-logo

For those who type quite fast and use Microsoft Windows, its quite common to start the annoying NARRATOR (Windows Speaking Program) by accidently due to mistyping pressing together Windows key + Control + Enter.
This enables Narrator to read stuff on the screen here and there and to turn it off you just have to either Lock the Windows Computer and press again Windows key + Control + Enter to TURN OFF NARRATOR.

Linux does not have a Narrator but have also embedded Eye impairment Assistive Technology called ORCA.

Orca works with applications and toolkits that support the Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface (AT-SPI), which is the primary assistive technology infrastructure for Linux and Solaris. Applications and toolkits supporting the AT-SPI include the GNOME Gtk+ toolkit, the Java platform's Swing toolkit, LibreOffice, Gecko, and WebKitGtk. AT-SPI support for the KDE Qt toolkit is being pursued.

ORCA is nowadays installed and integrated into many if not most Linux distributions out there. Enabling ORCA is not such a common thing on Linux,so today I got quite puzzled once I came back to the computer, leaving the 3.7 months kid near the Keyboard and finding out that I've enabled aloud screen reader that is reading what is every Window / Menu / Program or object I select with the mouse on my Linux MATE Desktop home GUI environment running on top of Debian Linux.

After a quick look up in Google on what exactly is the Linux program that is reading my screen I came across ORCA, which seem to be visible also as running in my process list:

hipo@jeremiah:~/Downloads$ ps -ef|grep -i orca
hipo     1068376    7960 17 18:48 tty2     00:00:01 orca

After a quick check online I found out that,

To start (Turn On ) Orca Screen Reader using the keyboard:

Windows logo button (Super Key) key + Alt + S 

Of course, it is possible to shut off the annoying reader by simply killing it with:

kill -9 orca

 

Ubuntu users, could start Orca using a mouse and keyboard:

Open the Activities overview and start typing Accessibility.

Click Accessibility to open the panel.

Select thez to open it.

Switch the Screen Reader switch to on.

Problem solved now Screen Reader on Linux is disabled, maybe it is time to disable Orca key press ability to prevent the kid from enabling it again since I don't need it actively thanksfully. with

xmodmap -e 'keycode <value>='

or simply removing the orca package with apt:

# apt remove orca

How to create PCS / Corosync High Availability Cluster config backup and migrate to new Virtual Machines

Thursday, October 26th, 2023

pcs-pcmk-internals-explained-picture

The aim of this article is to illustrate how to literally migrate a an Haproxy PCS Pacemaker / Corosync Cluster configurations from old Virtual Machines that due to time passed become unsupported (The Operating System end of life (EOF)) has reached to a new ones. 
This is quite a complex task especially as you usually need to setup the Hypervisor hosts with VMWare / Xen / KVM / OpenVZ or whatever kind of virtualization is to be used. Then setup the correct network interfaces IPs failover the heartbeat lines over which the cluster will work to prevent Split Brain scenartions, the Network Bonding interfaces to guarantee a higher amount of higher availability as well as physically install and update all the cluster software on the new built Linux hosts that will be members of the new cluster in setup. 

All this configuration from scratch of a PCS Corosync cluster is a very lenght topic which I'll try to cover in some of my next articles. In short to migrate the cluster from old machines to new once all this predescribed steps are in line. 
You will need to.


1. Create backup of old cluster configuration
2. Migrate the backup to a new built VM Machine hosts
3. Import the cluster configuration into the PCS Cluster.


Bear in mind that this article discusses a migration of CentOS Linux release 7.9.2009 with its shipped versions of corosync / pacemaker and pcs 

How to create cluster config backup and migrate to new VM

1. Dump cluster assuming that is a Quality Assuare or Pre – Production host  to create full cluster config backup

[root@old-cluster-machine ~]# pcs config backup old-cluster-machine.pcs.config.bak

2. Dump cluster Production full configuration

[root@old-cluster-machine1 ~]# pcs config backup old-cluster-machine1.pcs.config.bak

This command will output a backup of 

old-cluster-machine1.pcs.config.bak.tar.bz2

3. Migrate a cluster identical config to the new Virtual machines

Usually this moval of produced backup files with pcs config backup  commands can be copied with something like FTP / SFTP  or SSL-ed / TLS-ed protocol. However if you have to move the configuration files from a paranoid Citrix environment that doesn't allow you to have any SFTP / SSH or FTP kind of transfer protocol from the location where the old config lays to the new ones. 
A simple encoding of the binary format dumped configuration to plain text files can be done and files, can be moved via a simple copy / paste operation (a bit of a hack) 🙂

Encode the cluster config to be able to migrate configuration in plain text via a simple Copy / Paste operation.

 

[root@old-cluster-machine ~]# base64 config backup old-cluster-machine.pcs.config.bak > old-cluster-machine.pcs.config.bak.tgz.b64

[root@old-cluster-machine1 ~]# base64 old-cluster-machine1.pcs.config.bak.tar.bz2 > old-cluster-machine1.pcs.config.bak.tgz.b64
[root@old-cluster-machine ~]# cat  old-cluster-machine.pcs.config.bak.tgz.b64

(Copy output and Paste to new host VM) /root/haproxy-cluster-backup)

[root@old-cluster-machine1 ~]# cat old-cluster-machine1.pcs.config.bak.tgz.b64 


(Copy output and Paste to new host VM) /root/haproxy-cluster-backup)

Login to the new hosts, where configs has to be migrated and restore the files with base64

For QA / Preprod to restore backup config

[root@dkv-newqa-vm ~]# mkdir /root/haproxy-cluster-backup
[root@dkv-newqa-vm ~]# cd /root/haproxy-cluster-backup
[root@dkv-newqa-vm ~]# base64 -d old-cluster-machine.config.bak.tgz.b64 > old-cluster-machine.pcs.config.bak.tar.bz2
[root@dkv-newqa-vm ~]#  tar -jxvf old-cluster-machine.pcs.config.bak.tar.bz2
ak.tar.bz2
version.txt
pcs_settings.conf
corosync.conf
cib.xml
pacemaker_authkey
uidgid.d/

 

For Prod to restore backup config

[root@dkv-newprod-vm  ~]# mkdir /root/haproxy-cluster-backup
[root@dkv-newprod-vm ~]# cd /root/haproxy-cluster-backup
[root@dkv-newprod-vm ~]# base64 -d old-cluster-machine.config.bak.tgz.b64 > old-cluster-machine1.pcs.config.bak.tar.bz2
ak.tar.bz2
version.txt
pcs_settings.conf
corosync.conf
cib.xml
pacemaker_authkey
uidgid.d/


N!B! An Useful hin is on RHEL 8 Linux's shipped pcs command version has also a very useful command with which you can simply dump completly the config of the cluster in straight commands which you can run directly on the new VM machines where you have migrated.

The command to print out commands that would add existing cluster resources on Redhat 8:

# pcs resource config –output-format=cmd

Another useful command for cluster migration is cibadmin

i.e. to dump cluster xml config

#cibadmin –q > cluster.xml

Later you can import the prior xml dump with it.

# cibadmin –replace –xml-file cib.xml

 

How to make 27 inch monitor to work on 2560×1440 with Virtualbox Linux

Wednesday, October 4th, 2023

make-virtualbox-with-linux-work-on-2k-2560x1440-howto

I've bought a new "second hand" refurbished EIZO Flexscan Monitor EV2760 S1 K1 awesome monitor re from Kvant Serviz a company reseller of Second Hand electronics that is located on the territy of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAN / BAS) and was created by BAS people originally for the BAS people and am pretty happy with it for doing my daily job as system administrator, especially as the monitor has been used on very short screen time for only 256 use hours (which is less than a year of full-use time), whether EIZO does guarantee their monitors to be able to serve up to 5 Full years monitor use time.

For those who deals with Graphics such as Designers and people into art working with Computers knows EIZO brand Monitors for quite some time now and it seems as much of those people are using Windows or Macintoshes, these monitors have been mainly created to work optimally with Windows / Mac computers on a higher resolution.
My work PC that is Dell Latitude 5510 with its HDMI cable has been running perfect with The EIZO with Windows 10, however as I'm using a Virtualbox virutal machines with CentOS Linux, the VM does not automatically detected the highest resolution 2K that this monitors supports 2560×1440 at 60 Hz is the best one can use to get more things fit into the screen and hopefully also good for the Eyes, the Ecoview shoulk also be a good idea for the eyes, as the Ecoview by EIZO tries to adjust the monitor brightness to lower levels according to the light in the room to try to minimize the eye strain on the eyes. The Ecoview mode is a little bit I guess like the famous BENQ's monitors Eye care. 
I'm talking about all this Displays specifics as I spend quite a lot of time to learn the very basics about monitors as my old old 24 Inch EIZO Monitor Flexscan model 2436W started to wear off with time and doesn't support HDMI cable input, so I had to use a special. cable connector that modifies the signal from HDMI to DVI (and I'm not sure how this really effects the eyes), plus the DVI quality is said to be a little bit worse than HDMI as far as I read a bit on the topic online.

Well anyways currently I'm a happy owner of the EIZO EV2760 Monitor which has a full set of inputs of:

  • 27" In-Plane Switching (IPS) Panel
  • DisplayPort | HDMI | DVI-D | 3.5mm Audio
  • 2560 x 1440 Native Resolution
  • 1000:1 Typical Contrast Ratio
     

I've tried to make the monitor work with Linux and my first assumption from what I've read was that I have to reinstall the Guess Addition Tools on the Virtualbox with additing the Guest Addition Tools via the Vbox GUI interface:

Devices -> Insert Guest Additions CD Image

virtualbox-resolutions-screenshot

But got an error that the Guest additions tools iso is missing
So eventually resolved it by remounting and reinstalling the guest addition tools with the following set of commands:

[root@localhost test]# yum install perl gcc dkms kernel-devel kernel-headers make bzip2
[root@localhost test]# cd /mnt/cdrom/
[root@localhost cdrom]# ls
AUTORUN.INF  runasroot.sh                       VBoxSolarisAdditions.pkg
autorun.sh   TRANS.TBL                          VBoxWindowsAdditions-amd64.exe
cert         VBoxDarwinAdditions.pkg            VBoxWindowsAdditions.exe
NT3x         VBoxDarwinAdditionsUninstall.tool  VBoxWindowsAdditions-x86.exe
OS2          VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

 


[root@localhost cdrom]# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run 

Verifying archive integrity… All good.
Uncompressing VirtualBox 6.1.34 Guest Additions for Linux……..
VirtualBox Guest Additions installer
Removing installed version 6.1.34 of VirtualBox Guest Additions…
Copying additional installer modules …
Installing additional modules …
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel
modules.  This may take a while.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: To build modules for other installed kernels, run
VirtualBox Guest Additions:   /sbin/rcvboxadd quicksetup <version>
VirtualBox Guest Additions: or
VirtualBox Guest Additions:   /sbin/rcvboxadd quicksetup all
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the modules for kernel
3.10.0-1160.80.1.el7.x86_64.
ERROR: Can't map '//etc/selinux/targeted/policy/policy.31':  Invalid argument

ERROR: Unable to open policy //etc/selinux/targeted/policy/policy.31.
libsemanage.semanage_read_policydb: Error while reading kernel policy from /etc/selinux/targeted/active/policy.kern. (No such file or directory).
OSError: No such file or directory
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Running kernel modules will not be replaced until
the system is restarted

 

 

The solution to that was to reinstal the security policy-target was necessery

[root@localhost test]# yum install selinux-policy-targeted –reinstall


And of course rerun the reinstall of Guest addition tools up to the latest

[root@localhost cdrom]# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run 

Unfortunately that doesn't make it resolve it and even shutting down the VM machine and reloading it again with Raised Video Memory for the simulated hardware from settings from 16 MB to 128MB for the VM does not give the option from the Virtualbox interface to set the resolution from
 

View -> Virtual Screen 1 (Resize to 1920×1200)

to any higher than that.

After a bit of googling I found some newer monitors doesn't seem to be seen by xrandr command and few extra commands with xrandr need to be run to make the 2K resolution 2560×1440@60 Herzes work under the Linux virtual machine.

These are the extra xranrd command that make it happen

# xrandr –newmode "2560x1440_60.00" 311.83  2560 2744 3024 3488  1440 1441 1444 1490  -HSync +Vsync
# xrandr –addmode Virtual1 2560x1440_60.00
# xrandr –output Virtual1 –mode "2560x1440_60.00"

As this kind of settings needs to be rerun on next time the Virtual Machine runs it is a good idea to place the commands in a tiny shell script:

[test@localhost ~]$ cat xrandr-set-resolution-to-2560×1440.sh 
#!/bin/bash
xrandr –newmode "2560x1440_60.00" 311.83  2560 2744 3024 3488  1440 1441 1444 1490  -HSync +Vsync
xrandr –addmode Virtual1 2560x1440_60.00
xrandr –output Virtual1 –mode "2560x1440_60.00"


You can Download  the xrandr-set-resolution-to-2560×1440.sh script from here

Once the commands are run, to make it affect the Virtualbox, you can simply put it in FullScreen mode via


View -> Full-Screen Mode (can be teriggered from keyboard by pressing Right CTRL + F) together

[test@localhost ~]$ xrandr –addmode Virtual1 2560x1440_60.00
[test@localhost ~]$ xrandr –output Virtual1 –mode "2560x1440_60.00"
[test@localhost ~]$ xrandr 
Screen 0: minimum 1 x 1, current 2560 x 1440, maximum 8192 x 8192
Virtual1 connected primary 2560×1440+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 0mm x 0mm
   1920×1200     60.00 +  59.88  
   2560×1600     59.99  
   1920×1440     60.00  
   1856×1392     60.00  
   1792×1344     60.00  
   1600×1200     60.00  
   1680×1050     59.95  
   1400×1050     59.98  
   1280×1024     60.02  
   1440×900      59.89  
   1280×960      60.00  
   1360×768      60.02  
   1280×800      59.81  
   1152×864      75.00  
   1280×768      59.87  
   1024×768      60.00  
   800×600       60.32  
   640×480       59.94  
   2560x1440_60.00  60.00* 
Virtual2 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
Virtual3 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
Virtual4 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
Virtual5 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
Virtual6 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
Virtual7 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
Virtual8 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)

Tadadadam ! That's all folks, enjoy having your 27 Inch monitor running at 2560×1440 @ 60 Hz 🙂
 

 

How to set up Notify by email expiring local UNIX user accounts on Linux / BSD with a bash script

Thursday, August 24th, 2023

password-expiry-linux-tux-logo-script-picture-how-to-notify-if-password-expires-on-unix

If you have already configured Linux Local User Accounts Password Security policies Hardening – Set Password expiry, password quality, limit repatead access attempts, add directionary check, increase logged history command size and you want your configured local user accounts on a Linux / UNIX / BSD system to not expire before the user is reminded that it will be of his benefit to change his password on time, not to completely loose account to his account, then you might use a small script that is just checking the upcoming expiry for a predefined users and emails in an array with lslogins command like you will learn in this article.

The script below is written by a colleague Lachezar Pramatarov (Credit for the script goes to him) in order to solve this annoying expire problem, that we had all the time as me and colleagues often ended up with expired accounts and had to bother to ask for the password reset and even sometimes clearance of account locks. Hopefully this little script will help some other unix legacy admin systems to get rid of the account expire problem.

For the script to work you will need to have a properly configured SMTP (Mail server) with or without a relay to be able to send to the script predefined email addresses that will get notified. 

Here is example of a user whose account is about to expire in a couple of days and who will benefit of getting the Alert that he should hurry up to change his password until it is too late 🙂

[root@linux ~]# date
Thu Aug 24 17:28:18 CEST 2023

[root@server~]# chage -l lachezar
Last password change                                    : May 30, 2023
Password expires                                        : Aug 28, 2023
Password inactive                                       : never
Account expires                                         : never
Minimum number of days between password change          : 0
Maximum number of days between password change          : 90
Number of days of warning before password expires       : 14

Here is the user_passwd_expire.sh that will report the user

# vim  /usr/local/bin/user_passwd_expire.sh

#!/bin/bash

# This script will send warning emails for password expiration 
# on the participants in the following list:
# 20, 15, 10 and 0-7 days before expiration
# ! Script sends expiry Alert only if day is Wednesday – if (( $(date +%u)==3 )); !

# email to send if expiring
alert_email='alerts@pc-freak.net';
# the users that are admins added to belong to this group
admin_group="admins";
notify_email_header_customer_name='Customer Name';

declare -A mails=(
# list below accounts which will receive account expiry emails

# syntax to define uid / email
# [“account_name_from_etc_passwd”]="real_email_addr@fqdn";

#    [“abc”]="abc@fqdn.com"
#    [“cba”]="bca@fqdn.com"
    [“lachezar”]="lachezar.user@gmail.com"
    [“georgi”]="georgi@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct3”]="acct3@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct4”]="acct4@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct5”]="acct5@fqdn-mail.com"
    [“acct6”]="acct6@fqdn-mail.com"
#    [“acct7”]="acct7@fqdn-mail.com"
#    [“acct8”]="acct8@fqdn-mail.com"
#    [“acct9”]="acct9@fqdn-mail.com"
)

declare -A days

while IFS="=" read -r person day ; do
  days[“$person”]="$day"
done < <(lslogins –noheadings -o USER,GROUP,PWD-CHANGE,PWD-WARN,PWD-MIN,PWD-MAX,PWD-EXPIR,LAST-LOGIN,FAILED-LOGIN  –time-format=iso | awk '{print "echo "$1" "$2" "$3" $(((($(date +%s -d \""$3"+90 days\")-$(date +%s)))/86400)) "$5}' | /bin/bash | grep -E " $admin_group " | awk '{print $1 "=" $4}')

#echo ${days[laprext]}
for person in "${!mails[@]}"; do
     echo "$person ${days[$person]}";
     tmp=${days[$person]}

#     echo $tmp
# each person will receive mails only if 20th days / 15th days / 10th days remaining till expiry or if less than 7 days receive alert mail every day

     if  (( (${tmp}==20) || (${tmp}==15) || (${tmp}==10) || ((${tmp}>=0) && (${tmp}<=7)) )); 
     then
         echo "Hello, your password for $(hostname -s) will expire after ${days[$person]} days.” | mail -s “$notify_email_header_customer_name $(hostname -s) server password expiration”  -r passwd_expire ${mails[$person]};
     elif ((${tmp}<0));
     then
#          echo "The password for $person on $(hostname -s) has EXPIRED before{days[$person]} days. Please take an action ASAP.” | mail -s “EXPIRED password of  $person on $(hostname -s)”  -r EXPIRED ${mails[$person]};

# ==3 meaning day is Wednesday the day on which OnCall Person changes

        if (( $(date +%u)==3 ));
        then
             echo "The password for $person on $(hostname -s) has EXPIRED. Please take an action." | mail -s "EXPIRED password of  $person on $(hostname -s)"  -r EXPIRED $alert_email;
        fi
     fi  
done

 


To make the script notify about expiring user accounts, place the script under some directory lets say /usr/local/bin/user_passwd_expire.sh and make it executable and configure a cron job that will schedule it to run every now and then.

# cat /etc/cron.d/passwd_expire_cron

# /etc/cron.d/pwd_expire
#
# Check password expiration for users
#
# 2023-01-16 LPR
#
02 06 * * * root /usr/local/bin/user_passwd_expire.sh >/dev/null

Script will execute every day morning 06:02 by the cron job and if the day is wednesday (3rd day of week) it will send warning emails for password expiration if 20, 15, 10 days are left before account expires if only 7 days are left until the password of user acct expires, the script will start sending the Alarm every single day for 7th, 6th … 0 day until pwd expires.

If you don't have an expiring accounts and you want to force a specific account to have a expire date you can do it with:

# chage -E 2023-08-30 someuser


Or set it for new created system users with:

# useradd -e 2023-08-30 username


That's it the script will notify you on User PWD expiry.

If you need to for example set a single account to expire 90 days from now (3 months) that is a kind of standard password expiry policy admins use, do it with:

# date -d "90 days" +"%Y-%m-%d"
2023-11-22


Ideas for user_passwd_expire.sh script improvement
 

The downside of the script if you have too many local user accounts is you have to hardcode into it the username and user email_address attached to and that would be tedios task if you have 100+ accounts. 

However it is pretty easy if you already have a multitude of accounts in /etc/passwd that are from UID range to loop over them in a small shell loop and build new array from it. Of course for a solution like this to work you will have to have defined as user data as GECOS with command like chfn.
 

[georgi@server ~]$ chfn
Changing finger information for test.
Name [test]: 
Office []: georgi@fqdn-mail.com
Office Phone []: 
Home Phone []: 

Password: 

[root@server test]# finger georgi
Login: georgi                       Name: georgi
Directory: /home/georgi                   Shell: /bin/bash
Office: georgi@fqdn-mail.com
On since чт авг 24 17:41 (EEST) on :0 from :0 (messages off)
On since чт авг 24 17:43 (EEST) on pts/0 from :0
   2 seconds idle
On since чт авг 24 17:44 (EEST) on pts/1 from :0
   49 minutes 30 seconds idle
On since чт авг 24 18:04 (EEST) on pts/2 from :0
   32 minutes 42 seconds idle
New mail received пт окт 30 17:24 2020 (EET)
     Unread since пт окт 30 17:13 2020 (EET)
No Plan.

Then it should be relatively easy to add the GECOS for multilpe accounts if you have them predefined in a text file for each existing local user account.

Hope this script will help some sysadmin out there, many thanks to Lachezar for allowing me to share the script here.
Enjoy ! 🙂

How to monitor Postfix Mail server work correct with simple one liner Zabbix user parameter script / Simple way to capture and report SMTP machine issues Zabbix template

Thursday, June 22nd, 2023

setup-zabbix-smtp-mail-monitoring-postfix-qmail-exim-with-easy-userparameter-script-and-template-zabbix-logo

In this article, I'm going to show you how to setup a very simple monitoring if a local running SMTP (Postfix / Qmail / Exim) is responding correctly on basic commands. The check would helpfully keep you in track to know whether your configured Linux server local MTA (Mail Transport Agent) is responding on requests on TCP / IP protocol Port 25, as well as a check for process existence of master (that is the main postfix) proccess, as well as the usual postfix spawned sub-processes qmgr (the postfix queue manager), tsl mgr (TLS session cache and PRNG manager), pickup (Postfix local mail pickup) – or email receiving process.

 

Normally a properly configured postfix installation on a Linux whatever you like distribution would look something like below:

#  ps -ef|grep -Ei 'master|postfix'|grep -v grep
root        1959       1  0 Jun21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/libexec/postfix/master -w
postfix     1961    1959  0 Jun21 ?        00:00:00 qmgr -l -t unix -u
postfix     4542    1959  0 Jun21 ?        00:00:00 tlsmgr -l -t unix -u
postfix  2910288    1959  0 11:28 ?        00:00:00 pickup -l -t unix -u

At times, during mail server restarts the amount of processes that are sub spawned by postfix, may very and if you a do a postfix restart

# systemctl restart postfix

The amout of spawned processes running as postfix username might decrease, and only qmgr might be available for second thus in the consequential shown Template the zabbix processes check to make sure the Postfix is properly operational on the Linux machine is made to check for the absolute minumum of 

1. master (postfix process) that runs with uid root
2. and one (postfix) username binded proccess 

If the amount of processes on the host is less than this minimum number and the netcat is unable to simulate a "half-mail" sent, the configured Postfix alarm Action (media and Email) will take place, and you will get immediately notified, that the monitored Mail server has issue!

The idea is to use a small one liner connection with netcat and half simulate a normal SMTP transaction just like you would normally do:

 

root@pcfrxen:/root # telnet localhost 25
Trying 127.0.0.1…
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 This is Mail2 Pc-Freak.NET ESMTP
HELO localhost
250 This is Mail2 Pc-Freak.NET
MAIL FROM:<hipopo@pc-freak.net>
250 ok
RCPT TO:<hip0d@remote-smtp-server.com>

 

and then disconnect the connection.

1. Create new zabbix userparameter_smtp_check.conf file

The simple userparameter one liner script to do the task looks like this:

# vi /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agent.d/userparameter_smtp_check.conf

UserParameter=smtp.check,(if [[ $(echo -e “HELO localhost\n MAIL FROM: root@$HOSTNAME\n RCPT TO: report-email@your-desired-mail-server.com\n  QUIT\n” | /usr/bin/nc localhost 25 -w 5 2>&1 | grep -Ei ‘220\s.*\sESMTP\sPostfix|250\s\.*|250\s\.*\sOk|250\s\.*\sOk|221\.*\s\w’|wc -l) == ‘5’ ]]; then echo "SMTP OK 1"; else echo "SMTP NOK 0"; fi)

Set the proper permissions so either file is owned by zabbix:zabbix or it is been able to be read from all system users.
 

# chmod a+r /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agent.d/userparameter_smtp_check.conf

2. Create a new Template for the Mail server monitoring
 


 

Just like any other template name it with what fits you as you see, I've call it PROD SMTP Monitoring, as the template is prepared to specifically monitor In Production Linux machines, and a separate template is used to monitor the Quality Assurance (QAs) as well as PreProd (Pre Productions).

3. Create the followng Items and Depedent Item to process zabbix-agent received data from the Userparam script
 

Above is the list of basic Items and Dependent Item you will need to configure inside the SMTP Check zabbix Template.

The Items should have the following content and configurations:
 

/postfix-main-proc-service-item-zabbix-shot


*Name: postfix_main_proc.service
Type: Zabbix agent(active)
*Key: proc.num[master,root]
Type of Information: Numeric (unassigned)
*Update interval: 30s
Custom Intervals: Flexible
*History storage period: 90d
*Trend storage period: 365d
Show Value: as is
Applications: Postfix Checks
Populated host inventory field: -None-
Description: The item counts master daemon process that runs Postfix daemons on demand

Where the arguments pased to proc.num[] function are:
  master is the process that is being looked up for and root is the username with which the the postfix master daemon is running. If you need to adapt it for qmail or exim that shouldn't be a big deal you only have to in advance check the exact processes that are normally running on the machine
and configure a similar process check for it.

*Name: postfix_sub_procs.service_cnt
Type: Zabbix agent(active)
*Key: proc.num[,postfix]
Type of information: Numeric (unassigned)
Update Interval: 30s
*History Storage period: Storage Period 90d
*Trend storage period: Storage Period 365d
Description: The item counts master daemon processes that runs postfix daemons on demand.

Here the idea with this Item is to check the number of processes that are running with user / groupid that is postfix. Again for other SMPT different from postfix, just set it to whatever user / group 
you would like zabbix to look up for in Linux the process list. As you can see here the check for existing postfix mta process is done every 30 seconds (for more critical environments you can put it to less).

For simple zabbix use this Dependent Item is not necessery required. But as we would like to process more closely the output of the userparameter smtp script, you have to set it up.
If you want to write graphical representation by sending data to Grafana.

*Name: postfix availability check
Key: postfix_boolean_check[boolean]
Master Item: PROD SMTP Monitoring: postfix availability check
Type of Information: Numeric unassigned
*History storage period: Storage period 90d
*Trend storage period: 365d

Applications: Postfix Checks

Description: It returns boolean value of SMTP check
1 – True (SMTP is OK)
0 – False (SMTP does not responds)

Enabled: Tick

*Name: postfix availability check
*Key: smtp.check
Custom intervals: Flexible
*Update interval: 30 m
History sotrage period: Storage Period 90d
Applications: Postfix Checks
Populates host inventory field: -None-
Description: This check is testing if the SMTP relay is reachable, without actual sending an email
Enabled: Tick

4. Configure following Zabbix Triggers

 

Note: The severity levels you should have previosly set in Zabbix up to your desired ones.

Name: postfix master root process is not running
*Problem Expression: {PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[master,root].last()}<1

OK event generation: Recovery expression
*Recovery Expression: {PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[master,root].last()}>=1
Allow manual close: Tick

Description: The item counts master daemon process that runs Postfix daemon on demand.
Enabed: Tick

I would like to have an AUTO RESOLVE for any detected mail issues, if an issue gets resolved. That is useful especially if you don't have the time to put the Zabbix monitoring in Maintainance Mode during Operating system planned updates / system reboots or unexpected system reboots due to electricity power loss to the server colocated – Data Center / Rack . 


*Name: postfix master sub processes are not running
*Problem Expression: {P09 PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[,postfix].last()}<1
PROBLEM event generation mode: Single
OK event closes: All problems

*Recovery Expression: {P09 PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[,postfix].last()}>=1
Problem event generation mode: Single
OK event closes: All problems
Allow manual close: Tick
Enabled: Tick

Name: SMTP connectivity check
Severity: WARNING
*Expression: {PROD SMTP Monitoring:postfix_boolen_check[boolean].last()}=0
OK event generation: Expression
PROBLEM even generation mode: SIngle
OK event closes: All problems

Allow manual close: Tick
Enabled: Tick

5. Configure respective Zabbix Action

 

zabbix-configure-Actions-screenshotpng
 

As the service is tagged with 'pci service' tag we define the respective conditions and according to your preferences, add as many conditions as you need for the Zabbix Action to take place.

NOTE! :
Assuming that communication chain beween Zabbix Server -> Zabbix Proxy (if zabbix proxy is used) -> Zabbix Agent works correctly you should start receiving that from the userparameter script in Zabbix with the configured smtp.check userparam key every 30 minutes.

Note that this simple nc check will keep a trail records inside your /var/log/maillog for each netcat connection, so keep in mind that in /var/log/maillog on each host which has configured the SMTP Check zabbix template, you will have some records  similar to:

# tail -n 50 /var/log/maillog
2023-06-22T09:32:18.164128+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2690485]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T09:32:18.208888+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2690485]: 32EB02005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T09:32:18.209142+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2690485]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T10:02:18.889440+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:02:18.889553+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T10:02:18.933933+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: E3ED42005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:02:18.934227+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T10:32:26.143282+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:32:26.143439+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T10:32:26.186681+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: 2D7F72005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:32:26.186958+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T11:02:26.924039+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:02:26.924160+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T11:02:26.963014+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: EB08C2005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:02:26.963257+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T11:32:29.145553+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:32:29.145664+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T11:32:29.184539+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: 2CF7D2005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:32:29.184729+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4

 

 

That's all folks use the :
Configuration -> Host (menu)

and assign the new SMTP check template to as many of the Linux hosts where you have setup the Userparameter script and Enjoy the new mail server monitoring at hand.

How to log multiple haproxy / apache / mysql instance via haproxy log-tagging / Segregating log management for multiple HAProxy instances using rsyslog

Tuesday, May 23rd, 2023

rsyslog-logo-picture-use-programname-and-haproxy-log-tag-directives-together-to-log-as-many-process-streams-as-you-like

 

Introduction

This article provides a guide on refining haproxy  logging mechanism by leveraging the `programname` property in rsyslog, coupled with the `log-tag` directive in haproxy.
This approach will create a granular logging setup, separating logs according to their originating services and specific custom tags, enhancing overall log readability.

Though the article is written concretely for logging multiple log streams from haproxy this can be successfully applied
for any other Linux service to log as many concrete log-tagged data streams as you prefer.

Scope

The guide focuses on tailoring the logging mechanisms for two haproxy  instances named `haproxy` and `haproxyssl`, utilizing the `programname` property in rsyslog and the `log-tag` directive in haproxy for precise log management.

The haproxy and haproxyssl instances are two separate systemd config file prepared instances.
haproxy instance is simple haproxy proxying tcp traffic in non-encrypted form, whether haproxyssl is a special instance
prepared to tunnel the incoming http traffic in ssl form. Both instances of haproxy runs as a separate processes on the server.

Here is the systemd configuration of haproxy systemd service file:

# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/haproxy.service
[Unit]
Description=HAProxy Load Balancer
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Environment="CONFIG=/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg" "PIDFILE=/run/haproxy.pid"
EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/haproxy
ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/haproxy -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/haproxy -Ws -f $CONFIG -p $PIDFILE $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/haproxy -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR2 $MAINPID
SuccessExitStatus=143
KillMode=mixed
Type=notify

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


As well as the systemd service configuration for haproxyssl:
 

# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/haproxyssl.service
[Unit]
Description=HAProxy Load Balancer
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Environment="CONFIG=/etc/haproxy/haproxy_ssl_prod.cfg" "PIDFILE=/run/haproxy_ssl_prod.pid"
EnvironmentFile=/etc/sysconfig/haproxy
ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/haproxyssl -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/haproxyssl -Ws -f $CONFIG -p $PIDFILE $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/haproxyssl -f $CONFIG -c -q $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR2 $MAINPID
SuccessExitStatus=143
KillMode=mixed
Type=notify

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

 

Step 1: Configuring HAProxy instances with `log-tag`
 

To distinguish between logs from two HAProxy instances, `log-tag` directive is used to add tags to logs. This tag is used to filter these logs in rsyslog.
Modify the HAProxy configuration file in `/etc/haproxy/haproxy.*.cfg`

HAProxy Instance 1 (haproxy)
 

#———————————————————————
# Global settings
#———————————————————————
global
      log          127.0.0.1 local6 debug
      log-tag      haproxy

HAProxy Instance 2 (haproxyssl)


#———————————————————————
# Global settings
#———————————————————————
global
    log          127.0.0.1 local5 debug
    log-tag      haproxyssl

 

Step 2: Implementing rsyslog configuration for haproxy logs
 

Next, create a new rsyslog configuration file, stored in /etc/rsyslog.d/. Ensure the new configuration file ends in `.conf`

HAProxy Instance 1 (haproxy)

Now add rsyslog rules to filters logs based on the `programname` and the custom log tag:
 

# vi /etc/rsyslog.d/55_haproxy.conf
if $programname == 'haproxy' then /var/log/haproxy.log
&stop

HAProxy Instance 2 (haproxyssl)
# vi /etc/rsyslog.d/51_haproxy_ssl.conf
if $programname == 'haproxy_ssl' then /var/log/haproxy_ssl.log
&stop


These rules filter logs that originate from haproxy  and contain the respective string haproxy   or haproxy_ssl , directing them to their respective log files. The `& stop` directive ensures that rsyslog stops processing the log once a match is found, preventing dublication.

Finally, restart both the haproxy and rsyslog services for the changes to take effect:

# systemctl restart haproxy
# systemctl restart haproxyssl
# systemctl restart rsyslog


Reading References

haproxy:   log-tag directive

rsyslog:    rsyslogd documentation

This is a guest article originally written by: Dimitar Paskalev, guest blogging with good interesting articles is always mostly welcome