Archive for the ‘Monitoring’ Category

Zabbix script to track arp address cache loss (arp incomplete) from Linux server to gateway IP

Tuesday, January 30th, 2024

Zabbix_arp-network-incomplete-check-logo.svg

Some of the Linux servers recently, I'm responsible had a very annoying issue recently. The problem is ARP address to default configured server gateway is being lost, every now and then and it takes up time, fot the remote CISCO router to realize the problem and resolve it. We have debugged with the Network expert colleague, while he was checking the Cisco router and we were checking the arp table on the Linux server with arp command. And we came to conclusion this behavior is due to some network mess because of too many NAT address configurations on the network or due to a Cisco bug. The colleagues asked Cisco but cisco does not have any solution to the issue and the only close work around for the gateway loosing the mac is to set a network rule on the Cisco router to flush its arp record for the server it was loosing the MAC address for.
This does not really solve completely the problem but at least, once we run into the issue, it gets resolved as quick as 5 minutes time. }

As we run a cluster environment it is useful to Monitor and know immediately once we hit into the MAC gateway disappear issue and if the issue persists, exclude the Linux node from the Cluster so we don't loose connection traffic.
For the purpose of Monitoring MAC state from the Linux haproxy machine towards the Network router GW, I have developed a small userparameter script, that is periodically checking the state of the MAC address of the IP address of remote gateway host and log to a external file for any problems with incomplete MAC address of the Remote configured default router.

In case if you happen to need the same MAC address state monitoring for your servers, I though that might be of a help to anyone out there.
To monitor MAC address incomplete state with Zabbix, do the following:
 

1. Create  userparamater_arp_gw_check.conf Zabbix script
 

# cat userparameter_arp_gw_check.conf 
UserParameter=arp.check,/usr/local/bin/check_gw_arp.sh

 

2. Create the following shell script /usr/local/bin/check_gw_arp.sh

 

#!/bin/bash
# simple script to run on cron peridically or via zabbix userparameter
# to track arp loss issues to gateway IP
#gw_ip='192.168.0.55';
gw_ip=$(ip route show|grep -i default|awk '{ print $3 }');
log_f='/var/log/arp_incomplete.log';
grep_word='incomplete';
inactive_status=$(arp -n "$gw_ip" |grep -i $grep_word);
# if GW incomplete record empty all is ok
if [[ $inactive_status == ” ]]; then 
echo $gw_ip OK 1; 
else 
# log inactive MAC to gw_ip
echo "$(date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')" "ARP_ERROR $inactive_status 0" | tee -a $log_f 2>&1 >/dev/null;
# printout to zabbix
echo "1 ARP FAILED: $inactive_status"; 
fi

You can download the check_gw_arp.sh here.

The script is supposed to automatically grep for the Default Gateway router IP, however before setting it up. Run it and make sure this corresponds correctly to the default Gateway IP MAC you would like to monitor.
 

3. Create New Zabbix Template for ARP incomplete monitoring
 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-template-screenshot

Create Application 

*Name
Default Gateway ARP state

4. Create Item and Dependent Item 
 

Create Zabbix Item and Dependent Item like this

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-item-screenshot

 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-item1-screenshot

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-item2-screenshot


5. Create Trigger to trigger WARNING or whatever you like
 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-trigger-screenshot


arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-trigger1-screenshot

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-trigger2-screenshot


6. Create Zabbix Action to notify via Email etc.
 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-action1-screenshot

 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-action2-screenshot

That's all. Once you set up this few little things, you can enjoy having monitoring Alerts for your ARP state incomplete on your Linux / Unix servers.
Enjoy !

How to monitor Postfix Mail server work correct with simple one liner Zabbix user parameter script / Simple way to capture and report SMTP machine issues Zabbix template

Thursday, June 22nd, 2023

setup-zabbix-smtp-mail-monitoring-postfix-qmail-exim-with-easy-userparameter-script-and-template-zabbix-logo

In this article, I'm going to show you how to setup a very simple monitoring if a local running SMTP (Postfix / Qmail / Exim) is responding correctly on basic commands. The check would helpfully keep you in track to know whether your configured Linux server local MTA (Mail Transport Agent) is responding on requests on TCP / IP protocol Port 25, as well as a check for process existence of master (that is the main postfix) proccess, as well as the usual postfix spawned sub-processes qmgr (the postfix queue manager), tsl mgr (TLS session cache and PRNG manager), pickup (Postfix local mail pickup) – or email receiving process.

 

Normally a properly configured postfix installation on a Linux whatever you like distribution would look something like below:

#  ps -ef|grep -Ei 'master|postfix'|grep -v grep
root        1959       1  0 Jun21 ?        00:00:00 /usr/libexec/postfix/master -w
postfix     1961    1959  0 Jun21 ?        00:00:00 qmgr -l -t unix -u
postfix     4542    1959  0 Jun21 ?        00:00:00 tlsmgr -l -t unix -u
postfix  2910288    1959  0 11:28 ?        00:00:00 pickup -l -t unix -u

At times, during mail server restarts the amount of processes that are sub spawned by postfix, may very and if you a do a postfix restart

# systemctl restart postfix

The amout of spawned processes running as postfix username might decrease, and only qmgr might be available for second thus in the consequential shown Template the zabbix processes check to make sure the Postfix is properly operational on the Linux machine is made to check for the absolute minumum of 

1. master (postfix process) that runs with uid root
2. and one (postfix) username binded proccess 

If the amount of processes on the host is less than this minimum number and the netcat is unable to simulate a "half-mail" sent, the configured Postfix alarm Action (media and Email) will take place, and you will get immediately notified, that the monitored Mail server has issue!

The idea is to use a small one liner connection with netcat and half simulate a normal SMTP transaction just like you would normally do:

 

root@pcfrxen:/root # telnet localhost 25
Trying 127.0.0.1…
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 This is Mail2 Pc-Freak.NET ESMTP
HELO localhost
250 This is Mail2 Pc-Freak.NET
MAIL FROM:<hipopo@pc-freak.net>
250 ok
RCPT TO:<hip0d@remote-smtp-server.com>

 

and then disconnect the connection.

1. Create new zabbix userparameter_smtp_check.conf file

The simple userparameter one liner script to do the task looks like this:

# vi /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agent.d/userparameter_smtp_check.conf

UserParameter=smtp.check,(if [[ $(echo -e “HELO localhost\n MAIL FROM: root@$HOSTNAME\n RCPT TO: report-email@your-desired-mail-server.com\n  QUIT\n” | /usr/bin/nc localhost 25 -w 5 2>&1 | grep -Ei ‘220\s.*\sESMTP\sPostfix|250\s\.*|250\s\.*\sOk|250\s\.*\sOk|221\.*\s\w’|wc -l) == ‘5’ ]]; then echo "SMTP OK 1"; else echo "SMTP NOK 0"; fi)

Set the proper permissions so either file is owned by zabbix:zabbix or it is been able to be read from all system users.
 

# chmod a+r /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agent.d/userparameter_smtp_check.conf

2. Create a new Template for the Mail server monitoring
 


 

Just like any other template name it with what fits you as you see, I've call it PROD SMTP Monitoring, as the template is prepared to specifically monitor In Production Linux machines, and a separate template is used to monitor the Quality Assurance (QAs) as well as PreProd (Pre Productions).

3. Create the followng Items and Depedent Item to process zabbix-agent received data from the Userparam script
 

Above is the list of basic Items and Dependent Item you will need to configure inside the SMTP Check zabbix Template.

The Items should have the following content and configurations:
 

/postfix-main-proc-service-item-zabbix-shot


*Name: postfix_main_proc.service
Type: Zabbix agent(active)
*Key: proc.num[master,root]
Type of Information: Numeric (unassigned)
*Update interval: 30s
Custom Intervals: Flexible
*History storage period: 90d
*Trend storage period: 365d
Show Value: as is
Applications: Postfix Checks
Populated host inventory field: -None-
Description: The item counts master daemon process that runs Postfix daemons on demand

Where the arguments pased to proc.num[] function are:
  master is the process that is being looked up for and root is the username with which the the postfix master daemon is running. If you need to adapt it for qmail or exim that shouldn't be a big deal you only have to in advance check the exact processes that are normally running on the machine
and configure a similar process check for it.

*Name: postfix_sub_procs.service_cnt
Type: Zabbix agent(active)
*Key: proc.num[,postfix]
Type of information: Numeric (unassigned)
Update Interval: 30s
*History Storage period: Storage Period 90d
*Trend storage period: Storage Period 365d
Description: The item counts master daemon processes that runs postfix daemons on demand.

Here the idea with this Item is to check the number of processes that are running with user / groupid that is postfix. Again for other SMPT different from postfix, just set it to whatever user / group 
you would like zabbix to look up for in Linux the process list. As you can see here the check for existing postfix mta process is done every 30 seconds (for more critical environments you can put it to less).

For simple zabbix use this Dependent Item is not necessery required. But as we would like to process more closely the output of the userparameter smtp script, you have to set it up.
If you want to write graphical representation by sending data to Grafana.

*Name: postfix availability check
Key: postfix_boolean_check[boolean]
Master Item: PROD SMTP Monitoring: postfix availability check
Type of Information: Numeric unassigned
*History storage period: Storage period 90d
*Trend storage period: 365d

Applications: Postfix Checks

Description: It returns boolean value of SMTP check
1 – True (SMTP is OK)
0 – False (SMTP does not responds)

Enabled: Tick

*Name: postfix availability check
*Key: smtp.check
Custom intervals: Flexible
*Update interval: 30 m
History sotrage period: Storage Period 90d
Applications: Postfix Checks
Populates host inventory field: -None-
Description: This check is testing if the SMTP relay is reachable, without actual sending an email
Enabled: Tick

4. Configure following Zabbix Triggers

 

Note: The severity levels you should have previosly set in Zabbix up to your desired ones.

Name: postfix master root process is not running
*Problem Expression: {PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[master,root].last()}<1

OK event generation: Recovery expression
*Recovery Expression: {PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[master,root].last()}>=1
Allow manual close: Tick

Description: The item counts master daemon process that runs Postfix daemon on demand.
Enabed: Tick

I would like to have an AUTO RESOLVE for any detected mail issues, if an issue gets resolved. That is useful especially if you don't have the time to put the Zabbix monitoring in Maintainance Mode during Operating system planned updates / system reboots or unexpected system reboots due to electricity power loss to the server colocated – Data Center / Rack . 


*Name: postfix master sub processes are not running
*Problem Expression: {P09 PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[,postfix].last()}<1
PROBLEM event generation mode: Single
OK event closes: All problems

*Recovery Expression: {P09 PROD SMTP Monitoring:proc.num[,postfix].last()}>=1
Problem event generation mode: Single
OK event closes: All problems
Allow manual close: Tick
Enabled: Tick

Name: SMTP connectivity check
Severity: WARNING
*Expression: {PROD SMTP Monitoring:postfix_boolen_check[boolean].last()}=0
OK event generation: Expression
PROBLEM even generation mode: SIngle
OK event closes: All problems

Allow manual close: Tick
Enabled: Tick

5. Configure respective Zabbix Action

 

zabbix-configure-Actions-screenshotpng
 

As the service is tagged with 'pci service' tag we define the respective conditions and according to your preferences, add as many conditions as you need for the Zabbix Action to take place.

NOTE! :
Assuming that communication chain beween Zabbix Server -> Zabbix Proxy (if zabbix proxy is used) -> Zabbix Agent works correctly you should start receiving that from the userparameter script in Zabbix with the configured smtp.check userparam key every 30 minutes.

Note that this simple nc check will keep a trail records inside your /var/log/maillog for each netcat connection, so keep in mind that in /var/log/maillog on each host which has configured the SMTP Check zabbix template, you will have some records  similar to:

# tail -n 50 /var/log/maillog
2023-06-22T09:32:18.164128+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2690485]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T09:32:18.208888+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2690485]: 32EB02005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T09:32:18.209142+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2690485]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T10:02:18.889440+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:02:18.889553+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T10:02:18.933933+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: E3ED42005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:02:18.934227+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2747269]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T10:32:26.143282+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:32:26.143439+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T10:32:26.186681+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: 2D7F72005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T10:32:26.186958+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2804195]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T11:02:26.924039+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:02:26.924160+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T11:02:26.963014+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: EB08C2005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:02:26.963257+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2860398]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4
2023-06-22T11:32:29.145553+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: connect from localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:32:29.145664+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: improper command pipelining after HELO from localhost[127.0.0.1]:  MAIL FROM: root@your-machine-fqdn-address.com\n RCPT TO: your-supposable-receive-addr@whatever-mail-address.com\n  QUIT\n
2023-06-22T11:32:29.184539+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: 2CF7D2005B: client=localhost[127.0.0.1]
2023-06-22T11:32:29.184729+02:00 lpgblu01f postfix/smtpd[2916905]: disconnect from localhost[127.0.0.1] helo=1 mail=1 rcpt=1 quit=1 commands=4

 

 

That's all folks use the :
Configuration -> Host (menu)

and assign the new SMTP check template to as many of the Linux hosts where you have setup the Userparameter script and Enjoy the new mail server monitoring at hand.

Install specific zabbix-agent version / Downgrade Zabbix Agent client to exact preferred old RPM version on CentOS / Fedora / RHEL Linux from repo

Wednesday, June 7th, 2023

zabbix-update-downgrade-on-centos-rhel-fedora-and-other-rpm-based-linux-zabbix-logo

 

In below article, I'll give you the short Update zabbix procedure to specific version release, if you need to have it running in tandem with rest of zabbix infra, as well as expain shortly how to downgrade zabbix version to a specific release number
to match your central zabbix-serveror central zabbix proxies.

The article is based on personal experience how to install / downgrade the specific zabbuix-agent  release on RPM based distros.
I know this is pretty trivial stuff but still, hope this might be useful to some sysadmin out there thus I decided to quickly blog it.

 

1. Prepare backup of zabbix_agentd.conf
 

cp -rpf /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf /home/your-user/zabbix_agentd.conf.bak.$(date +"%b-%d-%Y")

 

2. Create zabbix repo source file in yum.repos.d directory

cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
vim zabbix.repo 

 

[zabbix-5.0]

name=Zabbix 5.0 repo

baseurl=http://zabixx-rpm-mirrors-site.com/centos/external/zabbix-5.0/8/x86_64/

enabled=1

gpgcheck=0

 

3. Update zabbix-agent to a specific defined version

yum search zabbix-agent –enablerepo zabbix-5.0

To update zabbix-agent for RHEL 7.*

# yum install zabbix-agent-5.0.34-1.el7.x86_64


For RHEL 8.*

# yum install zabbix-agent-5.0.34-1.el8.x86_64


4. Restart zabbix-agentd and check its status to make sure it works correctly
 

systemctl status zabbix-agentd
systemctl restart zabbix-agentd
# systemctl status zabbix-agentd


Go to zabbix-server WEB GUI interface and check that data is delivered as normally in Latest Data for the host fom recent time, to make sure host monitoring is continuing flawlessly as before change.

NB !: If yum use something like versionlock is enabled remove the versionlock for package and update then, otherwise it will (weirldly look) look like the package is missing.
I'm saying that because I've hit this issue and was wondering why i cannot install the zabbix-agent even though the version is listed, available and downloadable from the repository.


5. Downgrade agent-client to specific version (Install old version of Zabbix from Repo)
 

Sometimes by mistake you might have raised the Zabbix-agent version to be higher release than the zabbix-server's version and thus breach out the Zabbix documentation official recommendation to keep
up the zabbix-proxy, zabbix-server and zabbix-agent at the exactly same version major and minor version releases. 

If so, then you would want to decrease / downgrade the version, to match your Zabbix overall infrastructure exact version for each of Zabbix server -> Zabbix Proxy server -> Agent clients.

To downgrade the version, I prefer to create some backups, just in case for all /etc/zabbix/ configurations and userparameter scripts (from experience this is useful as sometimes some RPM binary update packages might cause /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf file to get overwritten. To prevent from restoring zabbix_agentd.conf from your most recent backup hence, I prefer to just crease the zabbix config backups manually.
 

# cd /root

# mkdir -p /root/backup/zabbix-agent 

# tar -czvf zabbix_agent.tar.gz /etc/zabbix/

# tar -xzvf zabbix_agent.tar.gz 


Then list the available installable zabbix-agent versions
 

[root@sysadminshelp:~]# yum –showduplicates list zabbix-agent
Заредени плъгини: fastestmirror
Determining fastest mirrors
 * base: centos.uni-sofia.bg
 * epel: fedora.ipacct.com
 * extras: centos.uni-sofia.bg
 * remi: mirrors.uni-ruse.bg
 * remi-php74: mirrors.uni-ruse.bg
 * remi-safe: mirrors.uni-ruse.bg
 * updates: centos.uni-sofia.bg
Инсталирани пакети
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.30-1.el7                                                     @zabbix
Налични пакети
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.0-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.1-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.2-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.3-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.4-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.5-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.6-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.7-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.8-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.9-1.el7                                                      zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.10-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.11-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.12-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.13-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.14-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.15-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.16-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.17-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.18-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.19-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.20-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.21-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.22-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.23-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.24-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.25-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.26-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.27-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.28-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.29-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.30-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.31-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.32-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.33-1.el7                                                     zabbix
zabbix-agent.x86_64                                                     5.0.34-1.el7                                                     zabbix

 

Next lets install the most recent zabbix-versoin from the CentOS repo, which for me as of time of writting this article is 5.0.34.

# yum downgrade -y zabbix-agent-5.0.34-1.el7

# cp -rpf /root/backup/zabbix-agent/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf /etc/zabbix/

# systemctl start zabbix-agent.service

# systemctl enable  zabbix-agent.service
 

# zabbix_agentd -V
zabbix_agentd (daemon) (Zabbix) 5.0.30
Revision 2c96c38fb4b 28 November 2022, compilation time: Nov 28 2022 11:27:43

Copyright (C) 2022 Zabbix SIA
License GPLv2+: GNU GPL version 2 or later <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it according to
the license. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project
for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/).

Compiled with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013
Running with OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013

 

That's all folks you should be at your custom selected preferred version of zabbix-agent.
Enjoy ! 🙂

Install btop on Debian Linux, btop an advanced htop like monitoring for Linux to beautify your console life

Tuesday, May 30th, 2023

btop-linux-monitoring-tool-screenshot-help-menu

I've accidently stubmled on btop a colorful and interactive ncurses like command line utility to provide you a bunch of information about CPU / memory / disks and processes with nice console graphic in the style of Cubic Player 🙂
Those who love htop and like their consoles to be full of shiny colors, will really appreciate those nice Linux monitoring tool.
To install btop on latest current stable Debian bullseyes, you will have to install it via backports, as the regular Debian repositories does not have the tool available out of the box.

To Add backports packages support for your Debian 11:

1. Edit /etc/apt/sources.list and include following repositories

 

# vim /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free


2. Update the known repos list to include it

 

# apt update


3. Install the btop deb package from backports

 

# apt-cache show btop|grep -A 20 -i descrip
Description-en: Modern and colorful command line resource monitor that shows usage and stats
 btop is a modern and colorful command line resource monitor that shows
 usage and stats for processor, memory, disks, network and processes.
 btop features:
  – Easy to use, with a game inspired menu system.
  – Full mouse support, all buttons with a highlighted key is clickable
  and mouse scroll works in process list and menu boxes.
  – Fast and responsive UI with UP, DOWN keys process selection.
  – Function for showing detailed stats for selected process.
  – Ability to filter processes.
  – Easy switching between sorting options.
  – Tree view of processes.
  – Send any signal to selected process.
  – UI menu for changing all config file options.
  – Auto scaling graph for network usage.
  – Shows IO activity and speeds for disks
  – Battery meter
  – Selectable symbols for the graphs
  – Custom presets
  – And more…
  btop is written in C++ and is continuation of bashtop and bpytop.
Description-md5: 73df6c70fe01f5bf05cca0e3031c1fe2
Multi-Arch: foreign
Homepage: https://github.com/aristocratos/btop
Section: utils
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/b/btop/btop_1.2.7-1~bpo11+1_amd64.deb
Size: 431500
SHA256: d79e35c420a2ac5dd88ee96305e1ea7997166d365bd2f30e14ef57b556aecb36


 

# apt install -t bullsye-backports btop –yes

Once I installed it, I can straight use it except on some of my Linux machines, which were having a strange encoding $LANG defined, those ones spitted some errors like:

root@freak:~# btop
ERROR: No UTF-8 locale detected!
Use –utf-force argument to force start if you're sure your terminal can handle it.

 


To work around it simply redefine LANG variable and rerun it
 

# export LANG=en_US.UTF8

# btop

 

btop-linux-monitoring-console-beautiful-colorful-tool-graphics-screenshot

btop-linux-monitoring-tool-screenshot-help-menu

Monitor cluster heartbeat lines IP reahability via ping ICMP protocol with Zabbix

Wednesday, April 12th, 2023

https://pc-freak.net/images/zabbix-monitoring-icmp-ping-on-application-crm-clusters-with-userparameter-script-howto

Say you're having an haproxy load balancer cluster with two or more nodes and you are running the servers inside some complex organizational hybrid complex network that is a combination of a local DMZ lans, many switches, dedicated connectivity lines and every now and then it happens for the network to mysteriously go down. Usually simply setting monitoring on the network devices CISCO itself or the smart switches used is enough to give you an overview on what's going on but if haproxy is in the middle of the end application servers and in front of other Load balancers and network equipment sometimes it might happen that due to failure of a network equipment / routing issues or other strange unexpected reasons one of the 2 nodes connectivity might fail down via the configured dedicated additional Heartbeat lines that are usually configured in order to keep away the haproxy CRM Resource Manager cluster thus ending it up in a split brain scenarios.

Assuming that this is the case like it is with us you would definitely want to keep an eye on the connectivity of Connect Line1 and Connect Line2 inside some monitoring software like zabbix. As our company main monitoring software used to monitor our infrastructure is Zabbix in this little article, I'll briefly explain how to configre the network connectivity status change from haproxy node1 and haproxy node2 Load balancer cluster to be monitored via a simple ICMP ping echo checks.

Of course the easies way to configure an ICMP monitor via Zabbix is using EnableRemoteCommands=1 inside /etc/zabbix/zabbix-agentd.conf but if your infrastructure should be of High Security and PCI perhaps this options is prohibited to be used on the servers. This is why to achieve still the ICMP ping checks with EnableRemoteCommands=0 a separate simple bash user parameter script could be used. Read further to find out one way ICMP monitoring with a useparameter script can be achieved with Zabbix.


1. Create the userparameter check for heartbeat lines

root@haproxy1 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat userparameter_check_heartbeat_lines.conf
UserParameter=heartbeat.check,\
/etc/zabbix/scripts/check_heartbeat_lines.sh

root@haproxy2 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat userparameter_check_heartbeat_lines.conf
UserParameter=heartbeat.check,\
/etc/zabbix/scripts/check_heartbeat_lines.sh

2. Create check_heartbeat_lines.sh script which will be actually checking connectivity with simple ping

root@haproxy1 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat /etc/zabbix/scripts/check_heartbeat_lines.sh
#!/bin/bash
hb1=haproxy2-lb1
hb2=haproxy2-lb2
if ping -c 1 $hb1  &> /dev/null
then
  echo "$hb1 1"
else
  echo "$hb1 0"
fi
if ping -c 1 $hb2  &> /dev/null
then
  echo "$hb2 1"
else
  echo "$hb2 0"
fi

[root@haproxy1 zabbix_agentd.d]#

root@haproxy2 zabbix_agentd.d]# cat /etc/zabbix/scripts/check_heartbeat_lines.sh
#!/bin/bash
hb1=haproxy1-hb1
hb2=haproxy1-hb2
if ping -c 1 $hb1  &> /dev/null
then
  echo "$hb1 1"
else
  echo "$hb1 0"
fi
if ping -c 1 $hb2  &> /dev/null
then
  echo "$hb2 1"
else
  echo "$hb2 0"
fi

[root@haproxy2 zabbix_agentd.d]#


3. Test script heartbeat lines first time

Each of the nodes from the cluster are properly pingable via ICMP protocol

The script has to be run on both haproxy1 and haproxy2 Cluster (load) balancer nodes

[root@haproxy-hb1 zabbix_agentd.d]# /etc/zabbix/scripts/check_heartbeat_lines.sh
haproxy2-hb1 1
haproxy2-hb2 1

[root@haproxy-hb2 zabbix_agentd.d]# /etc/zabbix/scripts/check_heartbeat_lines.sh
haproxy1-hb1 1
haproxy1-hb2 1


The status of 1 returned by the script should be considered remote defined haproxy node is reachable / 0 means ping command does not return any ICMP status pings back.

4. Restart the zabbix-agent on both cluster node machines that will be conducting the ICMP ping check

[root@haproxy zabbix_agentd.d]# systemctl restart zabbix-agentd
[root@haproxy zabbix_agentd.d]# systemctl status zabbix-agentd

[root@haproxy zabbix_agentd.d]# tail -n 100 /var/log/zabbix_agentd.log


5. Create Item to process the userparam script

Create Item as follows:

6. Create the Dependent Item required
 

zabbix-heartbeat-check-screenshots/heartbeat-line1-preprocessing

For processing you need to put the following simple regular expression

Name: Regular Expression
Parameters: hb1(\s+)(\d+)
Custom on fail: \2

zabbix-heartbeat-check-screenshots/heartbeat-line2-preprocessing1

zabbix-heartbeat-check-screenshots/heartbeat-lines-triggers

 

7. Create triggers that will be generating the Alert

Create the required triggers as well

zabbix-heartbeat-check-screenshots/heartbeat2-line
Main thing to configure here in Zabbix is below expression

Expression: {FQDN:heartbeat2.last()}<1

triggers_heartbeat1

You can further configure Zabbix Alerts to mail yourself or send via Slack / MatterMost or Teams alarms in case of problems.

Enable PSK encryption on Zabbix Agent (client) sent encrypted monitored datas to Zabbix server

Friday, April 7th, 2023

zabbix-client-server-encryption-public-key-exchange

Those concerned of security and in use of their Zabbix monitored data who communicate Zabbix collected agent
data over internet or via some kind of untrusted network might definitely not enjoy the fact that zabbix-agent sents
its collected data to server in a plain text. Clear text data is allowing any network sniffer to possibly collect your
monitored server and hardware devices data and exposes all data sent over the network to same problems like in the past
the old uencrypted SMTP protocol.

To mitigate those great security hole for the paranoid sys admin it is rather easy to enable PSK (Pre Shared Key) based encryption.
To generate Pre Shared key you have to had to important values present

1. PSK Identity
2. PSK Secret

PSK secret should be minimum of 128 bit (16-byte PSK, entered as 32 hexadecimal digits), and supports up to
2048 bit (256-byte PSK, entered as 512 hexadecimal digits)

Usually something like 256 bit PSK secret on the machine should be strong enough and simply generated by running

# openssl rand -hex 32

1. Agent to zabbix server or proxy connection config

In /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf for a Server Active (e.g. server to actively request the client to sent its collected data)
On machine running zabbix-agent should have a configuration similar to:

# cat /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf

PidFile=/var/run/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.pid
LogFile=/var/log/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.log
LogFileSize=0

# IP of the machine
SourceIP=10.10.10.30
# turn it on if you need to execute to remote machine commands
EnableRemoteCommands=0

# IP of the server
servers=10.30.50.80
ListenPort=10080

# IP of the machine
ListenIP=10.30.30.31

# IP of the server
ServerActive=10.30.50.80

HostMetadataItem=system.uname
BufferSize=5400
MaxLinesPerSecond=5
Timeout=10
AllowRoot=0
StartAgents=5
LogRemoteCommands=0


# Machine hostname
Hostname=fqdn-of-zabbix-data-collect-server.com
Include=/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/*.conf

# Encryption
TLSConnect=psk
TLSAccept=psk
TLSPSKIdentity=PSK to Zabbix Server5
TLSPSKFile=/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.psk


! Important security note

!!! The TLSPSKIdentity value you decide will not be encrypted on transport, so don't use anything sensitive.

Once you include the TSL config

2 Generate / Create Zabbix Agent Key

Generate the key with pseudo-random bites inside /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd_key.psk

# cd /etc/zabbix
# openssl rand -hex 32 > zabbix_agentd_key.psk
# chown zabbix:zabbix zabbix_agentd_key.psk
# chmod 600 zabbix_agentd_key.psk

3. Configure PSK encryption in Zabbix Server Web User interface

Go to Zabbix Server User interface in browser and configure the PSK encryption options for the host.

Select the:

'Connections to host' = PSK

'Connections from host' = PSK

'PSK Identity' = [public-value-configured-in-Zabbix-agent-config]

'PSK' = [paste the long hex string generated from the OpenSSL command above]


In some seconds up to a minute or two the Zabbix Server and Agent will successfully communicate using PSK encryption.
Making the monitored data unreadable in plain text for malignant sniffers hanging in the middle equipment between the zabbix-agent and zabbix-server hosts.

4. PSK encryption behind a Proxy

Many companies, nowadays use zabbix proxy for improvement of network infrastrucutre. For example it is used to offload the zabbix-server when multiple zabbix-agents have to report various datas or to monitor servers and devices that are phyisically in separate networks or data centers (are passing through paranoic built firewalls) or monitor locations are having unreliable communications between each other.
 

To enable PSK for communications between your Zabbix Server and Zabbix Proxy.

1. Create a new secret, and add the PSK Identity and Secret to

Administration ⇾ Proxies ⇾ [Your proxy] ⇾ Encryption

2. Adjust the settings inside the zabbix proxies configuration file at /etc/zabbix/zabbix_proxy.conf


If setting up PSK encryption for agents behind a Zabbix proxy, ensure your have

Zabbix Server ⇽⇾ Proxy PSK enabled
first in Zabbix Server UI.

This is because, when you start the Proxy, or do some testing to send some key value to Zabbix server via the proxy with commands :

# zabbix_get -s 127.0.0.1 -k system.hostname
# zabbix_server -R config_cache_reload


config_cache_reload, the Proxy will download all its host settings from the server, and this also includes the servers copy of the secret.

The proxy needs to know the secret since it is now managing the communications on behalf of the server.

3. To add PSK encryption for any Agents behind a proxy, then you continue to set up the Agents as normal by creating a new secret, editing

Configuration ⇾ Hosts ⇾ [Your Host] ⇾ Encryption page

and also editing /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf.

Remember that, since your Agents Host configuration in the Zabbix UI will be set as Monitored by Proxy, the PSK settings will be applicable for communications happening between the Zabbix Proxy and the Agent that it is monitoring, not between the Zabbix Server and the Agent behind the proxy.

You can also add PSK Encryption between your Zabbix Proxy and its own local Agent if you want.
You would set its PSK settings in the Proxy Agents host configuration at

Configuration ⇾ Hosts ⇾ [Your proxy] ⇾ Encryption

and modify the settings in the agents on configuration file at /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf.
Keep in mind, this is only applicable to communications between the Zabbix Proxy, and its own Agent process.

When setting up PSK encryption for the Zabbix Server, Proxy and Agents, you may see an error in the Proxy logs,

cannot send proxy data to server at "zabbix.your-domain.tld": connection of type "TLS with PSK" is not allowed for proxy "your-proxy".

If you hit this, check that your

Zabbix Server ⇽⇾ Proxy PSK settings

are correct first.

Don't get confused between the Proxies own optional agent process, and its main Proxy process which is required.

Zabbix: Monitor Linux rsyslog configured central log server is rechable with check_log_server_status.sh userparameter script

Wednesday, June 8th, 2022

zabbix-monitor-central-log-server-is-reachable-from-host-with-a-userparamater-script-zabbix-logo

On modern Linux OS servers on Redhat / CentOS / Fedora and Debian based distros log server service is usually running on the system  such as rsyslog (rsyslogd) to make sure the logging from services is properly logged in separate logs under /var/log.

A very common practice on critical server machines in terms of data security, where logs produced by rsyslog daermon needs to be copied over network via TCP or UDP protocol immediately is to copy over the /var/log produced logs to another configured central logging server. Then later every piece of bit generated by rsyslogd could be  overseen by a third party auditor person and useful for any investigation in case of logs integrity is required or at worse case if there is a suspicion that system in question is hacked by a malicious hax0r and logs have been "cleaned" up from any traces leading to the intruder (things usually done locally by hackers) or by any automated script exploit tools since yesr.

This doubled logging of system events to external log server  ipmentioned is very common practice by companies to protect their log data and quite useful for logs to be recovered easily later on from the central logging server machine that could be also setup for example to use rsyslogd to receive logs from other Linux machines in circumstances where some log disappears just like that (things i've seen happen) for any strange reason or gets destroyed by the admins mistake locally on machine / or by any other mean such as filesystem gets damaged. a very common practice by companies to protect their log data.  

Monitor remote logging server is reachable with userparameter script

Assuming that you already have setup a logging from the server hostname A towards the Central logging server log storepool and everything works as expected the next logical step is to have at least some basic way to monitor remote logging server configured is still reachable all the time and respectively rsyslog /var/log/*.* logs gets properly produced on remote side for example with something like a simple TCP remote server port check and reported in case of troubles in zabbix.

To solve that simple task for company where I'm employed, I've developed below check_log_server_status.sh:
 

#!/bin/bash
# @@ for TCP @ for UDP
# check_log_server_status.sh Script to check if configured TCP / UDP logging server in /etc/rsyslog.conf is rechable
# report to zabbix
DELIMITER='@@';
GREP_PORT='5145';
CONNECT_TIMEOUT=5;

PORT=$(grep -Ei "*.* $DELIMITER.*:$GREP_PORT" /etc/rsyslog.conf|awk -F : '{ print $2 }'|sort -rn |uniq);

#for i in $(grep -Ei "*.* $DELIMITER.*:$GREP_PORT" /etc/rsyslog.conf |grep -v '\#'|awk -F"$DELIMITER" '{ print $2 }' | awk -F ':' '{ print $1 }'|sort -rn); do
HOST=$(grep -Ei "*.* $DELIMITER.*:$GREP_PORT" /etc/rsyslog.conf |grep -v '\#'|awk -F"$DELIMITER" '{ print $2 }' | awk -F ':' '{ print $1 }'|sort -rn)

# echo $PORT

if [[ ! -z $PORT ]] && [[ ! -z $HOST ]]; then
SSH_RETURN=$(/bin/ssh $HOST -p $PORT -o ConnectTimeout=$CONNECT_TIMEOUT 2>&1);
else
echo "PROBLEM Port $GREP_PORT not defined in /etc/rsyslog.conf";
fi

##echo SSH_RETURN $SSH_RETURN;
#exit 1;
if [[ $(echo $SSH_RETURN |grep -i ‘Connection timed out during banner exchange’ | wc -l) -eq ‘1’ ]]; then
echo "rsyslogd $HOST:$PORT OK";
fi

if [[ $(echo $SSH_RETURN |grep -i ‘Connection refused’ | wc -l) -eq ‘1’ ]]; then
echo "rsyslogd $HOST:$PORT PROBLEM";
fi

#sleep 2;
#done


You can download a copy of the script check_log_server_status.sh here

Depending on the port the remote rsyslogd central logging server is using configure it in the script with respective port through the DELIMITER='@@', GREP_PORT='5145', CONNECT_TIMEOUT=5 values.

The delimiter is setup as usually in /etc/rsyslog.conf this the remote logging server for TCP IP is configured with @@ prefix to indicated TCP mode should be used.

Below is example from /etc/rsyslog.conf of how the rsyslogd server is configured:

[root@Server-hostA /root]# grep -i @@ /etc/rsyslogd.conf
# central remote Log server IP / port
*.* @@10.10.10.1:5145

To use the script on a machine, where you have a properly configured zabbix-agentd service host connected and reporting data to a zabbix-server monitoring server.

1. Set up the script under /usr/local/bin/check_log_server_status.sh

[root@Server-hostA /root ]# vim /usr/local/bin/check_log_server_status.sh

[root@Server-hostA /root ]# chmod +x /usr/local/bin/check_log_server_status.sh

2. Prepare userparameter_check_log_server.conf with log_server.check Item key

[root@Server-hostA zabbix_agentd.d]# cat userparameter_check_log_server.conf 
UserParameter=log_server.check, /usr/local/bin/check_log_server_status.sh

3. Set in Zabbix some Item such as on below screenshot

 

check-log-server-status-screenshot-linux-item-zabbix.png4. Create a Zabbix trigger 

check-log-server-status-trigger-logserver-is-unreachable-zabbix


The redded hided field in Expression field should be substituted with your actual hostname on which the monitor script will run.

Install Zabbix Agent client on CentOS 9 Stream Linux, Disable Selinux and Firewalld on CentOS9 to make zabbix-agentd send data to server

Thursday, April 14th, 2022

https://pc-freak.net/images/zabbix_agent_active_passive-zabbix-agent-centos-9-install-howto

Installing Zabbix is usually a trivial stuff, you either use the embedded distribution built packages if such are available this is for example defetch the right zabbix release repository  that configures the Zabbix official repo in the system, configure the Zabbix server or Proxy if such is used inside /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf and start the client, i.e. I expected that it will be a simple and straight forward also on the freshly installed CentOS 9 Linux cause placing a zabbix-agent monitroing is a trivial stuff however installing came to error:

Key import failed (code 2). Failing package is: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64

 

This is what I've done

1. Download and install zabbix-release-6.0-1.el8.noarch.rpm directly from zabbix

I've followed the official documentation from zabbix.com and ran:
 

[root@centos9 /root ]# rpm -Uvh https://repo.zabbix.com/zabbix/6.0/rhel/8/x86_64/zabbix-release-6.0-1.el8.noarch.rpm


2. Install  the zabbix-agent RPM package from the repositry

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# yum install zabbix-agent -y
Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:46 ago on Tue 12 Apr 2022 08:49:34 AM EDT.
Dependencies resolved.
=============================================
 Package                               Architecture                Version                              Repository                      Size
=============================================
Installing:
 zabbix-agent                          x86_64                      6.0.3-1.el8                          zabbix                         526 k
Installing dependencies:
 compat-openssl11                      x86_64                      1:1.1.1k-3.el9                       appstream                      1.5 M
 openldap-compat                       x86_64                      2.4.59-4.el9                         baseos                          14 k

Transaction Summary
==============================================
Install  3 PackagesTotal size: 2.0 M
Installed size: 6.1 M
Downloading Packages:
[SKIPPED] openldap-compat-2.4.59-4.el9.x86_64.rpm: Already downloaded
[SKIPPED] compat-openssl11-1.1.1k-3.el9.x86_64.rpm: Already downloaded
[SKIPPED] zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64.rpm: Already downloaded
Zabbix Official Repository – x86_64                                                                          1.6 MB/s | 1.7 kB     00:00
Importing GPG key 0xA14FE591:
 Userid     : "Zabbix LLC <packager@zabbix.com>"
 Fingerprint: A184 8F53 52D0 22B9 471D 83D0 082A B56B A14F E591
 From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591
Key import failed (code 2). Failing package is: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64
 GPG Keys are configured as: file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591
The downloaded packages were saved in cache until the next successful transaction.
You can remove cached packages by e
xecuting 'yum clean packages'.
Error: GPG check FAILED


3. Work around to skip GPG to install zabbix-agent 6 on CentOS 9

With Linux everything becomes more and more of a hack …
The logical thing to was to first,  check and it assure that the missing RPM GPG key is at place

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# ls -al  /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 1719 Feb 11 16:29 /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591

Strangely the key was in place.

Hence to have the key loaded I've tried to import the gpg key manually with gpg command:

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# gpg –import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591


And attempted install again zabbix-agent once again:
 

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# yum install zabbix-agent -y
Last metadata expiration check: 0:02:46 ago on Tue 12 Apr 2022 08:49:34 AM EDT.
Dependencies resolved.
==============================================
 Package                               Architecture                Version                              Repository                      Size
==============================================
Installing:
 zabbix-agent                          x86_64                      6.0.3-1.el8                          zabbix                         526 k
Installing dependencies:
 compat-openssl11                      x86_64                      1:1.1.1k-3.el9                       appstream                      1.5 M
 openldap-compat                       x86_64                      2.4.59-4.el9                         baseos                          14 k

Transaction Summary
==============================================
Install  3 Packages

Total size: 2.0 M
Installed size: 6.1 M
Downloading Packages:
[SKIPPED] openldap-compat-2.4.59-4.el9.x86_64.rpm: Already downloaded
[SKIPPED] compat-openssl11-1.1.1k-3.el9.x86_64.rpm: Already downloaded
[SKIPPED] zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64.rpm: Already downloaded
Zabbix Official Repository – x86_64                                                                          1.6 MB/s | 1.7 kB     00:00
Importing GPG key 0xA14FE591:
 Userid     : "Zabbix LLC <packager@zabbix.com>"
 Fingerprint: A184 8F53 52D0 22B9 471D 83D0 082A B56B A14F E591
 From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591
Key import failed (code 2). Failing package is: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64
 GPG Keys are configured as: file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591
The downloaded packages were saved in cache until the next successful transaction.
You can remove cached packages by executing 'yum clean packages'.
Error: GPG check FAILED


Unfortunately that was not a go, so totally pissed off I've disabled the gpgcheck for packages completely as a very raw bad and unrecommended work-around to eventually install the zabbix-agentd like that.

Usually the RPM gpg key failures check on RPM packages could be could be workaround with in dnf, so I've tried that one without success.

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# dnf update –nogpgcheck
Total                                                                                                        181 kB/s | 526 kB     00:02
Zabbix Official Repository – x86_64                                                                          1.6 MB/s | 1.7 kB     00:00
Importing GPG key 0xA14FE591:
 Userid     : "Zabbix LLC <packager@zabbix.com>"
 Fingerprint: A184 8F53 52D0 22B9 471D 83D0 082A B56B A14F E591
 From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Key import failed (code 2). Failing package is: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64
 GPG Keys are configured as: file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-ZABBIX-A14FE591
The downloaded packages were saved in cache until the next successful transaction.
You can remove cached packages by executing 'dnf clean packages'.
Error: GPG check FAILED

Further tried to use the –nogpgpcheck 
which according to its man page:


–nogpgpcheck 
Skip checking GPG signatures on packages (if RPM policy allows).


In yum the nogpgcheck option according to its man yum does exactly the same thing


[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# yum install zabbix-agent –nogpgcheck -y
 

Dependencies resolved.
===============================================
 Package                             Architecture                  Version                               Repository                     Size
===============================================
Installing:
 zabbix-agent                        x86_64                        6.0.3-1.el8                           zabbix                        526 k

Transaction Summary
===============================================

Total size: 526 k
Installed size: 2.3 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:

Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                     1/1
  Running scriptlet: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     1/2
  Reinstalling     : zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     1/2
  Running scriptlet: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     1/2
  Running scriptlet: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     2/2
  Cleanup          : zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     2/2
  Running scriptlet: zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     2/2
  Verifying        : zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     1/2
  Verifying        : zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64                                                                                     2/2

Installed:
  zabbix-agent-6.0.3-1.el8.x86_64

Complete!
[root@centos9 ~]#

Voila! zabbix-agentd on CentOS 9 Install succeeded!

Yes I know disabling a GPG check is not really secure and seems to be an ugly solution but since I'm cut of time in the moment and it is just for experimental install of zabbix-agent on CentOS
plus we already trusted the zabbix package repository anyways, I guess it doesn't much matter.

4. Configure Zabbix-agent on the machine

Once you choose how the zabbix-agent should sent the data to the zabbix-server (e.g. Active or Passive) mode the The minimum set of configuration you should
have at place should be something like mine:

[root@centos9 ~]# grep -v '\#' /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf | sed /^$/d
PidFile=/var/run/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.pid
LogFile=/var/log/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.log
LogFileSize=0
Server=192.168.1.70,127.0.0.1
ServerActive=192.168.1.70,127.0.0.1
Hostname=centos9
Include=/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/*.conf

5. Start and Enable zabbix-agent client

To have it up and running

[root@centos9 ~]# systemct start zabbix-agent
[root@centos9 ~]# systemctl enable zabbix-agent

6. Disable SELinux to prevent it interfere with zabbix-agentd 

Other amazement was that even though I've now had configured Active check and a Server and correct configuration the Zabbix-Server could not reach the zabbix-agent for some weird reason.
I thought that it might be selinux and checked it and seems by default in the fresh installed CentOS 9 Linux selinux is already automatically set to enabled.

After stopping it i made sure, SeLinux would block for security reasons client connectivity to the zabbix-server until you either allow zabbix exception in SeLinux or until completely disable it.
 

[root@centos9 ~]# sestatus

SELinux status:                 enabled
SELinuxfs mount:                /sys/fs/selinux
SELinux root directory:         /etc/selinux
Loaded policy name:             targeted
Current mode:                   enforcing
Mode from config file:          enforcing
Policy MLS status:              enabled
Policy deny_unknown status:     allowed
Memory protection checking:     actual (secure)
Max kernel policy version:      31

To temporarily change the mode from its default targeted to permissive mode 

[root@centos9 ~]# setenforce 0

[root@centos9 ~]# sestatus

SELinux status:                 enabled
SELinuxfs mount:                /sys/fs/selinux
SELinux root directory:         /etc/selinux
Loaded policy name:             targeted
Current mode:                   permissive
Mode from config file:          permissive
Policy MLS status:              enabled
Policy deny_unknown status:     allowed
Memory protection checking:     actual (secure)
Max kernel policy version:      31


That would work for current session but won't take affect on next reboot, thus it is much better to disable selinux on next boot:

[root@centos9 ~]# cat /etc/selinux/config
# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#     enforcing – SELinux security policy is enforced.
#     permissive – SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#     disabled – No SELinux policy is loaded.
SELINUX=permissive
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these three values:
#     targeted – Targeted processes are protected,
#     minimum – Modification of targeted policy. Only selected processes are protected. 
#     mls – Multi Level Security protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted

 

To disable selinux change:

SELINUXTYPE=disabled

[root@centos9 ~]# grep -v \# /etc/selinux/config

SELINUX=disabled
SELINUXTYPE=targeted


To make the OS disable selinux and test it is disabled you will have to reboot 

[root@centos9 ~]# reboot


Check its status again, it should be:

[root@centos9 ~]# sestatus
SELinux status:                 disabled


7. Enable zabbix-agent through firewall or disable firewalld service completely

By default CentOS 9 has the firewalld also enabled and either you have to enable zabbix to communicate to the remote server host.

To enable access for from and to zabbix-agentd in both Active / Passive mode:

#firewall settings:
[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# firewall-cmd –permanent –add-port=10050/tcp
[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# firewall-cmd –permanent –add-port=10051/tcp
[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# firewall-cmd –reload
[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# systemctl restart firewalld
[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# systemctl restart zabbix-agent


If the machine is in a local DMZ-ed network with tightly configured firewall router in front of it, you could completely disable firewalld.

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# systemctl stop firewalld
[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# systemctl disable firewalld
Removed /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
Removed /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.

 

Next login to Zabbix-server web interface with administrator and from Configuration -> Hosts -> Create the centos9 hostname and add it a template of choice. The data from the added machine should shortly appear after another zabbix restart:

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]#  systemctl restart zabbix-agentd


8. Tracking other oddities with the zabbix-agent through log

If anyways still zabbix have issues connectin to remote node, increase the debug log level section
 

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# vim /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
DebugLevel 5

### Option: DebugLevel
#       Specifies debug level:
#       0 – basic information about starting and stopping of Zabbix processes
#       1 – critical information
#       2 – error information
#       3 – warnings
#       4 – for debugging (produces lots of information)
#       5 – extended debugging (produces even more information)
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 0-5
# Default:
# DebugLevel=3

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# systemctl restart zabbix-agent

Keep in mind that debugging will be too verbose, so once you make the machine being seen in zabbix, don't forget to comment out the line and restart agent to turn it off.

9. Testing zabbix-agent, How to send an alert to specific item key

Usually when writting userparameter scripts, data collected from scripts is being sent to zabbix serveria via Item keys.
Thus one way to check the zabbix-agent -> zabbix server data send works fine is to send some simultaneous data via a key
Once zabbix-agent is configured on the machine 

In this case we will use something like ApplicationSupport-Item as an item.
 

[root@centos9 rpm-gpg]# /usr/bin/zabbix_sender -c "/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf" -k "ApplicationSupport-Item" -o "here is the message"

Assuming you have created the newly prepared zabbix-agent host into Zabbix Server, you should be shortly able to see the data come in Latest data.

Zabbix rkhunter monitoring check if rootkits trojans and viruses or suspicious OS activities are detected

Wednesday, December 8th, 2021

monitor-rkhunter-with-zabbix-zabbix-rkhunter-check-logo

If you're using rkhunter to monitor for malicious activities, a binary changes, rootkits, viruses, malware, suspicious stuff and other famous security breach possible or actual issues, perhaps you have configured your machines to report to some Email.
But what if you want to have a scheduled rkhunter running on the machine and you don't want to count too much on email alerting (especially because email alerting) makes possible for emails to be tracked by sysadmin pretty late?

We have been in those situation and in this case me and my dear colleague Georgi Stoyanov developed a small rkhunter Zabbix userparameter check to track and Alert if any traces of "Warning"''s are mateched in the traditional rkhunter log file /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log

To set it up and use it is pretty use you will need to have a recent version of zabbix-agent installed on the machine and connected to a Zabbix server, in my case this is:

[root@centos ~]# rpm -qa |grep -i zabbix-agent
zabbix-agent-4.0.7-1.el7.x86_64

 placed inside /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/userparameter_rkhunter_warning_check.conf

[root@centos /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d ]# cat userparameter_rkhunter_warning_check.conf
# userparameter script to check if any Warning is inside /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log and if found to trigger Zabbix alert
UserParameter=rkhunter.warning, (TODAY=$(date |awk '{ print $1" "$2" "$3 }'); if [ $(cat /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log | awk “/$TODAY/,EOF” | /bin/grep -i ‘\[ Warning \]’ | /usr/bin/wc -l) != ‘0’ ]; then echo 1; else echo 0; fi)
UserParameter=rkhunter.suspected,(/bin/grep -i 'Suspect files: ' /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log|tail -n 1| awk '{ print $4 }')
UserParameter=rkhunter.rootkits,(/bin/grep -i 'Possible rootkits: ' /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log|tail -n 1| awk '{ print $4 }')


2. Prepare Rkhunter Template, Triggers and Items


In Zabbix Server that you access from web control interface, you will have to prepare a new template called lets say Rkhunter with the necessery Triggers and Items


2.1 Create Rkhunter Items
 

On Zabbix Server side, uou will have to configure 3 Items for the 3 configured userparameter above script keys, like so:

rkhunter-items-zabbix-screenshot.png

  • rkhunter.suspected Item configuration


rkhunter-suspected-files

  • rkhunter.warning Zabbix Item config

rkhunter-warning-found-check-zabbix

  • rkhunter.rootkits Zabbix Item config

     

     

    rkhunter-zabbix-possible-rootkits-item1

    2.2 Create Triggers
     

You need to have an overall of 3 triggers like in below shot:

zabbix-rkhunter-all-triggers-screenshot
 

  • rkhunter.rootkits Trigger config

rkhunter-rootkits-trigger-zabbix1

  • rkhunter.suspected Trigger cfg

rkhunter-suspected-trigger-zabbix1

  • rkhunter warning Trigger cfg

rkhunter-warning-trigger1

3. Reload zabbix-agent and test the keys


It is necessery to reload zabbix agent for the new userparameter to start to be sent to remote zabbix server (through a proxy if you have one configured).

[root@centos ~]# systemctl restart zabbix-agent


To make the zabbix-agent send the keys to the server you can use zabbix_sender to have the test tool you will have to have installed (zabbix-sender) on the server.

To trigger a manualTest if you happen to have some problems with the key which shouldn''t be the case you can sent a value to the respectve key with below command:

[root@centos ~ ]# zabbix_sender -vv -c "/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf" -k "khunter.warning" -o "1"


Check on Zabbix Server the sent value is received, for any oddities as usual check what is inside  /var/log/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.log for any errors or warnings.

Install and enable Sysstats IO / DIsk / CPU / Network monitoring console suite on Redhat 8.3, Few sar useful command examples

Tuesday, September 28th, 2021

linux-sysstat-monitoring-logo

 

Why to monitoring CPU, Memory, Hard Disk, Network usage etc. with sysstats tools?
 

Using system monitoring tools such as Zabbix, Nagios Monit is a good approach, however sometimes due to zabbix server interruptions you might not be able to track certain aspects of system performance on time. Thus it is always a good idea to 
Gain more insights on system peroformance from command line. Of course there is cmd tools such as iostat and top, free, vnstat that provides plenty of useful info on system performance issues or bottlenecks. However from my experience to have a better historical data that is systimized and all the time accessible from console it is a great thing to have sysstat package at place. Since many years mostly on every server I administer, I've been using sysstats to monitor what is going on servers over a short time frames and I'm quite happy with it. In current company we're using Redhats and CentOS-es and I had to install sysstats on Redhat 8.3. I've earlier done it multiple times on Debian / Ubuntu Linux and while I've faced on some .deb distributions complications of making sysstat collect statistics I've come with an article on Howto fix sysstat Cannot open /var/log/sysstat/sa no such file or directory” on Debian / Ubuntu Linux
 

Sysstat contains the following tools related to collecting I/O and CPU statistics:
iostat
Displays an overview of CPU utilization, along with I/O statistics for one or more disk drives.
mpstat
Displays more in-depth CPU statistics.
Sysstat also contains tools that collect system resource utilization data and create daily reports based on that data. These tools are:
sadc
Known as the system activity data collector, sadc collects system resource utilization information and writes it to a file.
sar
Producing reports from the files created by sadc, sar reports can be generated interactively or written to a file for more intensive analysis.

My experience with CentOS 7 and Fedora to install sysstat it was pretty straight forward, I just had to install it via yum install sysstat wait for some time and use sar (System Activity Reporter) tool to report collected system activity info stats over time.
Unfortunately it seems on RedHat 8.3 as well as on CentOS 8.XX instaling sysstats does not work out of the box.

To complete a successful installation of it on RHEL 8.3, I had to:

[root@server ~]# yum install -y sysstat


To make sysstat enabled on the system and make it run, I've enabled it in sysstat

[root@server ~]# systemctl enable sysstat


Running immediately sar command, I've faced the shitty error:


Cannot open /var/log/sysstat/sa18:
No such file or directory. Please check if data collecting is enabled”

 

Once installed I've waited for about 5 minutes hoping, that somehow automatically sysstat would manage it but it didn't.

To solve it, I've had to create additionally file /etc/cron.d/sysstat (weirdly RPM's post install instructions does not tell it to automatically create it)

[root@server ~]# vim /etc/cron.d/sysstat

# run system activity accounting tool every 10 minutes
0 * * * * root /usr/lib64/sa/sa1 60 59 &
# generate a daily summary of process accounting at 23:53
53 23 * * * root /usr/lib64/sa/sa2 -A &

 

  • /usr/local/lib/sa1 is a shell script that we can use for scheduling cron which will create daily binary log file.
  • /usr/local/lib/sa2 is a shell script will change binary log file to human-readable form.

 

[root@server ~]# chmod 600 /etc/cron.d/sysstat

[root@server ~]# systemctl restart sysstat


In a while if sysstat is working correctly you should get produced its data history logs inside /var/log/sa

[root@server ~]# ls -al /var/log/sa 


Note that the standard sysstat history files on Debian and other modern .deb based distros such as Debian 10 (in  y.2021) is stored under /var/log/sysstat

Here is few useful uses of sysstat cmds


1. Check with sysstat machine history SWAP and RAM Memory use


To lets say check last 10 minutes SWAP memory use:

[hipo@server yum.repos.d] $ sar -W  |last -n 10
 

Linux 4.18.0-240.el8.x86_64 (server)       09/28/2021      _x86_64_        (8 CPU)

12:00:00 AM  pswpin/s pswpout/s
12:00:01 AM      0.00      0.00
12:01:01 AM      0.00      0.00
12:02:01 AM      0.00      0.00
12:03:01 AM      0.00      0.00
12:04:01 AM      0.00      0.00
12:05:01 AM      0.00      0.00
12:06:01 AM      0.00      0.00

[root@ccnrlb01 ~]# sar -r | tail -n 10
14:00:01        93008   1788832     95.06         0   1357700    725740      9.02    795168    683484        32
14:10:01        78756   1803084     95.81         0   1358780    725740      9.02    827660    652248        16
14:20:01        92844   1788996     95.07         0   1344332    725740      9.02    813912    651620        28
14:30:01        92408   1789432     95.09         0   1344612    725740      9.02    816392    649544        24
14:40:01        91740   1790100     95.12         0   1344876    725740      9.02    816948    649436        36
14:50:01        91688   1790152     95.13         0   1345144    725740      9.02    817136    649448        36
15:00:02        91544   1790296     95.14         0   1345448    725740      9.02    817472    649448        36
15:10:01        91108   1790732     95.16         0   1345724    725740      9.02    817732    649340        36
15:20:01        90844   1790996     95.17         0   1346000    725740      9.02    818016    649332        28
Average:        93473   1788367     95.03         0   1369583    725074      9.02    800965    671266        29

 

2. Check system load? Are my processes waiting too long to run on the CPU?

[root@server ~ ]# sar -q |head -n 10
Linux 4.18.0-240.el8.x86_64 (server)       09/28/2021      _x86_64_        (8 CPU)

12:00:00 AM   runq-sz  plist-sz   ldavg-1   ldavg-5  ldavg-15   blocked
12:00:01 AM         0       272      0.00      0.02      0.00         0
12:01:01 AM         1       271      0.00      0.02      0.00         0
12:02:01 AM         0       268      0.00      0.01      0.00         0
12:03:01 AM         0       268      0.00      0.00      0.00         0
12:04:01 AM         1       271      0.00      0.00      0.00         0
12:05:01 AM         1       271      0.00      0.00      0.00         0
12:06:01 AM         1       265      0.00      0.00      0.00         0


3. Show various CPU statistics per CPU use
 

On a multiprocessor, multi core server sometimes for scripting it is useful to fetch processor per use historic data, 
this can be attained with:

 

[hipo@server ~ ] $ mpstat -P ALL
Linux 4.18.0-240.el8.x86_64 (server)       09/28/2021      _x86_64_        (8 CPU)

06:08:38 PM  CPU    %usr   %nice    %sys %iowait    %irq   %soft  %steal  %guest  %gnice   %idle
06:08:38 PM  all    0.17    0.02    0.25    0.00    0.05    0.02    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.49
06:08:38 PM    0    0.22    0.02    0.28    0.00    0.06    0.03    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.39
06:08:38 PM    1    0.28    0.02    0.36    0.00    0.08    0.02    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.23
06:08:38 PM    2    0.27    0.02    0.31    0.00    0.06    0.01    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.33
06:08:38 PM    3    0.15    0.02    0.22    0.00    0.03    0.01    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.57
06:08:38 PM    4    0.13    0.02    0.20    0.01    0.03    0.01    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.60
06:08:38 PM    5    0.14    0.02    0.27    0.00    0.04    0.06    0.01    0.00    0.00   99.47
06:08:38 PM    6    0.10    0.02    0.17    0.00    0.04    0.02    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.65
06:08:38 PM    7    0.09    0.02    0.15    0.00    0.02    0.01    0.00    0.00    0.00   99.70


 

sar-sysstat-cpu-statistics-screenshot

Monitor processes and threads currently being managed by the Linux kernel.

[hipo@server ~ ] $ pidstat

pidstat-various-random-process-statistics

[hipo@server ~ ] $ pidstat -d 2


pidstat-show-processes-with-most-io-activities-linux-screenshot

This report tells us that there is few processes with heave I/O use Filesystem system journalling daemon jbd2, apache, mysqld and supervise, in 3rd column you see their respective PID IDs.

To show threads used inside a process (like if you press SHIFT + H) inside Linux top command:

[hipo@server ~ ] $ pidstat -t -p 10765 1 3

Linux 4.19.0-14-amd64 (server)     28.09.2021     _x86_64_    (10 CPU)

21:41:22      UID      TGID       TID    %usr %system  %guest   %wait    %CPU   CPU  Command
21:41:23      108     10765         –    1,98    0,99    0,00    0,00    2,97     1  mysqld
21:41:23      108         –     10765    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00     1  |__mysqld
21:41:23      108         –     10768    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00     0  |__mysqld
21:41:23      108         –     10771    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00     5  |__mysqld
21:41:23      108         –     10784    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00     7  |__mysqld
21:41:23      108         –     10785    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00     6  |__mysqld
21:41:23      108         –     10786    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00    0,00     2  |__mysqld

10765 – is the Process ID whose threads you would like to list

With pidstat, you can further monitor processes for memory leaks with:

[hipo@server ~ ] $ pidstat -r 2

 

4. Report paging statistics for some old period

 

[root@server ~ ]# sar -B -f /var/log/sa/sa27 |head -n 10
Linux 4.18.0-240.el8.x86_64 (server)       09/27/2021      _x86_64_        (8 CPU)

15:42:26     LINUX RESTART      (8 CPU)

15:55:30     LINUX RESTART      (8 CPU)

04:00:01 PM  pgpgin/s pgpgout/s   fault/s  majflt/s  pgfree/s pgscank/s pgscand/s pgsteal/s    %vmeff
04:01:01 PM      0.00     14.47    629.17      0.00    502.53      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
04:02:01 PM      0.00     13.07    553.75      0.00    419.98      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
04:03:01 PM      0.00     11.67    548.13      0.00    411.80      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00

 

5.  Monitor Received RX and Transmitted TX network traffic perl Network interface real time
 

To print out Received and Send traffic per network interface 4 times in a raw

sar-sysstats-network-traffic-statistics-screenshot
 

[hipo@server ~ ] $ sar -n DEV 1 4


To continusly monitor all network interfaces I/O traffic

[hipo@server ~ ] $ sar -n DEV 1


To only monitor a certain network interface lets say loopback interface (127.0.0.1) received / transmitted bytes

[hipo@server yum.repos.d] $  sar -n DEV 1 2|grep -i lo
06:29:53 PM        lo      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
06:29:54 PM        lo      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
Average:           lo      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00


6. Monitor block devices use
 

To check block devices use 3 times in a raw
 

[hipo@server yum.repos.d] $ sar -d 1 3


sar-sysstats-blockdevice-statistics-screenshot
 

7. Output server monitoring data in CSV database structured format


For preparing a nice graphs with Excel from CSV strucuted file format, you can dump the collected data as so:

 [root@server yum.repos.d]# sadf -d /var/log/sa/sa27 — -n DEV | grep -v lo|head -n 10
server-name-fqdn;-1;2021-09-27 13:42:26 UTC;LINUX-RESTART    (8 CPU)
# hostname;interval;timestamp;IFACE;rxpck/s;txpck/s;rxkB/s;txkB/s;rxcmp/s;txcmp/s;rxmcst/s;%ifutil
server-name-fqdn;-1;2021-09-27 13:55:30 UTC;LINUX-RESTART    (8 CPU)
# hostname;interval;timestamp;IFACE;rxpck/s;txpck/s;rxkB/s;txkB/s;rxcmp/s;txcmp/s;rxmcst/s;%ifutil
server-name-fqdn;60;2021-09-27 14:01:01 UTC;eth1;19.42;16.12;1.94;1.68;0.00;0.00;0.00;0.00
server-name-fqdn;60;2021-09-27 14:01:01 UTC;eth0;7.18;9.65;0.55;0.78;0.00;0.00;0.00;0.00
server-name-fqdn;60;2021-09-27 14:01:01 UTC;eth2;5.65;5.13;0.42;0.39;0.00;0.00;0.00;0.00
server-name-fqdn;60;2021-09-27 14:02:01 UTC;eth1;18.90;15.55;1.89;1.60;0.00;0.00;0.00;0.00
server-name-fqdn;60;2021-09-27 14:02:01 UTC;eth0;7.15;9.63;0.55;0.74;0.00;0.00;0.00;0.00
server-name-fqdn;60;2021-09-27 14:02:01 UTC;eth2;5.67;5.15;0.42;0.39;0.00;0.00;0.00;0.00

To graph the output data you can use Excel / LibreOffice's Excel equivalent Calc or if you need to dump a CSV sar output and generate it on the fly from a script  use gnuplot 


What we've learned?


How to install and enable on cron sysstats on Redhat and CentOS 8 Linux ? 
How to continuously monitor CPU / Disk and Network, block devices, paging use and processes and threads used by the kernel per process ?  
As well as how to export previously collected data to CSV to import to database or for later use inrder to generate graphic presentation of data.
Cheers ! 🙂