Archive for the ‘Linux’ Category

How to do a port redirect to localhost service with socat or ncat commands to open temporary access to service not seen on the network

Friday, February 23rd, 2024

socat-simple-redirect-tcp-port-on-linux-bsd-logo

You know sometimes it is necessery to easily and temporary redirect network TCP ports to be able to be accessible from Internal DMZ-ed Network via some Local Network IP connection or if the computer system is Internet based and has an external "'real" Internet Class A / B address to be reachable directly from the internet via lets say a modern Internet browser such as Mozilla Firefox / Google Chrome Browser etc.

Such things are easy to be done with iptables if you need to do the IP redirect permanent with Firewall rule changes on Linux router with iptables.
One way to create a TCP port redirect using firewall would include few iptable rules  like for example:

1. Redirect port traffic from external TCP port source to internal one

# iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp –dport 10000 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 80
# iptables -t nat -I OUTPUT -p tcp -o lo –dport 10000 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 80
# iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -o lo -d 127.0.0.1 -p tcp –dport 80 -j DNAT  –to-destination 192.168.0.50:10000
# iptables -t nat -I OUTPUT –source 0/0 –destination 0/0 -p tcp –dport 80 -j REDIRECT –to-ports 10000


Then you will have 192.168.00.50:10000 listener (assuming that the IP is already configured on some of the host network interface, plugged in to the network).

 But as messing up with the firewall is not the best thing to do especially, if you need to just temporary redirect external listener port to a service configured on the server to only run on TCP port on loopback address 127.0.0.1, you can do it instead with another script or command for simplicy.

One simple way to do a port redirect on the fly on GNU / Linux or FreeBSD / OpenBSD is with socat command.

Lets say you have a running statistics of a web server Apache / Nginx / Haproxy frontend / backend statistics or whatever kind of web TCP service on port 80 on your server and this interface is on purpose configured to be reachable only on localhost interface port 80, so you can either access it by creating an ssh tunnel towards the service on 127.0.0.1 or by accessing it by redirecting the traffic towards another external TCP port, lets say 10000.

Here is how you can achieve

2. Redirect Local network accessible IP on all configured Server network interfaces port 10000 to 127.0.0.1 TCP 80 with socat

# socat tcp-l:10000,fork,reuseaddr tcp:127.0.0.1:80

If you need to access later the redirected port in a Browser, pick up the machine first configured IP and open it in a browser (assuming there is no firewall filter prohibiting access to redirected port).

root@pcfreak:~# ifconfig eth0
eth0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 109.104.212.130  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 109.104.212.255
        ether 91:f8:51:03:75:e5  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 652945510  bytes 598369753019 (557.2 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 10541  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 619726615  bytes 630209829226 (586.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

Then in a browser open http://102.104.212.130 or https://102.104.212.130 (depending on if remote service has SSL encryption enabled or not) and you're done, the configured listener Server service should pop-up on the screen.

3. Redirect IP Traffic from External IP to Localhost loopback interface with netcat ( ncat ) swiss army knife hackers and sysadmins tool

If you need to redirect lets say TCP / IP port 8000 to Port a server local binded service on TCP 80 with ncat, instead of socat (if lets say socat is not pre-installed on the machine), you can do it by simply running those two commands:

[root@server ~]# mkfifo svr1_to_svr2
[root@server ~]# ncat -vk -l 8000 < svr1_to_svr2 | ncat 127.0.0.1 80 > svr1_to_svr2
Ncat: Version 7.92 ( https://nmap.org/ncat )
Ncat: Listening on 0.0.0.0:10000
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39:51813.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39.
Ncat: Connection from 10.10.258.39:23179.

 

I you don't care to log what is going on the background of connection and you simply want to background the process with a one liner command you can achive that with:


[root@server /tmp]# cd tmp; mkfifo svr1_to_svr2; (ncat -vk -l 8000 < svr1_to_svr2 | ncat 127.0.0.1 80 > svr1_to_svr2 &)
 

Then you can open the Internal Machine Port 80 TCP service on 8000 in a browser as usual.

For those who want a bit of more sophisticated proxy like script I would suggest you take a look at using netcat and a few lines of shell script loop, that can simulate a raw and very primitive proxy with netcat this is exampled in my previous article Create simple proxy server with netcat ( nc ) based utility.

Hope this article is helpful to anyone, there is plenty of other ways to do a port redirect with lets say perl, python and perhaps other micro tools. If you know of one liners or small scripts, that do it please share in comments, so we can learn from each other ! 

Enjoy ! 🙂
 

Create Haproxy Loadbalancer Access Control Lists and forward incoming frontend traffics based on simple logic

Friday, February 16th, 2024

Create-haproxy-loadbalancer-access-control-list-and-forward-frontend-traffic-based-on-simple-logic-acls-logo

Haproxy Load Balancers could do pretty much to load balance traffic between application servers. The most straight forward way to use is to balance traffic for incoming Frontends towards a Backend configuration with predefined Application machines and ports to send the traffic, where one can be the leading one and others be set as backup or we can alternatively send the traffic towards a number of machines incoming to a Frontend port bind IP listener and number of backend machine.

Besides this the more interesting capabilities of Haproxy comes with using Access Control Lists (ACLs) to forward Incoming Frontend (FT) traffic towards specific backends and ports based on logic, power ACLs gives to Haproxy to do a sophisticated load balancing are enormous. 
In this post I'll give you a very simple example on how you can save some time, if you have already a present Frontend listening to a Range of TCP Ports and it happens you want to redirect some of the traffic towards a spefic predefined Backend.

This is not the best way to it as Access Control Lists will put some extra efforts on the server CPU, but as today machines are quite powerful, it doesn't really matter. By using a simple ACLs as given in below example, one can save much of a time of writting multiple frontends for a complete sequential port range, if lets say only two of the ports in the port range and distinguish and redirect traffic incoming to Haproxy frontend listener in the port range of 61000-61230 towards a certain Ports that are supposed to go to a Common Backends to a separate ones, lets say ports 61115 and 61215.

Here is a short description on the overall screnarios. We have an haproxy with 3 VIP (Virtual Private IPs) with a Single Frontend with 3 binded IPs and 3 Backends, there is a configured ACL rule to redirect traffic for certain ports, the overall Load Balancing config is like so:

Frontend (ft):

ft_PROD:
listen IPs:

192.168.0.77
192.168.0.83
192.168.0.78

On TCP port range: 61000-61299

Backends (bk): 

bk_PROD_ROUNDROBIN
bk_APP1
bk_APP2


Config Access Control Liststo seperate incoming haproxy traffic for CUSTOM_APP1 and CUSTOM_APP2


By default send all incoming FT traffic to: bk_PROD_ROUNDROBIN

With exception for frontend configured ports on:
APP1 port 61115 
APP2 port 61215

If custom APP1 send to bk:
RULE1
If custom APP2 send to bk:
RULE2

Config on frontends traffic send operation: 

bk_PROD_ROUNDROBIN (roundrobin) traffic send to App machines all in parallel
traffic routing mode (roundrobin)
Appl1
Appl2
Appl3
Appl4

bk_APP1 and bk_APP2

traffic routing mode: (balance source)
Appl1 default serving host

If configured check port 61888, 61887 is down, traffic will be resend to configured pre-configured backup hosts: 

Appl2
Appl3
Appl4


/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg that does what is described with ACL LB capabilities looks like so:

#———————————————————————
# Global settings
#———————————————————————
global
    log         127.0.0.1 local2

    chroot      /var/lib/haproxy
    pidfile     /var/run/haproxy.pid
    maxconn     4000
    user        haproxy
    group       haproxy
    daemon

    # turn on stats unix socket
    stats socket /var/lib/haproxy/stats

#———————————————————————
# common defaults that all the 'listen' and 'backend' sections will
# use if not designated in their block
#———————————————————————
defaults
    mode                    tcp
    log                     global
    option                  tcplog
    #option                  dontlognull
    #option http-server-close
    #option forwardfor       except 127.0.0.0/8
    option                  redispatch
    retries                 7
    #timeout http-request    10s
    timeout queue           10m
    timeout connect         30s
    timeout client          20m
    timeout server          10m
    #timeout http-keep-alive 10s
    timeout check           30s
    maxconn                 3000


#———————————————————————
# Synchronize server entries in sticky tables
#———————————————————————

peers hapeers
    peer haproxy1-fqdn.com 192.168.0.58:8388
    peer haproxy2-fqdn.com 192.168.0.79:8388


#———————————————————————
# HAProxy Monitoring Config
#———————————————————————
listen stats 192.168.0.77:8080                #Haproxy Monitoring run on port 8080
    mode http
    option httplog
    option http-server-close
    stats enable
    stats show-legends
    stats refresh 5s
    stats uri /stats                            #URL for HAProxy monitoring
    stats realm Haproxy\ Statistics
    stats auth hauser:secretpass4321         #User and Password for login to the monitoring dashboard
    stats admin if TRUE
    #default_backend bk_Prod1         #This is optionally for monitoring backend
#———————————————————————
# HAProxy Monitoring Config
#———————————————————————
#listen stats 192.168.0.83:8080                #Haproxy Monitoring run on port 8080
#    mode http
#    option httplog
#    option http-server-close
#    stats enable
#    stats show-legends
#    stats refresh 5s
#    stats uri /stats                            #URL for HAProxy monitoring
#    stats realm Haproxy\ Statistics
#    stats auth hauser:secretpass321          #User and Password for login to the monitoring dashboard
#    stats admin if TRUE
#    #default_backend bk_Prod1           #This is optionally for monitoring backend

#———————————————————————
# HAProxy Monitoring Config
#———————————————————————
# listen stats 192.168.0.78:8080                #Haproxy Monitoring run on port 8080
#    mode http
#    option httplog
#    option http-server-close
#    stats enable
#    stats show-legends
#    stats refresh 5s
#    stats uri /stats                            #URL for HAProxy monitoring
#    stats realm Haproxy\ Statistics
#    stats auth hauser:secretpass123          #User and Password for login to the monitoring dashboard
#    stats admin if TRUE
#    #default_backend bk_DKV_PROD_WLPFO          #This is optionally for monitoring backend


#———————————————————————
# frontend which proxys to the backends
#———————————————————————
frontend ft_PROD
    mode tcp
    bind 192.168.0.77:61000-61299
        bind 192.168.0.83:51000-51300
        bind 192.168.0.78:51000-62300
    option tcplog
        # (4) Peer Sync: a sticky session is a session maintained by persistence
        stick-table type ip size 1m peers hapeers expire 60m
# Commented for change CHG0292890
#   stick on src
    log-format %ci:%cp\ [%t]\ %ft\ %b/%s\ %Tw/%Tc/%Tt\ %B\ %ts\ %ac/%fc/%bc/%sc/%rc\ %sq/%bq
        acl RULE1 dst_port 61115
        acl RULE2 dst_port 61215
        use_backend APP1 if app1
        use_backend APP2 if app2
    default_backend bk_PROD_ROUNDROBIN


#———————————————————————
# round robin balancing between the various backends
#———————————————————————
backend bk_PROD_ROUNDROBIN
    mode tcp
    # (0) Load Balancing Method.
    balance roundrobin
    # (4) Peer Sync: a sticky session is a session maintained by persistence
    stick-table type ip size 1m peers hapeers expire 60m
    # (5) Server List
    # (5.1) Backend
    server appl1 10.33.0.50 check port 31232
    server appl2 10.33.0.51 check port 31232 
    server appl2 10.45.0.78 check port 31232 
    server appl3 10.45.0.79 check port 31232 

#———————————————————————
# source balancing for the GUI
#———————————————————————
backend bk_APP2
    mode tcp
    # (0) Load Balancing Method.
    balance source
    # (4) Peer Sync: a sticky session is a session maintained by persistence
    stick-table type ip size 1m peers hapeers expire 60m
        stick on src
    # (5) Server List
    # (5.1) Backend
    server appl1 10.33.0.50 check port 55232
    server appl2 10.32.0.51 check port 55232 backup
    server appl3 10.45.0.78 check port 55232 backup
    server appl4 10.45.0.79 check port 55232 backup

#———————————————————————
# source balancing for the OLW
#———————————————————————
backend bk_APP1
    mode tcp
    # (0) Load Balancing Method.
    balance source
    # (4) Peer Sync: a sticky session is a session maintained by persistence
    stick-table type ip size 1m peers hapeers expire 60m
        stick on src
    # (5) Server List
    # (5.1) Backend
    server appl1 10.33.0.50 check port 53119
    server appl2 10.32.0.51 check port 53119 backup
    server appl3 10.45.0.78 check port 53119 backup
    server appl4 10.45.0.79 check port 53119 backup

 

You can also check and download the haproxy.cfg here.
Enjjoy !

How to run SSH server Mac OS X and set it to auto boot on Mac Book system start

Monday, February 5th, 2024

mac os X

How to run SSH Server on Mac OS X to administrate remotely your MAC OS to access remote MacBook Air or Mac OS 

Linux / UNIX users know it is pretty easy to run OpenSSH server on old Linux SystemV releases

it is done with cmd:

# /etc/init.d/sshd start


On newer Linux distros where systemd is the standard it is done wtih:

# systemctl start ssh.service

To enable ssh service on boot on systemd distros

# systemctl enable ssh.service


To enable SSH access on Mac OS X this is done wtih a simple command

To check the status of SSH server being on or OFF, either connect with netcat to TCP port 22, which is usually installed by default on most MAC OS-es or run:

# systemsetup -getremotelogin

To start and enable SSH service on Mac OS X run:

# systemsetup -setremotelogin on 


If you later need to turn off the SSH service

# systemsetup -setremotelogin off

Actually systemsetup command can do pretty much on MAC OS X and it is worthy to take a look at it, if you're running a MAC PC or Mac Book laptop.

systemsetup can set the current date, change time server host, set computer name (hostname) and much more.

sh-3.2# systemsetup -help

systemsetup Help Information
————————————-
Usage: systemsetup -getdate
        Display current date.

Usage: systemsetup -setdate <mm:dd:yy>
        Set current date to <mm:dd:yy>.

Usage: systemsetup -gettime
        Display current time.

Usage: systemsetup -settime <hh:mm:ss>
        Set current time to <hh:mm:ss>.

Usage: systemsetup -gettimezone
        Display current time zone.

Usage: systemsetup -settimezone <timezone>
        Set current time zone to <timezone>. Use "-listtimezones" to list time zones.

Usage: systemsetup -listtimezones
        List time zones supported by this machine.

Usage: systemsetup -getusingnetworktime
        Display whether network time is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setusingnetworktime <on off>
        Set using network time to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getnetworktimeserver
        Display network time server.

Usage: systemsetup -setnetworktimeserver <timeserver>
        Set network time server to <timeserver>.

Usage: systemsetup -getsleep
        Display amount of idle time until computer, display and hard disk sleep.

Usage: systemsetup -setsleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until computer, display and hard disk sleep to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getcomputersleep
        Display amount of idle time until computer sleeps.

Usage: systemsetup -setcomputersleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until compputer sleeps to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getdisplaysleep
        Display amount of idle time until display sleeps.

Usage: systemsetup -setdisplaysleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until display sleeps to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getharddisksleep
        Display amount of idle time until hard disk sleeps.

Usage: systemsetup -setharddisksleep <minutes>
        Set amount of idle time until hard disk sleeps to <minutes>.
        Specify "Never" or "Off" for never.

Usage: systemsetup -getwakeonmodem
        Display whether wake on modem is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setwakeonmodem <on off>
        Set wake on modem to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getwakeonnetworkaccess
        Display whether wake on network access is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setwakeonnetworkaccess <on off>
        Set wake on network access to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getrestartpowerfailure
        Display whether restart on power failure is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setrestartpowerfailure <on off>
        Set restart on power failure to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getrestartfreeze
        Display whether restart on freeze is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setrestartfreeze <on off>
        Set restart on freeze to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getallowpowerbuttontosleepcomputer
        Display whether the power button is able to sleep the computer.

Usage: systemsetup -setallowpowerbuttontosleepcomputer <on off>
        Enable or disable whether the power button can sleep the computer.

Usage: systemsetup -getremotelogin
        Display whether remote login is on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setremotelogin <on off>
        Set remote login to either <on> or <off>. Use "systemsetup -f -setremotelogin off" to suppress prompting when turning remote login off.

Usage: systemsetup -getremoteappleevents
        Display whether remote apple events are on or off.

Usage: systemsetup -setremoteappleevents <on off>
        Set remote apple events to either <on> or <off>.

Usage: systemsetup -getcomputername
        Display computer name.

Usage: systemsetup -setcomputername <computername>
        Set computer name to <computername>.

Usage: systemsetup -getlocalsubnetname
        Display local subnet name.

Usage: systemsetup -setlocalsubnetname <name>
        Set local subnet name to <name>.

Usage: systemsetup -getstartupdisk
        Display current startup disk.

Usage: systemsetup -setstartupdisk <disk>
        Set current startup disk to <disk>.

Usage: systemsetup -liststartupdisks
        List startup disks on this machine.

Usage: systemsetup -getwaitforstartupafterpowerfailure
        Get the number of seconds after which the computer will start up after a power failure.

Usage: systemsetup -setwaitforstartupafterpowerfailure <seconds>
        Set the number of seconds after which the computer will start up after a power failure. The <seconds> value must be a multiple of 30 seconds.

Usage: systemsetup -getdisablekeyboardwhenenclosurelockisengaged
        Get whether or not the keyboard should be disabled when the X Serve enclosure lock is engaged.

Usage: systemsetup -setdisablekeyboardwhenenclosurelockisengaged <yes no>
        Set whether or not the keyboard should be disabled when the X Serve enclosure lock is engaged.

Usage: systemsetup -version
        Display version of systemsetup tool.

Usage: systemsetup -help
        Display help.

Usage: systemsetup -printCommands
        Display commands.

 

Enabling SSH in Mac OS X computers can be done also from Graphical interface for the lazy ones.

enable-ssh-mac-remote-login-from-mac-OS-X-gui

Zabbix script to track arp address cache loss (arp incomplete) from Linux server to gateway IP

Tuesday, January 30th, 2024

Zabbix_arp-network-incomplete-check-logo.svg

Some of the Linux servers recently, I'm responsible had a very annoying issue recently. The problem is ARP address to default configured server gateway is being lost, every now and then and it takes up time, fot the remote CISCO router to realize the problem and resolve it. We have debugged with the Network expert colleague, while he was checking the Cisco router and we were checking the arp table on the Linux server with arp command. And we came to conclusion this behavior is due to some network mess because of too many NAT address configurations on the network or due to a Cisco bug. The colleagues asked Cisco but cisco does not have any solution to the issue and the only close work around for the gateway loosing the mac is to set a network rule on the Cisco router to flush its arp record for the server it was loosing the MAC address for.
This does not really solve completely the problem but at least, once we run into the issue, it gets resolved as quick as 5 minutes time. }

As we run a cluster environment it is useful to Monitor and know immediately once we hit into the MAC gateway disappear issue and if the issue persists, exclude the Linux node from the Cluster so we don't loose connection traffic.
For the purpose of Monitoring MAC state from the Linux haproxy machine towards the Network router GW, I have developed a small userparameter script, that is periodically checking the state of the MAC address of the IP address of remote gateway host and log to a external file for any problems with incomplete MAC address of the Remote configured default router.

In case if you happen to need the same MAC address state monitoring for your servers, I though that might be of a help to anyone out there.
To monitor MAC address incomplete state with Zabbix, do the following:
 

1. Create  userparamater_arp_gw_check.conf Zabbix script
 

# cat userparameter_arp_gw_check.conf 
UserParameter=arp.check,/usr/local/bin/check_gw_arp.sh

 

2. Create the following shell script /usr/local/bin/check_gw_arp.sh

 

#!/bin/bash
# simple script to run on cron peridically or via zabbix userparameter
# to track arp loss issues to gateway IP
#gw_ip='192.168.0.55';
gw_ip=$(ip route show|grep -i default|awk '{ print $3 }');
log_f='/var/log/arp_incomplete.log';
grep_word='incomplete';
inactive_status=$(arp -n "$gw_ip" |grep -i $grep_word);
# if GW incomplete record empty all is ok
if [[ $inactive_status == ” ]]; then 
echo $gw_ip OK 1; 
else 
# log inactive MAC to gw_ip
echo "$(date '+%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')" "ARP_ERROR $inactive_status 0" | tee -a $log_f 2>&1 >/dev/null;
# printout to zabbix
echo "1 ARP FAILED: $inactive_status"; 
fi

You can download the check_gw_arp.sh here.

The script is supposed to automatically grep for the Default Gateway router IP, however before setting it up. Run it and make sure this corresponds correctly to the default Gateway IP MAC you would like to monitor.
 

3. Create New Zabbix Template for ARP incomplete monitoring
 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-template-screenshot

Create Application 

*Name
Default Gateway ARP state

4. Create Item and Dependent Item 
 

Create Zabbix Item and Dependent Item like this

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-item-screenshot

 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-item1-screenshot

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-item2-screenshot


5. Create Trigger to trigger WARNING or whatever you like
 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-trigger-screenshot


arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-trigger1-screenshot

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-trigger2-screenshot


6. Create Zabbix Action to notify via Email etc.
 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-action1-screenshot

 

arp-machine-to-default-gateway-failure-monitoring-action2-screenshot

That's all. Once you set up this few little things, you can enjoy having monitoring Alerts for your ARP state incomplete on your Linux / Unix servers.
Enjoy !

KVM Creating LIVE and offline VM snapshot backup of Virtual Machines. Restore KVM VM from backup. Delete old KVM backups

Tuesday, January 16th, 2024

kvm-backup-restore-vm-logo

For those who have to manage Kernel-Based Virtual Machines it is a must to create periodic backups of VMs. The backup is usually created as a procedure part of the Update plan (schedule) of the server either after shut down the machine completely or live.

Since KVM is open source the very logical question for starters, whether KVM supports Live backups. The simple answer is Yes it does.

virsh command as most people know is the default command to manage VMs on KVM running Hypervisor servers to manage the guest domains.

KVM is flexible and could restore a VM based on its XML configuration and the VM data (either a static VM single file) or a filesystem laying on LVM filesystem etc.

To create a snapshot out of the KVM HV, list all VMs and create the backup:

# export VM-NAME=fedora;
# export SNAPSHOT-NAME=fedora-backup;
# virsh list –all


It is useful to check out the snapshot-create-as sub arguments

 

 

# virsh help snapshot-create-as

 OPTIONS
    [–domain] <string>  domain name, id or uuid
    –name <string>  name of snapshot
    –description <string>  description of snapshot
    –print-xml      print XML document rather than create
    –no-metadata    take snapshot but create no metadata
    –halt           halt domain after snapshot is created
    –disk-only      capture disk state but not vm state
    –reuse-external  reuse any existing external files
    –quiesce        quiesce guest's file systems
    –atomic         require atomic operation
    –live           take a live snapshot
    –memspec <string>  memory attributes: [file=]name[,snapshot=type]
    [–diskspec]  disk attributes: disk[,snapshot=type][,driver=type][,file=name]

 

# virsh shutdown $VM_NAME
# virsh snapshot-create-as –domain $VM-NAME –name "$SNAPSHOT-NAME"


1. Creating a KVM VM LIVE (running machine) backup
 

# virsh snapshot-create-as –domain debian \
–name "debian-snapshot-2024" \
–description "VM Snapshot before upgrading to latest Debian" \
–live

On successful execution of KVM Virtual Machine live backup, should get something like:

Domain snapshot debian-snapshot-2024 created

 

2. Listing backed-up snapshot content of KVM machine
 

# virsh snapshot-list –domain debian


a. To get more extended info about a previous snapshot backup

# virsh snapshot-info –domain debian –snapshotname debian-snapshot-2024


b. Listing info for multiple attached storage qcow partition to a VM
 

# virsh domblklist linux-guest-vm1 –details

Sample Output would be like:

 Type   Device   Target   Source
——————————————————————-
 file   disk     vda      /kvm/linux-host/linux-guest-vm1_root.qcow2
 file   disk     vdb      /kvm/linux-host/linux-guest-vm1_attached_storage.qcow2
 file   disk     vdc      /kvm/linux-host/guest01_logging_partition.qcow2
 file   cdrom    sda      –
 file   cdrom    sdb      

 

3. Backup KVM only Virtual Machine data files (but not VM state) Live

 

# virsh snapshot-create-as –name "mint-snapshot-2024" \
–description "Mint Linux snapshot" \
–disk-only \
–live
–domain mint-home-desktop


4. KVM restore snapshot (backup)
 

To revert backup VM state to older backup snapshot:
 

# virsh shutdown –domain manjaro
# virsh snapshot-revert –domain manjaro –snapshotname manjaro-linux-back-2024 –running


5. Delete old unnecessery KVM VM backup
 

# virsh snapshot-delete –domain dragonflybsd –snapshotname dragonfly-freebsd

 

Use haproxy to dynamically modify haproxy load balancer variables, view stastics, errors and much more via stats UNIX socket with socat via command line

Friday, December 15th, 2023

haproxy-modify-dynamic-through-haproxy-unix-sock-via-socat-netcat

Haproxy could be configured to use the listen stats interface to provide a tiny web interface with statistics on all configured haproxy frontends / backends state status (UP / DOWN), current connections to proxy, errors and other interesting bandwidth information.

That is mostly useful but not every haproxy has it configured and if you did not configure the HAproxy load balancer machines on your own it might be, the previous person who build the LB infrastructure did not create the haproxy listener. 

If that is the case and you still need to get various statistics on how haproxy performs and the status of active connections towards Frotnend i/ Backend interfaces this is still possible via configured stats socket (usually this is in Global or some of the other haproxy.cfg config sections..

It is possible to do many things with haproxy such as disable / enable frotnends / backends / servers

Lets say your Haproxy has a global section that looks like this:
 

global
        stats socket /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock mode 0600 level admin #Creates Unix-Like socket to fetch stats
        log /dev/log    local0
        log /dev/log    local1 notice
        chroot /var/lib/haproxy
        user haproxy
        group haproxy
        daemon
        maxconn 99999
        nbproc          1
        nbthread 2
        cpu-map         1 0
        cpu-map         2 1

1. Listing all available options that can be send via the haproxy.sock UNIX socket interface

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show help" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
Unknown command. Please enter one of the following commands only :
  help           : this message
  prompt         : toggle interactive mode with prompt
  quit           : disconnect
  show tls-keys [id|*]: show tls keys references or dump tls ticket keys when id specified
  set ssl tls-key [id|keyfile] <tlskey>: set the next TLS key for the <id> or <keyfile> listener to <tlskey>
  add ssl crt-list <filename> <certfile> [options] : add a line <certfile> to a crt-list <filename>
  del ssl crt-list <filename> <certfile[:line]> : delete a line <certfile> in a crt-list <filename>
  show ssl crt-list [-n] [
] : show the list of crt-lists or the content of a crt-list <filename>
  new ssl cert <certfile> : create a new certificate file to be used in a crt-list or a directory
  set ssl cert <certfile> <payload> : replace a certificate file
  commit ssl cert <certfile> : commit a certificate file
  abort ssl cert <certfile> : abort a transaction for a certificate file
  del ssl cert <certfile> : delete an unused certificate file
  show ssl cert [
] : display the SSL certificates used in memory, or the details of a <certfile>
  set maxconn global : change the per-process maxconn setting
  set rate-limit : change a rate limiting value
  set severity-output [none|number|string] : set presence of severity level in feedback information
  set timeout    : change a timeout setting
  show env [var] : dump environment variables known to the process
  show cli sockets : dump list of cli sockets
  show cli level   : display the level of the current CLI session
  show fd [num] : dump list of file descriptors in use
  show activity : show per-thread activity stats (for support/developers)
  operator       : lower the level of the current CLI session to operator
  user           : lower the level of the current CLI session to user
  clear counters : clear max statistics counters (add 'all' for all counters)
  show info      : report information about the running process [desc|json|typed]*
  show stat      : report counters for each proxy and server [desc|json|typed]*
  show schema json : report schema used for stats
  show sess [id] : report the list of current sessions or dump this session
  shutdown session : kill a specific session
  shutdown sessions server : kill sessions on a server
  disable agent  : disable agent checks (use 'set server' instead)
  disable health : disable health checks (use 'set server' instead)
  disable server : disable a server for maintenance (use 'set server' instead)
  enable agent   : enable agent checks (use 'set server' instead)
  enable health  : enable health checks (use 'set server' instead)
  enable server  : enable a disabled server (use 'set server' instead)
  set maxconn server : change a server's maxconn setting
  set server     : change a server's state, weight or address
  get weight     : report a server's current weight
  set weight     : change a server's weight (deprecated)
  show startup-logs : report logs emitted during HAProxy startup
  clear table    : remove an entry from a table
  set table [id] : update or create a table entry's data
  show table [id]: report table usage stats or dump this table's contents
  add acl        : add acl entry
  clear acl <id> : clear the content of this acl
  del acl        : delete acl entry
  get acl        : report the patterns matching a sample for an ACL
  show acl [id]  : report available acls or dump an acl's contents
  add map        : add map entry
  clear map <id> : clear the content of this map
  del map        : delete map entry
  get map        : report the keys and values matching a sample for a map
  set map        : modify map entry
  show map [id]  : report available maps or dump a map's contents
  show events [
] : show event sink state
  show threads   : show some threads debugging information
  show peers [peers section]: dump some information about all the peers or this peers section
  disable frontend : temporarily disable specific frontend
  enable frontend : re-enable specific frontend
  set maxconn frontend : change a frontend's maxconn setting
  show servers conn [id]: dump server connections status (for backend <id>)
  show servers state [id]: dump volatile server information (for backend <id>)
  show backend   : list backends in the current running config
  shutdown frontend : stop a specific frontend
  set dynamic-cookie-key backend : change a backend secret key for dynamic cookies
  enable dynamic-cookie backend : enable dynamic cookies on a specific backend
  disable dynamic-cookie backend : disable dynamic cookies on a specific backend
  show errors    : report last request and response errors for each proxy
  show resolvers [id]: dumps counters from all resolvers section and
                     associated name servers
  show pools     : report information about the memory pools usage
  show profiling : show CPU profiling options
  set  profiling : enable/disable CPU profiling
  show cache     : show cache status
  trace <module> [cmd [args…]] : manage live tracing
  show trace [
] : show live tracing state
 

2. View haproxy running threads

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show threads" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
  Thread 1 : id=0x7f87b6e2c1c0 act=0 glob=0 wq=1 rq=0 tl=0 tlsz=0 rqsz=0
             stuck=0 prof=0 harmless=1 wantrdv=0
             cpu_ns: poll=3061065069437 now=3061065077880 diff=8443
             curr_task=0
* Thread 2 : id=0x7f87b6e20700 act=1 glob=0 wq=1 rq=0 tl=0 tlsz=0 rqsz=0
             stuck=0 prof=0 harmless=0 wantrdv=0
             cpu_ns: poll=2969050092523 now=2969050197848 diff=105325
             curr_task=0x7f87b006f740 (task) calls=1 last=0
               fct=0x560978846340(task_run_applet) ctx=0x7f87b0190720(<CLI>)
             strm=0x56097a763560 src=unix fe=GLOBAL be=GLOBAL dst=<CLI>
             rqf=c48200 rqa=0 rpf=80008000 rpa=0 sif=EST,200008 sib=EST,204018
             af=(nil),0 csf=0x56097a776ef0,8200
             ab=0x7f87b0190720,9 csb=(nil),0
             cof=0x56097a77fb00,1300:PASS(0x7f87b019a680)/RAW((nil))/unix_stream(22)
             cob=(nil),0:NONE((nil))/NONE((nil))/NONE(0)

3. Show haproxy server connections

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show servers conn" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
# bkname/svname bkid/svid addr port – purge_delay used_cur used_max need_est unsafe_nb safe_nb idle_lim idle_cur idle_per_thr[2]
http-websrv/ha1server-1 3/1 192.168.0.209 80 – 5000 0 12 12 0 0 -1 0 0 0
http-websrv/ha1server-2 3/2 192.168.0.200 80 – 5000 1 142 142 0 0 -1 0 0 0
http-websrv/ha1server-3 3/3 192.168.1.30 80 – 5000 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0
http-websrv/ha1server-4 3/4 192.168.1.14 80 – 5000 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0
http-websrv/ha1server-5 3/5 192.168.0.1 80 – 5000 0 13 13 0 0 -1 0 0 0
https-websrv/ha1server-1 5/1 192.168.0.209 443 – 5000 0 59 59 0 0 -1 0 0 0
https-websrv/ha1server-2 5/2 192.168.0.200 443 – 5000 11 461 461 0 0 -1 0 0 0
https-websrv/ha1server-3 5/3 192.168.1.30 443 – 5000 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0
https-websrv/ha1server-4 5/4 192.168.1.14 443 – 5000 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0
https-websrv/ha1server-5 5/5 192.168.0.1 443 – 5000 1 152 152 0 0 -1 0 0 0
MASTER/cur-1 6/1 – 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4. Show Load balancer servers state

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show servers state" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
1
# be_id be_name srv_id srv_name srv_addr srv_op_state srv_admin_state srv_uweight srv_iweight srv_time_since_last_change srv_check_status srv_check_result srv_check_health srv_check_state srv_agent_state bk_f_forced_id srv_f_forced_id srv_fqdn srv_port srvrecord
3 http-websrv 1 ha1server-1 192.168.0.209 2 0 254 254 3929 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 2 ha1server-2 192.168.0.200 2 0 255 255 3928 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 3 ha1server-3 192.168.1.30 2 0 252 252 3927 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 4 ha1server-4 192.168.1.14 2 0 253 253 3929 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 5 ha1server-5 192.168.0.1 2 0 251 251 1708087 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
5 https-websrv 1 ha1server-1 192.168.0.209 2 0 254 254 3929 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 2 ha1server-2 192.168.0.200 2 0 255 255 3928 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 3 ha1server-3 192.168.1.30 2 0 252 252 3927 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 4 ha1server-4 192.168.1.14 2 0 253 253 3929 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 5 ha1server-5 192.168.0.1 2 0 251 251 1708087 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
6 MASTER 1 cur-1 – 2 0 0 0 1708087 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 –

5. Get general haproxy info on variables that can be used for Load Balancer fine tuning

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show info" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
Name: HAProxy
Version: 2.2.9-2+deb11u5
Release_date: 2023/04/10
Nbthread: 2
Nbproc: 1
Process_num: 1
Pid: 3103635
Uptime: 19d 18h11m49s
Uptime_sec: 1707109
Memmax_MB: 0
PoolAlloc_MB: 1
PoolUsed_MB: 0
PoolFailed: 0
Ulimit-n: 200059
Maxsock: 200059
Maxconn: 99999
Hard_maxconn: 99999
CurrConns: 8
CumConns: 19677218
CumReq: 2740072
MaxSslConns: 0
CurrSslConns: 0
CumSslConns: 0
Maxpipes: 0
PipesUsed: 0
PipesFree: 0
ConnRate: 1
ConnRateLimit: 0
MaxConnRate: 2161
SessRate: 1
SessRateLimit: 0
MaxSessRate: 2161
SslRate: 0
SslRateLimit: 0
MaxSslRate: 0
SslFrontendKeyRate: 0
SslFrontendMaxKeyRate: 0
SslFrontendSessionReuse_pct: 0
SslBackendKeyRate: 0
SslBackendMaxKeyRate: 0
SslCacheLookups: 0
SslCacheMisses: 0
CompressBpsIn: 0
CompressBpsOut: 0
CompressBpsRateLim: 0
ZlibMemUsage: 0
MaxZlibMemUsage: 0
Tasks: 32
Run_queue: 1
Idle_pct: 100
node: pcfreak
Stopping: 0
Jobs: 13
Unstoppable Jobs: 0
Listeners: 4
ActivePeers: 0
ConnectedPeers: 0
DroppedLogs: 0
BusyPolling: 0
FailedResolutions: 0
TotalBytesOut: 744390344175
BytesOutRate: 30080
DebugCommandsIssued: 0
Build info: 2.2.9-2+deb11u5
 

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show errors" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
Total events captured on [14/Dec/2023:17:29:17.930] : 0

6. View all opened sessions and, the session age (time since it has been opened) and session exp (expiry)

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show sess" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
0x56097a763560: proto=tcpv4 src=113.120.74.123:54651 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=37s calls=3 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848000h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m58s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=,wx=1m58s,ax=] s0=[8,200000h,fd=24,ex=] s1=[8,40018h,fd=25,ex=] exp=1m51s
0x56097a812830: proto=tcpv4 src=190.216.236.134:35526 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=17s calls=3 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m42s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m42s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=40,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=41,ex=] exp=12s
0x56097a784ad0: proto=tcpv4 src=103.225.203.131:33835 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=17s calls=2 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m44s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m44s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=20,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=21,ex=] exp=13s
0x7f87b0082cc0: proto=tcpv4 src=190.216.236.134:35528 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=14s calls=3 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m46s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m46s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=34,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=35,ex=] exp=15s
0x7f87b0089e10: proto=tcpv4 src=40.130.105.242:50669 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=11s calls=2 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m49s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m49s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=15,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=16,ex=] exp=18s
0x7f87b010b450: proto=tcpv4 src=64.62.202.82:37562 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=7s calls=2 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m52s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m52s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=26,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=27,ex=] exp=22s
0x56097a7b8bc0: proto=tcpv4 src=85.208.96.211:54226 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=0s calls=2 rate=2 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m59s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m59s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=22,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=23,ex=] exp=29s
0x7f87b008ec00: proto=tcpv4 src=3.135.192.206:60258 fe=http-in be=http-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=0s calls=2 rate=2 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848000h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m59s,wx=1m59s,ax=] rp[f=80008000h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m59s,wx=1m59s,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=28,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=29,ex=] exp=29s
0x56097a7b2490: proto=tcpv4 src=45.147.249.119:62283 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=0s calls=3 rate=3 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m59s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m59s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=17,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=18,ex=] exp=29s
0x7f87b0114f90: proto=unix_stream src=unix:1 fe=GLOBAL be=<NONE> srv=<none> ts=00 age=0s calls=1 rate=1 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=c48200h,i=0,an=00h,rx=,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80008002h,i=0,an=00h,rx=,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=30,ex=] s1=[8,204018h,fd=-1,ex=] exp=

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info#

7. Disabling an haproxy frontend via UNIX socket

If you get some frontend that gets broken and this is monitored in Zabbix or other monitoring tool used to monitor you can use the haproxy stats interface to disable frontend

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "disable frontend https-websrv" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock

8. Show general haproxy statistics (could tell you much about customer connections health state) and state of connection to backend

Lets check uptime details for frontends / backends, that is done with show stat command.

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show stat" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
#

 

pxname,svname,qcur,qmax,scur,smax,slim,stot,bin,bout,dreq,dresp,ereq,econ,eresp

,wretr,wredis,status,weight,act,bck,chkfail,chkdown,lastchg,downtime,qlimit,
pid,iid,sid,throttle,lbtot,tracked,type,rate,rate_lim,rate_max,check_status

,check_code,check_duration,hrsp_1xx,hrsp_2xx,hrsp_3xx,hrsp_4xx

,hrsp_5xx,hrsp_other,hanafail,req_rate,req_rate_max,req_tot,cli_abrt

,srv_abrt,comp_in,comp_out,comp_byp,comp_rsp,lastsess,last_chk

,last_agt,qtime,ctime,rtime,ttime,agent_status,agent_code,

agent_duration,check_desc,agent_desc,check_rise,

check_fall,check_health,agent_rise,

agent_fall,agent_health,addr,cookie,mode,

algo,conn_rate,conn_rate_max,conn_tot,intercepted

,dcon,dses,wrew,connect,reuse,cache_lookups,

cache_hits,srv_icur,src_ilim,qtime_max,ctime_max,

rtime_max,ttime_max,eint,idle_conn_cur,

safe_conn_cur,used_conn_cur,need_conn_est,

    http-in,FRONTEND,,,0,142,99999,371655,166897324,

1462777381,0,0,62,,,,,OPEN,,,,,,,,,1,2,0,,,,0,0,0,

1080,,,,,,,,,,,0,0,0,,,0,0,0,0,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tcp,,0,1080,

371655,,0,0,0,,,,,,,,,,,0,,,,,

    http-websrv,ha1server-1,0,0,0,12,,9635,3893561

,64880833,,0,,0,3,15,0,UP

,254,0,1,41,9,4686,34728,,1,3,1,,4924,,2,0,,56,L4OK

,,0,,,,,,,,,,,900,168,,,,,1292679,,,0,0,0,2843,,,,

Layer4 check passed,,2,3,4,,,,192.168.0.209:80,,tcp,,,,,,,,

0,9635,0,,,0,,0,15024,0,672888,0,0,0,0,12,

    http-websrv,ha1server-2,0,0,0,142,,321867,

149300590,1350577153,,0,,

1,4,30,0,UP,255,1,0,37,10,4685,89418,,1,3,2,,111864,,2

,0,,1080,L4OK,,0,,,,,,,,,,,37161,4822,,,,,6,,,0,12,0,

2120,,,,Layer4 check passed,,2,3,4,,,,192.168.0.200:80,,tcp,,,,,,,,0,321867,

0,,,0,,0,30223,0,1783442,0,0,0,0,142,

List continues here
….

..
.

 

 

 

 

9. Using netcat to view UNIX socket instead of socat

If you don't have the socat command on the server but you have netcat installed, you can also send the commands to the running haproxy daemon via nc's capability to send via UNIX socket via nc -U option.

   -U      Use UNIX-domain sockets.  Cannot be used together with -F or -x.

 

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "set server"|nc -U /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock
Require 'backend/server'.

10. Get only statistics about running LB Backends and Frontends

To get only haproxy statistics about running Load Balancer BACKENDs and FRONTENDs

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show stat" | sudo socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio | awk -F '.' '/BACKEND/ {print $1, $6}'
http-websrv,BACKEND,0,0,2,142,10000,371880,167022255,1462985601,0,0,,1,7,46,0,UP

,255,1,4,,0,1709835,0,,1,3,0,,118878,,1,0,,1080,,,,,,,,,,,,,,38782,5001,0,0,0,0,5,,,0,8,0,2034

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tcp,source,,,,,,,0,371864,0,,,,,0,30223,0,1783442,0,,,,,
https-websrv,BACKEND,0,0,5,461,10000,2374328,3083873321,740021649129,0,0,,28,42,626,0,UP
,255,1,4,,0,1709835,0,,1,5,0,,474550,,1,1,,1081,,,,,,,,,,,,,,451783,72307,0,0,0,0,0,,,0,0,0,6651

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tcp,source,,,,,,,0,2374837,0,,,,,0,32794,0,46414141,0,,,,,

As you can see there are two configured BACKENDs that are in UP state, the other possibility is that they're DOWN if haproxy can't reach the backend.

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show stat" | sudo socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio | awk -F '.' '/FRONTEND/ {print $1, $6}'
http-in,FRONTEND,,,2,142,99999,371887,167024040,1462990718,0,0,62,,,,,OPEN

,,,,,,,,,1,2,0,,,,0,1,0,1080,,,,,,,,,,,0,0,0,,,0,0,0,0,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tcp,,1,1080,371887,,0,0,0,,,,,,,,,,,0,,,,,
https-in,FRONTEND,,,4,461,99999,2374337,3083881912,740021909870,0,0,112,,,,,OPEN

,,,,,,,,,1,4,0,,,,0,1,0,1081,,,,,,,,,,,0,0,0,,,0,0,0,0,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,tcp,,1,1081,2374337,,0,0,0,,,,,,,,,,,0,,,,,
root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info#

As you can see from the list of show help you can change maxconns supported, change the proxy rate-limit and even in real time change a haproxy.cfg configured section timeouts or even modify ACLs dynamicly for Backends and Frontends.

If you use those to make a modifications to the haproxy, that modifications should been written also to Haproxy's configured instance haproxy.cfg file.
If you want to check it reload the haproxy instance with the new written haproxy.cfg, through the Unix socket.

11. Shutting down specific opened sessions

Shutting down specific session that has been opened for too long is particularly useful to do, especially if you have some kind of VPN encryption device before the Haproxy server and an Application Backend server that is buggy and fails to properly close sessions at time, to cut off a specific sessions that has been hanging for days after reviewing it with "show sess".

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "shutdown session 0x56097a7707d0" | socat stdio /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock

12. Sending shutdown to backend on a certain configured LB service


To bring down a configured backend on a certain server after listing it:
 

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "disable server bk_mybackend/srv_myserver" | socat /var/run/haproxy.sock stdio


12. Sending multiple commands to haproxy socket

# echo "show info;show stat" | socat /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio

 

13. Report table usage information or dump table data content


It is possible to view exact queued connections inside the sticky table. To get a list of available, available configured tables on the haproxy

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show table" | socat /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio
# table: https-websrv, type: ip, size:204800, used:498
# table: http-websrv, type: ip, size:204800, used:74


To get the exact record of queued IPs inside https-websrv.

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show table https-websrv" | socat /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio|head -10
# table: https-websrv, type: ip, size:204800, used:502
0x56097a7444e0: key=2.147.73.42 use=0 exp=1090876 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x56097a792ac0: key=3.14.130.119 use=0 exp=1038004 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x7f87b006a4e0: key=3.15.203.28 use=0 exp=1536721 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x56097a7467f0: key=3.16.54.132 use=0 exp=387191 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x7f87b0075f90: key=3.17.180.28 use=0 exp=353211 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x56097a821b10: key=3.23.114.130 use=0 exp=1521100 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x56097a7475b0: key=3.129.250.144 use=0 exp=121043 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x7f87b004d240: key=3.134.112.27 use=0 exp=1182169 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2
0x56097a754c90: key=3.135.192.206 use=0 exp=1383882 server_id=2 server_name=ha1server-2

14. Show information about Haproxy startup

Sometimes, where logrotation is integrated on the server and haproxy's logs are log rotated to a central logging server, it might be hard to get information about Haproxy startup messages (warnings, errors etc.).
As digging through old haproxy logs might be tedious, you can simply get it via the stats interface.

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show startup-logs" | socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio              

[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : parsing [/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg:62] : 'fullconn' ignored because frontend 'http-in' has no backend capability. Maybe you want 'maxconn' instead ?
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : parsing [/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg:69] : 'maxconn' ignored because backend 'http-websrv' has no frontend capability. Maybe you want 'fullconn' instead ?
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : parsing [/etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg:114] : 'maxconn' ignored because backend 'https-websrv' has no frontend capability. Maybe you want 'fullconn' instead ?
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : config : missing timeouts for frontend 'http-in'.
   | While not properly invalid, you will certainly encounter various problems
   | with such a configuration. To fix this, please ensure that all following
   | timeouts are set to a non-zero value: 'client', 'connect', 'server'.
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : config : 'option forwardfor' ignored for frontend 'http-in' as it requires HTTP mode.
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : config : 'option forwardfor' ignored for backend 'http-websrv' as it requires HTTP mode.
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : config : missing timeouts for frontend 'https-in'.
   | While not properly invalid, you will certainly encounter various problems
   | with such a configuration. To fix this, please ensure that all following
   | timeouts are set to a non-zero value: 'client', 'connect', 'server'.
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : config : 'option forwardfor' ignored for frontend 'https-in' as it requires HTTP mode.
[WARNING] 327/231534 (3103633) : config : 'option forwardfor' ignored for backend 'https-websrv' as it requires HTTP mode.

15. Disable / Enable health check for haproxy configured backend

 Disable health checks is useful, especially on non production server environments, during integration phase of application with Haproxy load balancer.

The general syntax is like this:

> disable health backend/server1

 

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "show servers state" | socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio             1
# be_id be_name srv_id srv_name srv_addr srv_op_state srv_admin_state srv_uweight srv_iweight srv_time_since_last_change srv_check_status srv_check_result srv_check_health srv_check_state srv_agent_state bk_f_forced_id srv_f_forced_id srv_fqdn srv_port srvrecord
3 http-websrv 1 ha1server-1 192.168.0.209 2 0 254 254 13709 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 2 ha1server-2 192.168.0.200 2 0 255 255 13708 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 3 ha1server-3 192.168.1.30 2 0 252 252 13707 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 4 ha1server-4 192.168.1.14 2 0 253 253 13709 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
3 http-websrv 5 ha1server-5 192.168.0.1 2 0 251 251 1717867 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 80 –
5 https-websrv 1 ha1server-1 192.168.0.209 2 0 254 254 13709 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 2 ha1server-2 192.168.0.200 2 0 255 255 13708 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 3 ha1server-3 192.168.1.30 2 0 252 252 13707 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 4 ha1server-4 192.168.1.14 2 0 253 253 13709 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
5 https-websrv 5 ha1server-5 192.168.0.1 2 0 251 251 1717867 6 3 4 6 0 0 0 – 443 –
6 MASTER 1 cur-1 – 2 0 0 0 1717867 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 –

 

Lets disable health checks for ha1server-1 server and http-websrv backend.

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "disable health http-websrv/ha1server-1" | socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio

 

To enable back health checks 

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# echo "enable health http-websrv/ha1server-1" | socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio

16. Change weight for server

if you have a round-robin Load balancing configured and already have a predefined configuration on how many percentage of the server to be sent to which application server (e.g. have a configured weight to dynamically change it via UNIX sock iface).

# Change weight by percentage of its original value

# socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio


> set server be_app/webserv1 weight 50%
 
# Change weight in proportion to other servers
> set server be_app/webserv1 weight 100

 

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info#  socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio                                        
set server http-websrv/ha1server-1 weight 50%
Backend is using a static LB algorithm and only accepts weights '0%' and '100%'.

17. Draining traffic from server / backend App in case of Maintenance

You can gradually drain traffic away from a particular server if those backend Application server should be put in maintenance mode for update or whatever. The drain option is very interesting and combined with scripting does open a lot of possibilities for the Load balancer system administrator to put an extra automation.

To drain, set server command with the state argument set to drain:
 

# Drain traffic
> set server backend_app/server1 state drain

# Allow server to accept traffic again
> set server backend_app/server1 state ready

 


root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info#  socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio
set server http-websrv/ha1server-1 state drain

 

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info#  socat unix-connect:/var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock stdio
set server http-websrv/ha1server-1 state ready

18. Run Interactive Mode connection to haproxy UNIX stats socket

For a haproxies that has multiple configured proxied rules backends / frontends, it is nice to use the interactive mode.
Instead of processing a single line of semicolon separate commands, HAProxy takes one command at a time and waits for the user.
In interactive mode, HAProxy sends a “>” character and waits for input command. After command is submitted, HAProxy sends back the result and waits for a new command.
The interactive mode is especially useful during phase of integrating a new haproxy towards an application, where multiple things has to be tuned on the fly without, reloading the haproxy again and again.

On RPM based distros socat is compiled to have the readline interactive capability. Thus to use the haproxy haproxy stats connect interactive mode on RHEL / CentOS / Fedora and other RPM based distros simply use:

# socat /var/run/haproxy.sock readline
> show info
Name: HAProxy
Version: 2.2.9-2+deb11u5
Release_date: 2023/04/10
Nbthread: 2
Nbproc: 1
Process_num: 1
Pid: 3103635
Uptime: 19d 20h48m50s
Uptime_sec: 1716530
Memmax_MB: 0
PoolAlloc_MB: 1
PoolUsed_MB: 0
PoolFailed: 0
Ulimit-n: 200059
Maxsock: 200059
Maxconn: 99999
Hard_maxconn: 99999
CurrConns: 9
CumConns: 19789176
CumReq: 2757976
MaxSslConns: 0
CurrSslConns: 0
CumSslConns: 0
Maxpipes: 0
PipesUsed: 0
PipesFree: 0
ConnRate: 0
ConnRateLimit: 0
MaxConnRate: 2161
SessRate: 0
SessRateLimit: 0
MaxSessRate: 2161
SslRate: 0
SslRateLimit: 0
MaxSslRate: 0
SslFrontendKeyRate: 0
SslFrontendMaxKeyRate: 0
SslFrontendSessionReuse_pct: 0
SslBackendKeyRate: 0
SslBackendMaxKeyRate: 0
SslCacheLookups: 0
SslCacheMisses: 0
CompressBpsIn: 0
CompressBpsOut: 0
CompressBpsRateLim: 0
ZlibMemUsage: 0
MaxZlibMemUsage: 0
Tasks: 35
Run_queue: 1
Idle_pct: 100
node: pcfreak
Stopping: 0
Jobs: 14
Unstoppable Jobs: 0
Listeners: 4
ActivePeers: 0
ConnectedPeers: 0
DroppedLogs: 0
BusyPolling: 0
FailedResolutions: 0
TotalBytesOut: 744964070459
BytesOutRate: 0
DebugCommandsIssued: 0
Build info: 2.2.9-2+deb11u5

On Deb (Debian) based distributions such as Debian, Ubuntu Mint Linux, unfortunately the readline inractive mode is disabled due to licensing issues that makes readline not GPL license compliant.

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# socat -V|awk 'NR < 5 || tolower($0) ~ /readline/'
socat by Gerhard Rieger and contributors – see www.dest-unreach.org
socat version 1.7.4.1 on Feb  3 2021 12:58:17
   running on Linux version #1 SMP Debian 5.10.179-3 (2023-07-27), release 5.10.0-23-amd64, machine x86_64
features:
  #undef WITH_READLINE

There is a workaround to emulate the Intearactive mode on Debians however like this:

root@pcfreak:/home/hipo/info# while [ 1 ]; do socat – /var/run/haproxy/haproxy.sock ; done

show table
# table: https-websrv, type: ip, size:204800, used:511
# table: http-websrv, type: ip, size:204800, used:67

show sess
0x56097a784ad0: proto=tcpv4 src=45.61.161.66:51416 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=1m13s calls=3 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848000h,i=0,an=00h,rx=47s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048000h,i=0,an=00h,rx=47s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=17,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=23,ex=] exp=47s
0x56097a7707d0: proto=tcpv4 src=47.128.41.242:39372 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=16s calls=2 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m45s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m45s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=35,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=36,ex=] exp=14s
0x56097a781300: proto=tcpv4 src=54.36.148.40:17439 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=13s calls=2 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m47s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m47s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=26,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=28,ex=] exp=17s
0x56097a7fca80: proto=tcpv4 src=18.217.94.243:4940 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=7s calls=2 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m53s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m53s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=21,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=22,ex=] exp=23s
0x7f87b00778c0: proto=tcpv4 src=85.208.96.206:51708 fe=https-in be=https-websrv srv=ha1server-2 ts=00 age=4s calls=3 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=848202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m56s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80048202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=1m56s,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=20,ex=] s1=[8,200018h,fd=24,ex=] exp=26s
0x56097a80c1e0: proto=unix_stream src=unix:1 fe=GLOBAL be=<NONE> srv=<none> ts=00 age=3s calls=1 rate=0 cpu=0 lat=0 rq[f=c48202h,i=0,an=00h,rx=10s,wx=,ax=] rp[f=80008002h,i=0,an=00h,rx=,wx=,ax=] s0=[8,200008h,fd=15,ex=] s1=[8,204018h,fd=-1,ex=] exp=7s


To end the eternal loop press CTRL + z and kill first detached job %1 run:

# kiill %1


Sum it up what learned

What we learned in this article is how to use socat and netcat to connect and manage dynamically haproxy via its haproxy stats interface, without reloading the proxqy itself. We learned how to view various statistics and information on the proxy, its existing tables, caches, session information (such as age, and expiry). Also you've seen how to disable / enable configured backends as well as get available backends and frontends and their state.
You've seen how the drained option could be used to slowly drain connections towards configured backend, in case if you need to a maintenance on a backend node.
Also was pointed how to shutdown a specific long lived sessions that has been hanging and creating troubles towards app backends.

Finally, you've seen how to open an interactive connection towards the haproxy socket and send commands in a raw with socat (on distros where compiled with readline support) as well shown how to emulate the interactive mode of rest of distros whose socat is missing the readline support. 

Monitoring network traffic tools to debug network issues in console interactively on Linux

Thursday, December 14th, 2023

transport-layer-fourth-layer-data-transport-diagram

 

In my last article Debugging and routing network issues on Linux (common approaches), I've given some step by step methology on how to debug a network routing or unreachability issues between network hosts. As the article was mostly targetting a command line tools that can help debugging the network without much interactivity. I've decided to blog of a few other tools that might help the system administrator to debug network issues by using few a bit more interactive tools. Throughout the years of managing multitude of Linux based laptops and servers, as well as being involved in security testing and penetration in the past, these tools has always played an important role and are worthy to be well known and used by any self respecting sys admin or network security expert that has to deal with Linux and *Unix operating systems.
 

1. Debugging what is going on on a network level interactively with iptraf-ng

Historically iptraf and today's iptraf is also a great tool one can use to further aid the arsenal debug a network issue or Protocol problem, failure of packets or network interaction issues SYN -> ACK etc. proto interactions and check for Flag states and packets flow.

To use iptraf-ng which is a ncurses based tool just install it and launch it and select the interface you would like to debug trafic on.

To install On Debians distros

# apt install iptraf-ng –yes

# iptraf-ng


iptraf-ng-linux-select-interface-screen
 

iptraf-ng-listen-all-interfaces-check-tcp-flags-and-packets


Session-Layer-in-OSI-Model-diagram
 

2. Use hackers old tool sniffit to monitor current ongoing traffic and read plain text messages

Those older who remember the rise of Linux to the masses, should remember sniffit was a great tool to snoop for traffic on the network.

root@pcfreak:~# apt-cache show sniffit|grep -i description -A 10 -B10
Package: sniffit
Version: 0.5-1
Installed-Size: 139
Maintainer: Joao Eriberto Mota Filho <eriberto@debian.org>
Architecture: amd64
Depends: libc6 (>= 2.14), libncurses6 (>= 6), libpcap0.8 (>= 0.9.8), libtinfo6 (>= 6)
Description-en: packet sniffer and monitoring tool
 Sniffit is a packet sniffer for TCP/UDP/ICMP packets over IPv4. It is able
 to give you a very detailed technical info on these packets, as SEQ, ACK,
 TTL, Window, etc. The packet contents also can be viewed, in different
 formats (hex or plain text, etc.).
 .
 Sniffit is based in libpcap and is useful when learning about computer
 networks and their security.
Description-md5: 973beeeaadf4c31bef683350f1346ee9
Homepage: https://github.com/resurrecting-open-source-projects/sniffit
Tag: interface::text-mode, mail::notification, role::program, scope::utility,
 uitoolkit::ncurses, use::monitor, use::scanning, works-with::mail,
 works-with::network-traffic
Section: net
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/s/sniffit/sniffit_0.5-1_amd64.deb
Size: 61796
MD5sum: ea4cc0bc73f9e94d5a3c1ceeaa485ee1
SHA256: 7ec76b62ab508ec55c2ef0ecea952b7d1c55120b37b28fb8bc7c86645a43c485

 

Sniffit is not installed by default on deb distros, so to give it a try install it

# apt install sniffit –yes
# sniffit


sniffit-linux-check-tcp-traffic-screenshot
 

3. Use bmon to monitor bandwidth and any potential traffic losses and check qdisc pfifo
Linux network stack queues

 

root@pcfreak:~# apt-cache show bmon |grep -i description
Description-en: portable bandwidth monitor and rate estimator
Description-md5: 3288eb0a673978e478042369c7927d3f
root@pcfreak:~# apt-cache show bmon |grep -i description -A 10 -B10
Package: bmon
Version: 1:4.0-7
Installed-Size: 146
Maintainer: Patrick Matthäi <pmatthaei@debian.org>
Architecture: amd64
Depends: libc6 (>= 2.17), libconfuse2 (>= 3.2.1~), libncursesw6 (>= 6), libnl-3-200 (>= 3.2.7), libnl-route-3-200 (>= 3.2.7), libtinfo6 (>= 6)
Description-en: portable bandwidth monitor and rate estimator
 bmon is a commandline bandwidth monitor which supports various output
 methods including an interactive curses interface, lightweight HTML output but
 also simple ASCII output.
 .
 Statistics may be distributed over a network using multicast or unicast and
 collected at some point to generate a summary of statistics for a set of
 nodes.
Description-md5: 3288eb0a673978e478042369c7927d3f
Homepage: http://www.infradead.org/~tgr/bmon/
Tag: implemented-in::c, interface::text-mode, network::scanner,
 role::program, scope::utility, uitoolkit::ncurses, use::monitor,
 works-with::network-traffic
Section: net
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/b/bmon/bmon_4.0-7_amd64.deb
Size: 47348
MD5sum: c210f8317eafa22d9e3a8fb8316e0901
SHA256: 21730fc62241aee827f523dd33c458f4a5a7d4a8cf0a6e9266a3e00122d80645

 

root@pcfreak:~# apt install bmon –yes

root@pcfreak:~# bmon

bmon_monitor_qdisc-network-stack-bandwidth-on-linux

4. Use nethogs net diagnosis text interactive tool

NetHogs is a small 'net top' tool. 
Instead of breaking the traffic down per protocol or per subnet, like most tools do, it groups bandwidth by process.
 

root@pcfreak:~# apt-cache show nethogs|grep -i description -A10 -B10
Package: nethogs
Source: nethogs (0.8.5-2)
Version: 0.8.5-2+b1
Installed-Size: 79
Maintainer: Paulo Roberto Alves de Oliveira (aka kretcheu) <kretcheu@gmail.com>
Architecture: amd64
Depends: libc6 (>= 2.15), libgcc1 (>= 1:3.0), libncurses6 (>= 6), libpcap0.8 (>= 0.9.8), libstdc++6 (>= 5.2), libtinfo6 (>= 6)
Description-en: Net top tool grouping bandwidth per process
 NetHogs is a small 'net top' tool. Instead of breaking the traffic down per
 protocol or per subnet, like most tools do, it groups bandwidth by process.
 NetHogs does not rely on a special kernel module to be loaded.
Description-md5: 04c153c901ad7ca75e53e2ae32565ccd
Homepage: https://github.com/raboof/nethogs
Tag: admin::monitoring, implemented-in::c++, role::program,
 uitoolkit::ncurses, use::monitor, works-with::network-traffic
Section: net
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/n/nethogs/nethogs_0.8.5-2+b1_amd64.deb
Size: 30936
MD5sum: 500047d154a1fcde5f6eacaee45148e7
SHA256: 8bc69509f6a8c689bf53925ff35a5df78cf8ad76fff176add4f1530e66eba9dc

root@pcfreak:~# apt install nethogs –yes

# nethogs


nethogs-tool-screenshot-show-user-network--traffic-by-process-name-ID

5;.Use iftop –  to display network interface usage

 

root@pcfreak:~# apt-cache show iftop |grep -i description -A10 -B10
Package: iftop
Version: 1.0~pre4-7
Installed-Size: 97
Maintainer: Markus Koschany <apo@debian.org>
Architecture: amd64
Depends: libc6 (>= 2.29), libncurses6 (>= 6), libpcap0.8 (>= 0.9.8), libtinfo6 (>= 6)
Description-en: displays bandwidth usage information on an network interface
 iftop does for network usage what top(1) does for CPU usage. It listens to
 network traffic on a named interface and displays a table of current bandwidth
 usage by pairs of hosts. Handy for answering the question "Why is my Internet
 link so slow?".
Description-md5: f7e93593aba6acc7b5a331b49f97466f
Homepage: http://www.ex-parrot.com/~pdw/iftop/
Tag: admin::monitoring, implemented-in::c, interface::text-mode,
 role::program, scope::utility, uitoolkit::ncurses, use::monitor,
 works-with::network-traffic
Section: net
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/i/iftop/iftop_1.0~pre4-7_amd64.deb
Size: 42044
MD5sum: c9bb9c591b70753880e455f8dc416e0a
SHA256: 0366a4e54f3c65b2bbed6739ae70216b0017e2b7421b416d7c1888e1f1cb98b7

 

 

root@pcfreak:~# apt install –yes iftop

iftop-interactive-network-traffic-output-linux-screenshot


6. Ettercap (tool) to active and passive dissect network protocols for in depth network and host analysis

root@pcfreak:/var/www/images# apt-cache show ettercap-common|grep -i description -A10 -B10
Package: ettercap-common
Source: ettercap
Version: 1:0.8.3.1-3
Installed-Size: 2518
Maintainer: Debian Security Tools <team+pkg-security@tracker.debian.org>
Architecture: amd64
Depends: ethtool, geoip-database, libbsd0 (>= 0.0), libc6 (>= 2.14), libcurl4 (>= 7.16.2), libgeoip1 (>= 1.6.12), libluajit-5.1-2 (>= 2.0.4+dfsg), libnet1 (>= 1.1.6), libpcap0.8 (>= 0.9.8), libpcre3, libssl1.1 (>= 1.1.1), zlib1g (>= 1:1.1.4)
Recommends: ettercap-graphical | ettercap-text-only
Description-en: Multipurpose sniffer/interceptor/logger for switched LAN
 Ettercap supports active and passive dissection of many protocols
 (even encrypted ones) and includes many feature for network and host
 analysis.
 .
 Data injection in an established connection and filtering (substitute
 or drop a packet) on the fly is also possible, keeping the connection
 synchronized.
 .
 Many sniffing modes are implemented, for a powerful and complete
 sniffing suite. It is possible to sniff in four modes: IP Based, MAC Based,
 ARP Based (full-duplex) and PublicARP Based (half-duplex).
 .
 Ettercap also has the ability to detect a switched LAN, and to use OS
 fingerprints (active or passive) to find the geometry of the LAN.
 .
 This package contains the Common support files, configuration files,
 plugins, and documentation.  You must also install either
 ettercap-graphical or ettercap-text-only for the actual GUI-enabled
 or text-only ettercap executable, respectively.
Description-md5: f1d894b138f387661d0f40a8940fb185
Homepage: https://ettercap.github.io/ettercap/
Tag: interface::text-mode, network::scanner, role::app-data, role::program,
 uitoolkit::ncurses, use::scanning
Section: net
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/e/ettercap/ettercap-common_0.8.3.1-3_amd64.deb
Size: 734972
MD5sum: 403d87841f8cdd278abf20bce83cb95e
SHA256: 500aee2f07e0fae82489321097aee8a97f9f1970f6e4f8978140550db87e4ba9


root@pcfreak:/ # apt install ettercap-text-only –yes

root@pcfreak:/ # ettercap -C

 

ettercap-text-interface-unified-sniffing-screenshot-linux

7. iperf and netperf to measure connecitivity speed on Network LAN and between Linux server hosts

iperf and netperf are two very handy tools to measure the speed of a network and various aspects of the bandwidth. It is mostly useful when designing network infrastructure or building networks from scratch.
 

If you never used netperf in the past here is a description from man netperf

NAME
       netperf – a network performance benchmark

SYNOPSIS
       netperf [global options] — [test specific options]

DESCRIPTION
       Netperf  is  a benchmark that can be used to measure various aspects of
       networking performance.  Currently, its focus is on bulk data  transfer
       and  request/response  performance  using  either  TCP  or UDP, and the
       Berkeley Sockets interface. In addition, tests for DLPI, and  Unix  Do‐
       main Sockets, tests for IPv6 may be conditionally compiled-in.

 

root@freak:~# netperf
MIGRATED TCP STREAM TEST from 0.0.0.0 (0.0.0.0) port 0 AF_INET to localhost () port 0 AF_INET : demo
Recv   Send    Send
Socket Socket  Message  Elapsed
Size   Size    Size     Time     Throughput
bytes  bytes   bytes    secs.    10^6bits/sec

 87380  65536  65536    10.00    17669.96

 

Testing UDP network throughput using NetPerf

Change the test name from TCP_STREAM to UDP_STREAM. Let’s use 1024 (1MB) as the message size to be sent by the client.
If you receive the following error send_data: data send error: Network is unreachable (errno 101) netperf: send_omni:

send_data failed: Network is unreachable, add option -R 1 to remove the iptable rule that prohibits NetPerf UDP flow.

$ netperf -H 172.31.56.48 -t UDP_STREAM -l 300 — -R 1 -m 1024
MIGRATED UDP STREAM TEST from 0.0.0.0 (0.0.0.0) port 0 AF_INET to 172.31.56.48 () port 0 AF_INET
Socket Message Elapsed Messages
Size Size Time Okay Errors Throughput
bytes bytes secs # # 10^6bits/sec

212992 1024 300.00 9193386 0 251.04
212992 300.00 9131380 249.35

UDP Throughput in a WAN

$ netperf -H HOST -t UDP_STREAM -l 300 — -R 1 -m 1024
MIGRATED UDP STREAM TEST from (null) (0.0.0.0) port 0 AF_INET to (null) () port 0 AF_INET : histogram : spin interval
Socket Message Elapsed Messages
Size Size Time Okay Errors Throughput
bytes bytes secs # # 10^6bits/sec

9216 1024 300.01 35627791 0 972.83
212992 300.01 253099 6.91

 

 

Testing TCP throughput using iPerf


Here is a short description of iperf

NAME
       iperf – perform network throughput tests

SYNOPSIS
       iperf -s [options]

       iperf -c server [options]

       iperf -u -s [options]

       iperf -u -c server [options]

DESCRIPTION
       iperf  2  is  a tool for performing network throughput and latency mea‐
       surements. It can test using either TCP or UDP protocols.  It  supports
       both  unidirectional  and  bidirectional traffic. Multiple simultaneous
       traffic streams are also supported. Metrics are displayed to help  iso‐
       late the causes which impact performance. Setting the enhanced (-e) op‐
       tion provides all available metrics.

       The user must establish both a both a server (to discard traffic) and a
       client (to generate traffic) for a test to occur. The client and server
       typically are on different hosts or computers but need not be.

 

Run iPerf3 as server on the server:

$ iperf3 –server –interval 30
———————————————————–
Server listening on 5201
———————————————————–

 

Test TCP Throughput in Local LAN

 

$ iperf3 –client 172.31.56.48 –time 300 –interval 30
Connecting to host 172.31.56.48, port 5201
[ 4] local 172.31.100.5 port 44728 connected to 172.31.56.48 port 5201
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth Retr Cwnd
[ 4] 0.00-30.00 sec 1.70 GBytes 488 Mbits/sec 138 533 KBytes
[ 4] 30.00-60.00 sec 260 MBytes 72.6 Mbits/sec 19 489 KBytes
[ 4] 60.00-90.00 sec 227 MBytes 63.5 Mbits/sec 15 542 KBytes
[ 4] 90.00-120.00 sec 227 MBytes 63.3 Mbits/sec 13 559 KBytes
[ 4] 120.00-150.00 sec 228 MBytes 63.7 Mbits/sec 16 463 KBytes
[ 4] 150.00-180.00 sec 227 MBytes 63.4 Mbits/sec 13 524 KBytes
[ 4] 180.00-210.00 sec 227 MBytes 63.5 Mbits/sec 14 559 KBytes
[ 4] 210.00-240.00 sec 227 MBytes 63.5 Mbits/sec 14 437 KBytes
[ 4] 240.00-270.00 sec 228 MBytes 63.7 Mbits/sec 14 516 KBytes
[ 4] 270.00-300.00 sec 227 MBytes 63.5 Mbits/sec 14 524 KBytes
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth Retr
[ 4] 0.00-300.00 sec 3.73 GBytes 107 Mbits/sec 270 sender
[ 4] 0.00-300.00 sec 3.73 GBytes 107 Mbits/sec receiver

Test TCP Throughput in a WAN Network

$ iperf3 –client HOST –time 300 –interval 30
Connecting to host HOST, port 5201
[ 5] local 192.168.1.73 port 56756 connected to HOST port 5201
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bitrate
[ 5] 0.00-30.00 sec 21.2 MBytes 5.93 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 30.00-60.00 sec 27.0 MBytes 7.55 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 60.00-90.00 sec 28.6 MBytes 7.99 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 90.00-120.00 sec 28.7 MBytes 8.02 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 120.00-150.00 sec 28.5 MBytes 7.97 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 150.00-180.00 sec 28.6 MBytes 7.99 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 180.00-210.00 sec 28.4 MBytes 7.94 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 210.00-240.00 sec 28.5 MBytes 7.97 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 240.00-270.00 sec 28.6 MBytes 8.00 Mbits/sec
[ 5] 270.00-300.00 sec 27.9 MBytes 7.81 Mbits/sec
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bitrate
[ 5] 0.00-300.00 sec 276 MBytes 7.72 Mbits/sec sender
[ 5] 0.00-300.00 sec 276 MBytes 7.71 Mbits/sec receiver

 

$ iperf3 –client 172.31.56.48 –interval 30 -u -b 100MB
Accepted connection from 172.31.100.5, port 39444
[ 5] local 172.31.56.48 port 5201 connected to 172.31.100.5 port 36436
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth Jitter Lost/Total Datagrams
[ 5] 0.00-30.00 sec 354 MBytes 98.9 Mbits/sec 0.052 ms 330/41774 (0.79%)
[ 5] 30.00-60.00 sec 355 MBytes 99.2 Mbits/sec 0.047 ms 355/41903 (0.85%)
[ 5] 60.00-90.00 sec 354 MBytes 98.9 Mbits/sec 0.048 ms 446/41905 (1.1%)
[ 5] 90.00-120.00 sec 355 MBytes 99.4 Mbits/sec 0.045 ms 261/41902 (0.62%)
[ 5] 120.00-150.00 sec 354 MBytes 99.1 Mbits/sec 0.048 ms 401/41908 (0.96%)
[ 5] 150.00-180.00 sec 353 MBytes 98.7 Mbits/sec 0.047 ms 530/41902 (1.3%)
[ 5] 180.00-210.00 sec 353 MBytes 98.8 Mbits/sec 0.059 ms 496/41904 (1.2%)
[ 5] 210.00-240.00 sec 354 MBytes 99.0 Mbits/sec 0.052 ms 407/41904 (0.97%)
[ 5] 240.00-270.00 sec 351 MBytes 98.3 Mbits/sec 0.059 ms 725/41903 (1.7%)
[ 5] 270.00-300.00 sec 354 MBytes 99.1 Mbits/sec 0.043 ms 393/41908 (0.94%)
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth Jitter Lost/Total Datagrams
[ 5] 0.00-300.04 sec 3.45 GBytes 98.94 Mbits/sec 0.043 ms 4344/418913 (1%)

UDP Throughput in a WAN

$ iperf3 –client HOST –time 300 -u -b 7.7MB
Accepted connection from 45.29.190.145, port 60634
[ 5] local 172.31.56.48 port 5201 connected to 45.29.190.145 port 52586
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth Jitter Lost/Total Datagrams
[ 5] 0.00-30.00 sec 27.4 MBytes 7.67 Mbits/sec 0.438 ms 64/19902 (0.32%)
[ 5] 30.00-60.00 sec 27.5 MBytes 7.69 Mbits/sec 0.446 ms 35/19940 (0.18%)
[ 5] 60.00-90.00 sec 27.5 MBytes 7.68 Mbits/sec 0.384 ms 39/19925 (0.2%)
[ 5] 90.00-120.00 sec 27.5 MBytes 7.68 Mbits/sec 0.528 ms 70/19950 (0.35%)
[ 5] 120.00-150.00 sec 27.4 MBytes 7.67 Mbits/sec 0.460 ms 51/19924 (0.26%)
[ 5] 150.00-180.00 sec 27.5 MBytes 7.69 Mbits/sec 0.485 ms 37/19948 (0.19%)
[ 5] 180.00-210.00 sec 27.5 MBytes 7.68 Mbits/sec 0.572 ms 49/19941 (0.25%)
[ 5] 210.00-240.00 sec 26.8 MBytes 7.50 Mbits/sec 0.800 ms 443/19856 (2.2%)
[ 5] 240.00-270.00 sec 27.4 MBytes 7.66 Mbits/sec 0.570 ms 172/20009 (0.86%)
[ 5] 270.00-300.00 sec 25.3 MBytes 7.07 Mbits/sec 0.423 ms 1562/19867 (7.9%)
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth Jitter Lost/Total Datagrams
[ 5] 0.00-300.00 sec 272 MBytes 7.60 Mbits/sec 0.423 ms 2522/199284 (1.3%)
[SUM] 0.0-300.2 sec 31 datagrams received out-of-order


Sum it up what learned


Debugging network issues and snooping on a Local LAN (DMZ) network on a server or home LAN is useful  to debug for various network issues and more importantly track and know abou tsecurity threads such as plain text passowd communication via insecure protocols a failure of proper communication between Linux network nodes at times, or simply to get a better idea on what kind of network is your new purchased dedicated server living in .It can help you also strenghten your security and close up any possible security holes, or even help you start thinking like a security intruder (cracker / hacker) would do. In this article we went through few of my favourite tools I use for many years quite often. These tools are just part of the tons of useful *Unix free tools available to do a network debug. Tools mentioned up are worthy to install on every server you have to administratrate or even your home desktop PCs, these are iptraf, sniffit, iftop, bmon, nethogs, nmon, ettercap, iperf and netperf.
 If you have some other useful tools used on Linux sys admin tasks please share, I'll be glad to know it and put them in my arsenal of used tools.

Enjoy ! 🙂

Debugging routing and network issues on Linux common approaches. A step by step guide to find out why routing or network service fails

Thursday, November 30th, 2023

For system administrators having a Network issue is among the Hell-ish stuff that can happen every now and then. That is especially true in Heterogenous / Hybrid and complicated Network topologies (with missing well crafted documentation), that were build without an initial overview "on the fly".
Such a networking connectivity or routing issues are faced by every novice, mid or even expert system administrators as the Company's Network IT environments are becoming more and more complicated day by day.

When the "Disaster" of being unable to connect two servers or at times  home laptops / PCs to see each other even though on the Physical layer / Transport Layer (Hardware such as external Switches / Routers / Repeaters / Cabling etc.) is Present machines are connected and everything on the 1 Physical Layer from OSI layears is present happens, then it is time to Debug it with some software tools and methods.

To each operating system the tools and methods to test networking connection and routings is a bit different but generally speaking most concepts are pretty much the same across different types of operating systems (Linux ditros / OpenBSD / FreeBSD / Mac OS / Android / iOS / HP-UX / IBM AIX / DOS / Windows etc.).

Debugging network issues across separate operating systems has its variations but in this specific (ideas) are much close to this article. As the goal at that guide will be to point out how to debug network issues on Linux, in future if I have the time or need to debug other OS-es from Linux, I'll try to put an article on how to debug Network issues on Windows when have some time to do it.

Consider to look for the issue following the basic TCP / IP OSI Level model, every system administrator should have idea about it already, it is part of most basic networking courses such as Cisco's CCNA

TCPIP_OSI_model-networking-levels

1. Check what is the Link status of the Interface with ethtool
 

root@freak:~# ethtool eno1
Settings for eno1:
    Supported ports: [ TP ]
    Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Supported pause frame use: Symmetric
    Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
    Supported FEC modes: Not reported
    Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
    Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
    Advertised FEC modes: Not reported
    Speed: 100Mb/s
    Duplex: Full
    Auto-negotiation: on
    Port: Twisted Pair
    PHYAD: 1
    Transceiver: internal
    MDI-X: on (auto)
    Supports Wake-on: pumbg
    Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
                               drv probe link
    Link detected: yes

 

root@freak:~# ethtool eno2
Settings for eno2:
    Supported ports: [ TP ]
    Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Supported pause frame use: Symmetric
    Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
    Supported FEC modes: Not reported
    Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
    Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
    Advertised FEC modes: Not reported
    Speed: 1000Mb/s
    Duplex: Full
    Auto-negotiation: on
    Port: Twisted Pair
    PHYAD: 1
    Transceiver: internal
    MDI-X: on (auto)
    Supports Wake-on: pumbg
    Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
                               drv probe link
    Link detected: yes

 

For example lets check only if Cable of Network card is plugged in and detected to have a network connection to remote node or switch and show the connection speed on which the 'autoneg on' (autonegiation option) of the LAN card has detected the network exat maximum speed:

root@pcfreak:~# ethtool eth0|grep -i 'link detected'; ethtool eth0 |grep 'Speed: '
    Link detected: yes
    Speed: 100Mb/s


1. Check ip command network configuration output

root@freak:~# ip addr show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eno1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    altname enp7s0
3: eno2: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:17 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    altname enp8s0
4: xenbr0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:13 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.7/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global dynamic xenbr0
       valid_lft 7361188sec preferred_lft 7361188sec
5: xenbr1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.0.5/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global dynamic xenbr1
       valid_lft 536138sec preferred_lft 536138sec
10: vif2.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
11: vif2.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
12: vif3.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
13: vif3.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
14: vif4.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
15: vif4.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
16: vif5.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
17: vif5.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
18: vif6.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
19: vif6.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
30: vif17.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
31: vif17.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
34: vif21.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
35: vif21.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
48: vif25.0-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr0 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
49: vif25.1-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr1 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
50: vif25.0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
51: vif25.1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
118: vif47.0-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr0 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
119: vif47.1-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr1 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
120: vif47.0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
121: vif47.1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
root@freak:~# 

ip a s (is a also a shortcut command alias) you can enjoy if you have to deal with ip command frequently.

2. Check the status of the interfaces

Old fashioned way is to just do:

/sbin/ifconfig

 

root@freak:~# ifconfig 
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 52366502  bytes 10622469320 (9.8 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 242622195  bytes 274688121244 (255.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb200000-fb27ffff  

eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:17  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 220995454  bytes 269698276095 (251.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 7  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 192319925  bytes 166233773782 (154.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb100000-fb17ffff  

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 14517375  bytes 133226551792 (124.0 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 139688950  bytes 145111993017 (135.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 86113294  bytes 156944058681 (146.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 181513904  bytes 267892940821 (249.4 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 1521875  bytes 88282472 (84.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152691174  bytes 278372314505 (259.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 454915  bytes 81069760 (77.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 266953989  bytes 425692364876 (396.4 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 26 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 20043711  bytes 1283926794 (1.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 141580485  bytes 277396881113 (258.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73004  bytes 3802174 (3.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267151006  bytes 425621892663 (396.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2736348  bytes 295661367 (281.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 260385509  bytes 265751226663 (247.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 200 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 145387  bytes 36011655 (34.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 370314760  bytes 394725961081 (367.6 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 55382861  bytes 130042280927 (121.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 99040097  bytes 147929196318 (137.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5132631  bytes 295493762 (281.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 262314199  bytes 425416945203 (396.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 16 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4902015  bytes 615387539 (586.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 149342891  bytes 277802504143 (258.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 276927  bytes 30720101 (29.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267132395  bytes 425745668273 (396.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 208745  bytes 20096596 (19.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 110905731  bytes 110723486135 (103.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 140517  bytes 14596061 (13.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 150831959  bytes 162931572456 (151.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2030528  bytes 363988589 (347.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152264264  bytes 278131541781 (259.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4169244  bytes 1045889687 (997.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 263561100  bytes 424894400987 (395.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 300242  bytes 16210963 (15.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 153909576  bytes 278461295620 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 43  bytes 1932 (1.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 154205631  bytes 278481298141 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.8  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 13689902  bytes 923464162 (880.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12072932  bytes 1307055530 (1.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.3  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 626995  bytes 180026901 (171.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12815  bytes 942092 (920.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

 

root@freak:~# ifconfig        
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 52373358  bytes 10623034427 (9.8 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 242660000  bytes 274734018669 (255.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb200000-fb27ffff  

eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 221197892  bytes 269978137472 (251.4 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 7  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 192573206  bytes 166491370299 (155.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb100000-fb17ffff  

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 14519247  bytes 133248290251 (124.0 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 139708738  bytes 145135168676 (135.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 86206104  bytes 157189755115 (146.3 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 181685983  bytes 268170806613 (249.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 1522072  bytes 88293701 (84.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152712638  bytes 278417240910 (259.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 454933  bytes 81071616 (77.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267218860  bytes 426217224334 (396.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 26 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 20045530  bytes 1284038375 (1.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 141601066  bytes 277441739746 (258.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73010  bytes 3802474 (3.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267415889  bytes 426146753845 (396.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2736576  bytes 295678097 (281.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 260429831  bytes 265797660906 (247.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 200 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 145425  bytes 36018716 (34.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 370770440  bytes 395263409640 (368.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 55392503  bytes 130064444520 (121.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 99052116  bytes 147951838129 (137.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5133054  bytes 295517366 (281.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 262578665  bytes 425941777243 (396.6 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 16 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4902949  bytes 615496460 (586.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 149363618  bytes 277847322538 (258.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 276943  bytes 30721141 (29.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267397268  bytes 426270528575 (396.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 208790  bytes 20100733 (19.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 110950236  bytes 110769932971 (103.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 140551  bytes 14599509 (13.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 151287643  bytes 163469024604 (152.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2030676  bytes 363997181 (347.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152285777  bytes 278176471509 (259.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4169387  bytes 1045898303 (997.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 263825846  bytes 425419251935 (396.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 300266  bytes 16212271 (15.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 153931212  bytes 278506234302 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 43  bytes 1932 (1.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 154227291  bytes 278526238467 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.8  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 13690768  bytes 923520126 (880.7 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12073667  bytes 1307127765 (1.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.3  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 627010  bytes 180028847 (171.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12815  bytes 942092 (920.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

 

To see ethernet interfaces that seem up and then do a ifconfig -a to check whether some interfaces are down (e.g. not shown in the simple ifconfig list).
/sbin/ifconfig -a

! Please note that some virtual IP configurations might not appear and noly be visible in an (ip addr show) command.

 

3. Check iproute2 for special rt_tables (Routing Tables) rules
 

By default Linux distributions does not have any additional rules in /etc/iproute2/rt_tables however some Linux router machines, needs to have a multiple Gateways. Perhaps the most elegant way to do multiple routings with Linux is to use iproute2's routing tables rt_tables.

Here is example of an OpenXEN system that has 2 Internet providers attached and routes different traffic via

 

root@freak:~# cat /etc/iproute2/rt_tables
#
# reserved values
#
255    local
254    main
253    default

100    INET1
200     INET2
0    unspec
#
# local
#
#1    inr.ruhep

 

root@freak:~# ip rule list
0:    from all lookup local
32762:    from all to 192.168.1.8 lookup INET2
32763:    from 192.168.1.8 lookup INET2
32764:    from all to 192.168.0.3 lookup INET1
32765:    from 192.168.0.3 lookup INET1
32766:    from all lookup main
32767:    from all lookup default
root@freak:~# 
 

4. Using ip route get to find out traffic route (path)

root@freak:~# ip route get 192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1 via 192.168.0.1 dev xenbr1 src 192.168.0.3 uid 0 
    cache 

 

root@freak:~# /sbin/route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
0.0.0.0         192.168.1.1     0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 xenbr0
192.168.0.0     192.168.0.1     255.255.255.0   UG    0      0        0 xenbr1
192.168.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 xenbr1
192.168.1.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 xenbr0
root@freak:~# 

root@freak:~# ip route show
default via 192.168.1.1 dev xenbr0 
192.168.0.0/24 via 192.168.0.1 dev xenbr1 
192.168.0.0/24 dev xenbr1 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.0.3 
192.168.1.0/24 dev xenbr0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.1.8 


If you find that gateway is missing you might want to add it with:

root@freak:~#  ip route add default via 192.168.5.1

If you need to add a speicic network IP range via separate gateways, you can use commands like:

To add routing for 192.168.0.1/24 / 192.168.1.1/24 via 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.1.1

# /sbin/route add -net 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.1 dev eth1
# /sbin/route add -net 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.0.1 dev eth1

 

If you need to delete a configured wrong route with ip command

# ip route del 192.168.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 dev eth1
# ip route del 192.168.0.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 dev eth1

5. Use ping (ICMP protocol) the Destionation IP
 

root@freak:~# ping -c 3 192.168.0.1
PING 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.219 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.295 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.270 ms

— 192.168.0.1 ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2048ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.219/0.261/0.295/0.031 ms
root@freak:~# ping -c 3 192.168.0.39
PING 192.168.0.39 (192.168.0.39) 56(84) bytes of data.
From 192.168.1.80: icmp_seq=2 Redirect Host(New nexthop: 192.168.0.39)
From 192.168.1.80: icmp_seq=3 Redirect Host(New nexthop: 192.168.0.39)
From 192.168.1.80 icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Unreachable


— 192.168.0.39 ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +1 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2039ms
pipe 3

 

Note that sometimes you might get 100% traffic loss but still have connection to the destionation in case if the ICMP protocol is filtered for security.

However if you get something like Network is unreachable that is usually an indicator of some routing problem or wrongly configured network netmask.

root@freak:~# ping 192.168.0.5
ping: connect: Network is unreachable

Test network with different packet size. To send 8972 bytes of payload in a Ethernet frame without fragmentation, the following command can be used:

root@pcfreak:~# ping -s 8972 -M do -c 4 freak
PING xen (192.168.1.8) 8972(9000) bytes of data.
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
^C
— xen ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +3 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2037ms

root@pcfreak:~# 


 -M pmtudisc_opt
           Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.  pmtudisc_option may be either do (prohibit fragmentation, even local one), want (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size is
           large), or dont (do not set DF flag).

 

root@pcfreak:~# ping -s 8972 -M want -c 4 freak
PING xen (192.168.1.8) 8972(9000) bytes of data.
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=2.18 ms
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.90 ms
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=2.10 ms
^C
— xen ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.901/2.059/2.178/0.116 ms

root@pcfreak:~# 

  • -M do: prohibit fragmentation
  • -s 8972 8972 bytes of data
  • ICMP header: 8 bytes
  • IP header: 20 bytes (usually, it can be higher)
  • 8980 bytes of bytes is the IP payload
     

These commands can be used to capture for MTU (maximum transmition units) related issues between hosts that are preventing for hosts to properly send traffic between themselves.
A common issue for Linux hosts to be unable to see each other on the same network is caused by Jumbo Frames (MTU 9000) packets enabled on one of the sides and MTU of 1500 on the other side.
Thus it is always a good idea to thoroughully look up all configured MTUs for all LAN Devices on each server.

6. Check traceroute path to host

If there is no PING but ip route get shows routing is properly configured and the routes existing in the Linux machine routing tables, next step is to check the output of traceroute / tracepath / mtr

 

raceroute to 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
 1  pcfreak (192.168.0.1)  0.263 ms  0.166 ms  0.119 ms
root@freak:~# tracepath 192.168.1.1
 1?: [LOCALHOST]                      pmtu 1500
 1:  vivacom-gigabit-router                                0.925ms reached
 1:  vivacom-gigabit-router                                0.835ms reached
     Resume: pmtu 1500 hops 1 back 1 

 

It might be useful to get a frequent output of the command (especially on Linux hosts) where mtr command is not installed with:

 

root@freak:~# watch -n 0.1 traceroute 192.168.0.1

 

root@freak:~# traceroute -4 google.com
traceroute to google.com (172.217.17.110), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
 1  vivacom-gigabit-router (192.168.1.1)  0.657 ms  1.280 ms  1.647 ms
 2  213.91.190.130 (213.91.190.130)  7.983 ms  8.168 ms  8.097 ms
 3  * * *
 4  * * *
 5  212-39-66-222.ip.btc-net.bg (212.39.66.222)  16.613 ms  16.336 ms  17.151 ms
 6  * * *
 7  142.251.92.65 (142.251.92.65)  18.808 ms  13.246 ms 209.85.254.242 (209.85.254.242)  15.541 ms
 8  142.251.92.3 (142.251.92.3)  14.223 ms 142.251.227.251 (142.251.227.251)  14.507 ms 142.251.92.3 (142.251.92.3)  15.328 ms
 9  ams15s29-in-f14.1e100.net (172.217.17.110)  14.097 ms  14.909 ms 142.251.242.230 (142.251.242.230)  13.481 ms
root@freak:~# 

If you have MTR then you can get plenty of useful additional information such as the Network HOP name or the Country location of the HOP.

 

To get HOP name:

 

root@freak:~# mtr -z google.com

 

To get info on where (which Country) exactly network HOP is located physically:

root@freak:~# mtr -y 2 google.com

 

7. Check iptables INPUT / FORWARD / OUTPUT rules are messing with something
 

# iptables -L -n 

# iptables -t nat -L -n


Ideally you would not have any firewall

# iptables -L -n 

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

# iptables -t nat -L -n
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
 


In case if something like firewalld is enabled as a default serviceto provide some modern Linux firewall as Ubuntu and Redhat / CentOS / Fedoras has it often turned on as a service stop and disable the service

# systemctl stop firewalld

# systemctl disable firewalld

 

8. Debug for any possible MAC address duplicates
 

root@pcfrxen:~# arp -an
? (192.168.1.33) at 00:16:3e:59:96:9e [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.1) at 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.1) at 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.1) at 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.11) at 7c:0a:3f:89:b6:fa [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.17) at <incomplete> on eth0
? (192.168.1.37) at 00:16:3e:ea:05:ce [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.80) at 8c:89:a5:f2:e7:d8 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.11) at 7c:0a:3f:89:a5:fa [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.30) at 00:16:3e:bb:46:45 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.210) at 00:16:3e:68:d9:55 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.30) at 00:16:3e:bb:46:45 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.18) at 00:16:3e:0d:40:05 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.211) at 00:16:3e:4d:41:05 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.35) at 00:16:3e:d1:8f:77 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.18) at 00:16:3e:0d:43:05 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.28) at 00:16:3e:04:12:1c [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.3) at 70:e2:84:13:43:12 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.208) at 00:16:3e:51:de:9c [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.241) at 00:16:3e:0d:48:06 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.28) at 00:16:3e:04:12:1c [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.33) at 00:16:3e:59:97:8e [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.241) at 00:16:3e:0d:45:06 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.0.209) at 00:16:3e:5c:df:96 [ether] on eth1

root@pcfrxen:~# ip neigh show
192.168.1.33 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:59:96:9e REACHABLE
192.168.1.1 dev eth1 lladdr 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 STALE
192.168.0.1 dev eth1 lladdr 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 REACHABLE
192.168.1.1 dev eth0 lladdr 18:45:93:c6:d9:01 REACHABLE
192.168.1.11 dev eth1 lladdr 7c:0a:3f:89:a6:fb STALE
192.168.1.17 dev eth0  FAILED
192.168.1.37 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:ea:06:ce STALE
192.168.1.80 dev eth0 lladdr 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 REACHABLE
192.168.1.11 dev eth0 lladdr 7c:0a:3f:89:a7:fa STALE
192.168.1.30 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:bb:45:46 STALE
192.168.0.210 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:68:d8:56 REACHABLE
192.168.1.30 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:bb:45:46 STALE
192.168.1.18 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:04 STALE
192.168.0.211 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:4d:40:04 STALE
192.168.1.35 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:d2:8f:76 STALE
192.168.1.18 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:06 STALE
192.168.1.28 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:04:11:2c STALE
192.168.0.3 dev eth1 lladdr 70:e2:84:13:44:13 STALE
192.168.0.208 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:51:de:9c REACHABLE
192.168.0.241 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:07 STALE
192.168.1.28 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:04:12:1c REACHABLE
192.168.1.33 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:59:96:9e STALE
192.168.0.241 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:49:06 STALE
192.168.0.209 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:5c:dd:97 STALE
root@pcfrxen:~# 


9. Check out with netstat / ss for any irregularities such as high amount of error of faulty ICMP / TCP / UDP network packs

 

For example check out the netstat network stack output

# netstat -s

 

root@pcfrxen:~# netstat -s
Ip:
    Forwarding: 2
    440044929 total packets received
    1032 with invalid addresses
    0 forwarded
    0 incoming packets discarded
    439988902 incoming packets delivered
    396161852 requests sent out
    3 outgoing packets dropped
    100 dropped because of missing route
Icmp:
    1025 ICMP messages received
    540 input ICMP message failed
    ICMP input histogram:
        destination unreachable: 1014
        timeout in transit: 11
    519 ICMP messages sent
    0 ICMP messages failed
    ICMP output histogram:
        destination unreachable: 519
IcmpMsg:
        InType3: 1014
        InType11: 11
        OutType3: 519
Tcp:
    1077237 active connection openings
    1070510 passive connection openings
    1398236 failed connection attempts
    111345 connection resets received
    83 connections established
    438293250 segments received
    508143650 segments sent out
    42567 segments retransmitted
    546 bad segments received
    329039 resets sent
Udp:
    1661295 packets received
    278 packets to unknown port received
    0 packet receive errors
    1545720 packets sent
    0 receive buffer errors
    0 send buffer errors
    IgnoredMulti: 33046
UdpLite:
TcpExt:
    1 invalid SYN cookies received
    1398196 resets received for embryonic SYN_RECV sockets
    1737473 packets pruned from receive queue because of socket buffer overrun
    1118775 TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer
    638 time wait sockets recycled by time stamp
    656 packetes rejected in established connections because of timestamp
    2218959 delayed acks sent
    2330 delayed acks further delayed because of locked socket
    Quick ack mode was activated 7172 times
    271799723 packet headers predicted
    14917420 acknowledgments not containing data payload received
    171078735 predicted acknowledgments
    52 times recovered from packet loss due to fast retransmit
    TCPSackRecovery: 337
    Detected reordering 1551 times using SACK
    Detected reordering 1501 times using reno fast retransmit
    Detected reordering 61 times using time stamp
    9 congestion windows fully recovered without slow start
    38 congestion windows partially recovered using Hoe heuristic
    TCPDSACKUndo: 241
    104 congestion windows recovered without slow start after partial ack
    TCPLostRetransmit: 11550
    1 timeouts after reno fast retransmit
    TCPSackFailures: 13
    3772 fast retransmits
    2 retransmits in slow start
    TCPTimeouts: 24104
    TCPLossProbes: 101748
    TCPLossProbeRecovery: 134
    TCPSackRecoveryFail: 3
    128989224 packets collapsed in receive queue due to low socket buffer
    TCPBacklogCoalesce: 715034
    TCPDSACKOldSent: 7168
    TCPDSACKOfoSent: 341
    TCPDSACKRecv: 16612
    150689 connections reset due to unexpected data
    27063 connections reset due to early user close
    17 connections aborted due to timeout
    TCPDSACKIgnoredOld: 158
    TCPDSACKIgnoredNoUndo: 13514
    TCPSpuriousRTOs: 9
    TCPSackMerged: 1191
    TCPSackShiftFallback: 1011
    TCPDeferAcceptDrop: 699473
    TCPRcvCoalesce: 3311764
    TCPOFOQueue: 14289375
    TCPOFOMerge: 356
    TCPChallengeACK: 621
    TCPSYNChallenge: 621
    TCPSpuriousRtxHostQueues: 4
    TCPAutoCorking: 1605205
    TCPFromZeroWindowAdv: 132380
    TCPToZeroWindowAdv: 132441
    TCPWantZeroWindowAdv: 1445495
    TCPSynRetrans: 23652
    TCPOrigDataSent: 388992604
    TCPHystartTrainDetect: 69089
    TCPHystartTrainCwnd: 3264904
    TCPHystartDelayDetect: 4
    TCPHystartDelayCwnd: 128
    TCPACKSkippedPAWS: 3
    TCPACKSkippedSeq: 2001
    TCPACKSkippedChallenge: 2
    TCPWinProbe: 123043
    TCPKeepAlive: 4389
    TCPDelivered: 389507445
    TCPAckCompressed: 7343781
    TcpTimeoutRehash: 23311
    TcpDuplicateDataRehash: 8
    TCPDSACKRecvSegs: 17335
IpExt:
    InMcastPkts: 145100
    OutMcastPkts: 9429
    InBcastPkts: 18226
    InOctets: 722933727848
    OutOctets: 759502627470
    InMcastOctets: 58227095
    OutMcastOctets: 3284379
    InBcastOctets: 1756918
    InNoECTPkts: 440286946
    InECT0Pkts: 936

 

  • List all listening established connections to host

# netstat -ltne

  • List all UDP / TCP connections

# netstat -ltua

or if you prefer to do it with the newer and more comprehensive tool ss:
 

  • List all listening TCP connections 

# ss -lt

  • List all listening UDP connections 

# ss -ua

  • Display statistics about recent connections

root@pcfrxen:~# ss -s
Total: 329
TCP:   896 (estab 70, closed 769, orphaned 0, timewait 767)

Transport Total     IP        IPv6
RAW      0         0         0        
UDP      40        36        4        
TCP      127       118       9        
INET      167       154       13       
FRAG      0         0         0 

  • If you need to debug some specific sport or dport filter out the connection you need by port number

# ss -at '( dport = :22 or sport = :22 )'

 

Debug for any possible issues with ICMP unreachable but ports reachable with NMAP / telnet / Netcat
 

# nc 192.168.0.1 -vz

root@pcfrxen:/ # nc 192.168.0.1 80 -vz
pcfreak [192.168.0.1] 80 (http) open


root@pcfrxen:/ # nc 192.168.0.1 5555 -vz
pcfreak [192.168.0.1] 5555 (?) : Connection refused

 

root@pcfrxen:/# telnet 192.168.0.1 3128
Trying 192.168.0.1…
Connected to 192.168.0.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
^]
telnet> quit
Connection closed.

 

root@pcfrxen:/# nmap -sS -P0 192.168.0.1 -p 443 -O
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-11-27 19:51 EET
Nmap scan report for pcfreak (192.168.0.1)
Host is up (0.00036s latency).

PORT    STATE SERVICE
443/tcp open  https
MAC Address: 8C:89:A5:F2:E8:D8 (Micro-Star INT'L)
Warning: OSScan results may be unreliable because we could not find at least 1 open and 1 closed port
Aggressive OS guesses: Linux 3.11 (96%), Linux 3.1 (95%), Linux 3.2 (95%), AXIS 210A or 211 Network Camera (Linux 2.6.17) (94%), Linux 2.6.32 (94%), Linux 3.10 (94%), Linux 2.6.18 (93%), Linux 3.2 – 4.9 (93%), ASUS RT-N56U WAP (Linux 3.4) (93%), Linux 3.16 (93%)
No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal).
Network Distance: 1 hop

OS detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 6.24 seconds
root@pcfrxen:/# 

10. Add static MAC address to Ethernet Interface (if you find a MAC address being wrongly assigned to interface)

Sometimes problems with network unrechability between hosts is caused by wrongly defined MAC addresses on a Switch that did not correspond correctly to the ones assigned on the Linux host.
The easiest resolution here if you don't have access to Switch in work environment is to reassign the default MAC addresses of interfaces to proper MAC addresses, expected by remote router.

 

root@pcfrxen:/#  ​/sbin/ifconfig eth2 hw ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d6

root@pcfrxen:/#  /sbin/ifconfig eth1 hw ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d5

 

root@pcfrxen:/#  ifconfig eth0|grep -i ether
        ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d6 txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)

 

11. Check for Network Address Translation (NAT) misconfigurations

If you do use some NAT-ing between Linux host and the remote Network Device you cannot reach, make sure IP Forwarding is enabled (i.e. /etc/sysctl.conf was not mistakenly overwritten by a script or admin for whatever reason).
 

root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding
net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding = 1

root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 0

12. Check for Resolving DNS irregularities with /etc/resolv.conf


If network connectivity is okay on TCP / IP , UDP Level but problems with DNS of course, check what you have configured inside /etc/resolv.conf

And if use newer Linux distributions and have resolving managed by systemd check status of resolvectl
 

root@server:~# cat /etc/resolv.conf
# Dynamic resolv.conf(5) file for glibc resolver(3) generated by resolvconf(8)
#     DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE BY HAND — YOUR CHANGES WILL BE OVERWRITTEN
# 127.0.0.53 is the systemd-resolved stub resolver.
# run "resolvectl status" to see details about the actual nameservers.

nameserver 127.0.0.1
search pc-freak.net
domain pc-freak.net
nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4
nameserver 109.104.195.2
nameserver 109.104.195.1
nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220
options timeout:2 rotate

root@pcfreak:~# 

 

root@server:~# resolvectl status
Global
       Protocols: -LLMNR -mDNS -DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=no/unsupported
resolv.conf mode: stub

Link 2 (ens3)
    Current Scopes: DNS
         Protocols: +DefaultRoute +LLMNR -mDNS -DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=no/unsupported
Current DNS Server: 192.168.5.1
       DNS Servers: 192.168.5.1

 

  As seen see, the systemd-resolved service is used to provide domain names resolution and we can modify its configuration file /etc/systemd/resolved.conf to add the DNS server – the following line is set (two DNS servers’ addresses are added):

For example …

DNS=8.8.8.8 

13. Fix problems with wrongly configured Network Speed between hosts

It is not uncommon to have a Switch between two Linux hosts that is set to communicate on a certain maximum amount of Speed but a Linux host is set to communicate or lesser or more of Speed, this might create network issues so in such cases make sure either you use the Auto Negitionation network feature
or set both sides to be communicating on the same amount of network speed.

To turn on auto negotiation for ether interface 

# ethtool -s eth1 speed 1000 duplex full autoneg on


For example to set a Linux network interface to communicate on 1 Gigabit speed and switch off autonegotiation off.

# ethtool -s eth1 speed 1000 duplex full autoneg off

14. Check arp and icmp traffic with tcpdump

On both sides where the IPs can't see each other we can run a tcpdump to check the ARP and ICMP traffic flowing between the hosts.
 

# tcpdump -i eth1 arp or icmp

cpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v[v]… for full protocol decode
listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), snapshot length 262144 bytes
15:29:07.001841 IP freak-eth1 > pcfr_hware_local_ip: ICMP echo request, id 13348, seq 65, length 64
15:29:07.001887 IP pcfr_hware_local_ip > freak-eth1: ICMP echo reply, id 13348, seq 65, length 64
15:29:07.598413 ARP, Request who-has pcfr_hware_local_ip tell zabbix-server, length 46
15:29:07.598425 ARP, Reply pcfr_hware_local_ip is-at 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d8 (oui Unknown), length 28
15:29:07.633055 ARP, Request who-has freak_vivacom_auto_assigned_dhcp_ip tell 192.168.1.1, length 46
15:29:08.025824 IP freak-eth1 > pcfr_hware_local_ip: ICMP echo request, id 13348, seq 66, length 64
15:29:08.025864 IP pcfr_hware_local_ip > freak-eth1: ICMP echo reply, id 13348, seq 66, length 64

 

# tcpdump -i eth1 -vvv

 

If you want to sniff for TCP protocol and specific port and look up for DATA transfered for SMTP you can use something like:

 

# tcpdump -nNxXi eth0 -s 0 proto TCP and port 25​

 

If you need a bit more thorough explanation on what it would do check out my previous article How to catch / track mail server traffic abusers with tcpdump
 

15. Debugging network bridge issues

Having bridge network interface is another brink where things could go totally wrong.
If you have network bridges configured, check out what is the status of the bridge.
 

root@freak:/etc/network# brctl show
bridge name    bridge id        STP enabled    interfaces
xenbr0        8000.70e284134411    yes        eno1
                            vif1.0
                            vif10.0
                            vif16.0
                            vif16.0-emu
                            vif2.0
                            vif3.0
                            vif4.0
                            vif5.0
                            vif6.0
                            vif9.0
                            vif9.0-emu
xenbr1        8000.70e284134412    yes        eno2
                            vif1.1
                            vif10.1
                            vif16.1
                            vif16.1-emu
                            vif2.1
                            vif3.1
                            vif4.1
                            vif5.1
                            vif6.1
                            vif9.1
                            vif9.1-emu


Check out any configurations such as /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* are not misconfigured if on Redhat / CentOS / Fedora.
Or if on Debian / Ubuntu and other deb based Linuxes look up for /etc/network/interfaces config problems that might be causing the bridge to misbehave.

For example one bridge network issue, I've experienced recently is related to bridge_ports variable configured as bridge_ports all.
This was causing the second bridge xenbr1 to be unable to see another local network that was directly connected with a cable to it.

The fix was bridge_ports none. Finding out this trivial issue caused by a restored network config from old backup took me days to debug.
As everything seemed on a network level to be perfect just like in Physical layer, same way and on Software level, routings were okay.

Checked everything multiple times and did not see anything irregular. ping was missing and hosts cannot see each other even though having the right netmask and
network configuration in place.

Below is my /etc/network/interfaces configuration with the correct bridge_ports none changed.

root@freak:/etc/network# cat /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
 

auto eno1
allow-hotplug eno1
iface eno1 inet manual
dns-nameservers 127.0.0.1 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 207.67.222.222 208.67.220.220
auto eno2
allow-hotplug eno2
iface eno2 inet manual
dns-nameservers 127.0.0.1 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 207.67.222.222 208.67.220.220

auto xenbr0
allow-hotplug xenbr0
 # Bridge setup
# fetching dhcp ip from 192.168.1.20 (vivacom fiber optics router) routing traffic via 1Gigabit network
 iface xenbr0 inet dhcp
    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11
#    address 192.168.1.5/22
    address 192.168.1.5
    netmask 255.255.252.0
    # address 192.168.1.8 if dhcp takes from vivacom dhcpd
    bridge_ports eno1
    gateway 192.168.1.20
    bridge_stp on
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports none
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4

auto xenbr1
# fetching dhcp ip from pc-freak.net (192.168.0.1) bergon.net routing traffic through it
allow-hotplug xenbr1
 iface xenbr1 inet dhcp
    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11
##    address 192.168.0.3/22
    address 192.168.0.8
    netmask 255.255.252.0
   # address 192.168.0.8 if dhcp takes from vivacom dhcpd (currently mac deleted from vivacom router)
   # address 192.168.0.9 if dhcp takes from pc-freak.net hware host
#    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:13
    gateway 192.168.0.1
    bridge_ports eno2
    bridge_stp on
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports none
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4
root@freak:/etc/network# 
 

 

root@freak:/etc/network# brctl showstp xenbr0
xenbr0
 bridge id        8000.70e284134411
 designated root    8000.70e284134411
 root port           0            path cost           0
 max age          20.00            bridge max age          20.00
 hello time           2.00            bridge hello time       2.00
 forward delay          15.00            bridge forward delay      15.00
 ageing time           0.00
 hello timer           1.31            tcn timer           0.00
 topology change timer       0.00            gc timer           0.00
 flags            


eno1 (1)
 port id        8001            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost          19
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8001            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif1.0 (2)
 port id        8002            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8002            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif10.0 (12)
 port id        800c            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800c            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif16.0 (13)
 port id        800d            state               disabled
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800d            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.00
 flags            

vif16.0-emu (14)
 port id        800e            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800e            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif2.0 (4)
 port id        8004            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8004            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif3.0 (5)
 port id        8005            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8005            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif4.0 (3)
 port id        8003            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8003            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif5.0 (6)
 port id        8006            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8006            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif6.0 (7)
 port id        8007            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8007            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif9.0 (10)
 port id        800a            state               disabled
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800a            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.00
 flags            

vif9.0-emu (11)
 port id        800b            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800b            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

root@freak:/etc/network# 


Sum it up

We have learned how to debug various routing issues, how to add and remote default gateways, check network reachability with ICMP protocol with ping, traceroute as well check for DNS issues and given some hints how to resolve DNS misconfigurations.
We also learned how to check the configured Network interfaces certain settings and resolve issues caused by Network sides max Speed misconfigurations as well how to track and resolve communication issues caused by wrongly configured MAC addresses.
Further more learned on how to do a basic port and protocol debugging of state of Network packets with netstat and nc and check problems related to iptables Firewall and IP Forwarding misconfigurations.
Finally we learned some basic usage of tcpdump on how to track arp and MAC traffic and look up for a specific TCP / UDP protocol  and its contained data.
There is certainly things this article is missing as the topic of debugging network connectivity issues on Linux is a whole ocean, especially as the complexity of Linux has grown dramatically these days.
I gues it is worthy to mention that unable to see remote network could be caused by wrong VLAN configurations on Linux or even buggy switches and router devices, due to hardware or software,
but I hope this article at least covers the very basics of network debugging and Linux. 

Enjojy 🙂

How to turn On or Off Screen Reader ORCA on Linux Desktop enabled by mistype or a kid smash on the keyboard

Wednesday, November 22nd, 2023

orca-screen-reader-communication-services-logo

For those who type quite fast and use Microsoft Windows, its quite common to start the annoying NARRATOR (Windows Speaking Program) by accidently due to mistyping pressing together Windows key + Control + Enter.
This enables Narrator to read stuff on the screen here and there and to turn it off you just have to either Lock the Windows Computer and press again Windows key + Control + Enter to TURN OFF NARRATOR.

Linux does not have a Narrator but have also embedded Eye impairment Assistive Technology called ORCA.

Orca works with applications and toolkits that support the Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface (AT-SPI), which is the primary assistive technology infrastructure for Linux and Solaris. Applications and toolkits supporting the AT-SPI include the GNOME Gtk+ toolkit, the Java platform's Swing toolkit, LibreOffice, Gecko, and WebKitGtk. AT-SPI support for the KDE Qt toolkit is being pursued.

ORCA is nowadays installed and integrated into many if not most Linux distributions out there. Enabling ORCA is not such a common thing on Linux,so today I got quite puzzled once I came back to the computer, leaving the 3.7 months kid near the Keyboard and finding out that I've enabled aloud screen reader that is reading what is every Window / Menu / Program or object I select with the mouse on my Linux MATE Desktop home GUI environment running on top of Debian Linux.

After a quick look up in Google on what exactly is the Linux program that is reading my screen I came across ORCA, which seem to be visible also as running in my process list:

hipo@jeremiah:~/Downloads$ ps -ef|grep -i orca
hipo     1068376    7960 17 18:48 tty2     00:00:01 orca

After a quick check online I found out that,

To start (Turn On ) Orca Screen Reader using the keyboard:

Windows logo button (Super Key) key + Alt + S 

Of course, it is possible to shut off the annoying reader by simply killing it with:

kill -9 orca

 

Ubuntu users, could start Orca using a mouse and keyboard:

Open the Activities overview and start typing Accessibility.

Click Accessibility to open the panel.

Select thez to open it.

Switch the Screen Reader switch to on.

Problem solved now Screen Reader on Linux is disabled, maybe it is time to disable Orca key press ability to prevent the kid from enabling it again since I don't need it actively thanksfully. with

xmodmap -e 'keycode <value>='

or simply removing the orca package with apt:

# apt remove orca

Resize KVM .img QCOW Image file and Create new LVM partition and ext4 filesystem inside KVM Virtual Machine

Friday, November 10th, 2023

LVM-add-space-to-RHEL-Linux-on-KVM_Virtual_machine-howto

Part of migration project for a customer I'm working on is migration of a couple of KVM based Guest virtual machine servers. The old machines has a backup solution stratetegy using IBM's TSM and the new Machines should use the Cheaper solution adopted by the Customer company using the CommVault backup solution (an enterprise software thath is used for data backup and recovery not only to local Tape Library / Data blobs on central backup servers infra but also in Cloud infrastructure.

To install the CommVault software on the Redhat Linux-es, the official install documentation (prepared by the team who prepared the CommVault) infrastructure for the customer recommends to have a separate partition for the CommVault backups under /opt directory  (/opt/commvault) and the partition should be as a minumum at least 10 Gigabytes of size. 

Unfortunately on our new prepared KVM VM guest machines, it was forgotten to have the separate /opt of 10GB prepared in advanced. And we ended up with Virtual Machines that has a / (root directory) of 68GB size and a separate /var and /home LVM parititons. Thus to correct the issues it was required to find a way to add another separate LVM partition inside the KVM VirtualMachine.img (QCOW Image file). 

This seemed to be an easy task at first as that might be possible with simple .img partition mount with losetup command kpartx and simple lvreduce command in some way such as

# mount /dev/loop0 /mnt/test/

# kpartx -a /dev/loop0
# kpartx -l /dev/loop0
# ls -al /dev/mapper/*

… 

# lvreduce 

etc. however unfortunately kpartx though not returning error did not provided the new /dev/mapper devices to be used with LVM tools and this approach seems to not be possible on RHEL 8.8 as the kpartx couldn't list.

 

A colleague of mine Mr. Paskalev suggested that we can perhaps try to mount the partition with default KVM tool to mount .img partitions which is guestmount but unfortunately
with a command like:
 

# guestmount -a /kvm/VM.img -i –rw /mnt/test/

But unfortunately this mounted the filesystem in fuse filesystem and the LVM /dev/mapper of the VM can't be seen so we decided to abondon this method.

After some pondering with Dimitar Paskalev and Dimitar Hristov, thanks to joint efforts we found the way to do it, below are the steps we followed to succeed in creating new LVM ext4 partition required.
One would wonder how many system
 

1. Check enough space is available on the HV machine

 

The VMs are held under /kvm so in this case:

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# df -h|grep -i /kvm
/dev/mapper/vg00-vmprivate  206G   27G  169G  14% /kvm

 

2. Shutdown the running VM and make sure it is stopped
 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# virsh shutdown vm-host

 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# virsh list –all
 Id   Name       State
————————–
 4    lpdkv01f   running
 5    vm-host   shut off

 

3. Check current Space status of VM

 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# qemu-img info /kvm/vm-host.img       
image: /kvm/vm-host.img
file format: qcow2
virtual size: 100 GiB (107374182400 bytes)
disk size: 8.62 GiB
cluster_size: 65536
Format specific information:
    compat: 1.1
    compression type: zlib
    lazy refcounts: true
    refcount bits: 16
    corrupt: false
    extended l2: false

 

4. Resize (extend VM) with whatever size you want    
 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# qemu-img resize /kvm/vm-host.img +10G

 

5. Start VM    
 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# virsh start vm-host


7. Check the LVM and block devices on HVs (not necessery but good for an overview)
 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# pvs
  PV         VG   Fmt  Attr PSize   PFree 
  /dev/sda2  vg00 lvm2 a–  277.87g 19.87g
  
[root@hypervisor-host ~]# vgs
  VG   #PV #LV #SN Attr   VSize   VFree 
  vg00   1  11   0 wz–n- 277.87g 19.87g

 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# lsblk 
NAME               MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda                  8:0    0 278.9G  0 disk 
├─sda1               8:1    0     1G  0 part /boot
└─sda2               8:2    0 277.9G  0 part 
  ├─vg00-root      253:0    0    15G  0 lvm  /
  ├─vg00-swap      253:1    0     1G  0 lvm  [SWAP]
  ├─vg00-var       253:2    0     5G  0 lvm  /var
  ├─vg00-spool     253:3    0     2G  0 lvm  /var/spool
  ├─vg00-audit     253:4    0     3G  0 lvm  /var/log/audit
  ├─vg00-opt       253:5    0     2G  0 lvm  /opt
  ├─vg00-home      253:6    0     5G  0 lvm  /home
  ├─vg00-tmp       253:7    0     5G  0 lvm  /tmp
  ├─vg00-log       253:8    0     5G  0 lvm  /var/log
  ├─vg00-cache     253:9    0     5G  0 lvm  /var/cache
  └─vg00-vmprivate 253:10   0   210G  0 lvm  /vmprivate

  
8 . Check logical volumes on Hypervisor host
 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# lvdisplay 
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/swap
  LV Name                swap
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                3tNa0n-HDVw-dLvl-EC06-c1Ex-9jlf-XAObKm
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:45 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 2
  LV Size                1.00 GiB
  Current LE             256
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:1
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/var
  LV Name                var
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                JBerim-fxVv-jU10-nDmd-figw-4jVA-8IYdxU
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:45 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                5.00 GiB
  Current LE             1280
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:2
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/spool
  LV Name                spool
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                nFlmp2-iXg1-tFxc-FKaI-o1dA-PO70-5Ve0M9
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:45 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                2.00 GiB
  Current LE             512
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:3
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/audit
  LV Name                audit
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                e6H2OC-vjKS-mPlp-JOmY-VqDZ-ITte-0M3npX
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:46 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                3.00 GiB
  Current LE             768
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:4
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/opt
  LV Name                opt
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                oqUR0e-MtT1-hwWd-MhhP-M2Y4-AbRo-Kx7yEG
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:46 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                2.00 GiB
  Current LE             512
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:5
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/home
  LV Name                home
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                ehdsH7-okS3-gPGk-H1Mb-AlI7-JOEt-DmuKnN
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:47 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                5.00 GiB
  Current LE             1280
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:6
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/tmp
  LV Name                tmp
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                brntSX-IZcm-RKz2-CP5C-Pp00-1fA6-WlA7lD
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:47 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                5.00 GiB
  Current LE             1280
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:7
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/log
  LV Name                log
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                ZerDyL-birP-Pwck-yvFj-yEpn-XKsn-sxpvWY
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:47 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                5.00 GiB
  Current LE             1280
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:8
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/cache
  LV Name                cache
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                bPPfzQ-s4fH-4kdT-LPyp-5N20-JQTB-Y2PrAG
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:48 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                5.00 GiB
  Current LE             1280
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:9
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/root
  LV Name                root
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                mZr3p3-52R3-JSr5-HgGh-oQX1-B8f5-cRmaIL
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-08-07 13:47:48 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                15.00 GiB
  Current LE             3840
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:0
   
  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/vmprivate
  LV Name                vmprivate
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                LxNRWV-le3h-KIng-pUFD-hc7M-39Gm-jhF2Aj
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time hypervisor-host, 2023-09-18 11:54:19 +0200
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                210.00 GiB
  Current LE             53760
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:10

9. Check Hypervisor existing partitions and space
 

[root@hypervisor-host ~]# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 278.9 GiB, 299439751168 bytes, 584843264 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0581e6e2

Device     Boot   Start       End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *       2048   2099199   2097152     1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2       2099200 584843263 582744064 277.9G 8e Linux LVM


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-root: 15 GiB, 16106127360 bytes, 31457280 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-swap: 1 GiB, 1073741824 bytes, 2097152 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-var: 5 GiB, 5368709120 bytes, 10485760 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-spool: 2 GiB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-audit: 3 GiB, 3221225472 bytes, 6291456 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-opt: 2 GiB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-home: 5 GiB, 5368709120 bytes, 10485760 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-tmp: 5 GiB, 5368709120 bytes, 10485760 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-log: 5 GiB, 5368709120 bytes, 10485760 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-cache: 5 GiB, 5368709120 bytes, 10485760 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/vg00-vmprivate: 210 GiB, 225485783040 bytes, 440401920 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

 

10. List block devices on VM
 

[root@vm-host ~]# lsblk 
NAME               MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sr0                 11:0    1 1024M  0 rom  
vda                252:0    0  100G  0 disk 
├─vda1             252:1    0    1G  0 part /boot
├─vda2             252:2    0   88G  0 part 
│ ├─vg00-root      253:0    0   68G  0 lvm  /
│ ├─vg00-home      253:2    0   10G  0 lvm  /home
│ └─vg00-var       253:3    0   10G  0 lvm  /var
├─vda3             252:3    0    1G  0 part [SWAP]
└─vda4             252:4    0   10G  0 part 

 

 

11. Create new LVM partition with fdisk or cfdisk
 

If there is no cfdisk new resized space with qemu-img could be setup with a fdisk, though I personally always prefer to use cfdisk

[root@vm-host ~]# fdisk /dev/vda
# > p (print)
# > m (manfile)
# > n
# … follow on screen instructions to select start and end blocks
# > t (change partition type)
# > select and set to 8e
# > w (write changes)

[root@vm-host ~]# cfdisk /dev/vda


Setup new partition from Free space as [ primary ] partition and Choose to be of type LVM


12. List partitions to make sure new LVM partition is present
 

[root@vm-host ~]# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/vda: 100 GiB, 107374182400 bytes, 209715200 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xe7b2d9fd

Device     Boot     Start       End   Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/vda1  *         2048   2099199   2097152   1G 83 Linux
/dev/vda2         2099200 186646527 184547328  88G 8e Linux LVM
/dev/vda3       186646528 188743679   2097152   1G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/vda4       188743680 209715199  20971520  10G 8e Linux LVM

The extra added 10 Giga is seen under /dev/vda4.
  — Physical volume —
  PV Name               /dev/vda4
  VG Name               vg01
  PV Size               10.00 GiB / not usable 4.00 MiB
  Allocatable           yes (but full)
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              2559
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          2559
  PV UUID               yvMX8a-sEka-NLA7-53Zj-fFdZ-Jd2K-r0Db1z
   
  — Physical volume —
  PV Name               /dev/vda2
  VG Name               vg00
  PV Size               <88.00 GiB / not usable 3.00 MiB
  Allocatable           yes (but full)
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              22527
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          22527
  PV UUID               i4UpGr-h9Cd-iKBu-KqEI-15vK-CGc1-DwRPj8
   
[root@vm-host ~]# 

 

13. List LVM Physical Volumes
 

[root@vm-host ~]# pvdisplay 
  — Physical volume —
  PV Name               /dev/vda2
  VG Name               vg00
  PV Size               <88.00 GiB / not usable 3.00 MiB
  Allocatable           yes (but full)
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              22527
  Free PE               0
  Allocated PE          22527
  PV UUID               i4UpGr-h9Cd-iKBu-KqEI-15vK-CGc1-DwRPj8

 


  
  Notice the /dev/vda4 is not seen in pvdisplay (Physical Volume display command) because not created yet, so lets create it.
 

14. Initialize new Physical Volume to be available for use by LVM
 

[root@vm-host ~]# pvcreate /dev/vda4


15. Inform the OS for partition table changes
 

If partprobe is not available as command on the host, below obscure command should do the trick.
 

[root@vm-host ~]# echo "- – -" | tee /sys/class/scsi_host/host*/scan

However usually, better to use partprobe to inform the Operating System of partition table changes

[root@vm-host ~]# partprobe


16. Use lsblk again to see the new /dev/vda4 LVM is listed into "vda" root block device
 

[root@vm-host ~]# 
[root@vm-host ~]# lsblk
NAME          MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sr0            11:0    1 1024M  0 rom  
vda           252:0    0  100G  0 disk 
├─vda1        252:1    0    1G  0 part /boot
├─vda2        252:2    0   88G  0 part 
│ ├─vg00-root 253:0    0   68G  0 lvm  /
│ ├─vg00-home 253:1    0   10G  0 lvm  /home
│ └─vg00-var  253:2    0   10G  0 lvm  /var
├─vda3        252:3    0    1G  0 part [SWAP]
└─vda4        252:4    0   10G  0 part 
[root@vm-host ~]# 


17. Create new Volume Group (VG) on /dev/vda4 block device
 

Before creating a new VG, list what kind of VG is on the machine to be sure the new created one will not be already present.
 

[root@vm-host ~]# vgdisplay 
  — Volume group —
  VG Name               vg00
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  4
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                3
  Open LV               3
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               <88.00 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              22527
  Alloc PE / Size       22527 / <88.00 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0   
  VG UUID               oyo1oY-saSm-0IKk-gZnf-Knwz-utO7-Aw8c60

vg00 is existing only, so we can use vg01 as a Volume Group name for the new volume group where the fresh 10GB LVM partition will lay

[root@vm-host ~]# vgcreate vg01 /dev/vda4
  Volume group "vg01" successfully created

 

18. Create new Logical Volume (LV) and extend it to occupy the full space available on Volume Group vg01

 

 

[root@vm-host ~]# lvcreate -n commvault -l 100%FREE vg01
  Logical volume "commvault" created.

  An alternative way to create the same LV is by running:

lvcreate -n commvault -L 10G vg01


19. Relist block devices with lsblk to make sure the new created Logical Volume commvault is really present and seen, in case of it missing re-run again partprobe cmd
 

[root@vm-host ~]# lsblk 
NAME               MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sr0                 11:0    1 1024M  0 rom  
vda                252:0    0  100G  0 disk 
├─vda1             252:1    0    1G  0 part /boot
├─vda2             252:2    0   88G  0 part 
│ ├─vg00-root      253:0    0   68G  0 lvm  /
│ ├─vg00-home      253:1    0   10G  0 lvm  /home
│ └─vg00-var       253:2    0   10G  0 lvm  /var
├─vda3             252:3    0    1G  0 part [SWAP]
└─vda4             252:4    0   10G  0 part 
  └─vg01-commvault 253:3    0   10G  0 lvm  

 

As it is not mounted yet, the VG will be not seen in df free space but will be seen as a volume group with vgdispaly
 

[root@vm-host ~]# df -h
Filesystem                  Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs                    2.8G     0  2.8G   0% /dev
tmpfs                       2.8G   33M  2.8G   2% /dev/shm
tmpfs                       2.8G   17M  2.8G   1% /run
tmpfs                       2.8G     0  2.8G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/vg00-root        67G  2.4G   61G   4% /
/dev/mapper/vg00-var        9.8G 1021M  8.3G  11% /var
/dev/mapper/vg00-home       9.8G   24K  9.3G   1% /home
/dev/vda1                   974M  242M  665M  27% /boot
tmpfs                       569M     0  569M   0% /run/user/0

 

[root@vm-host ~]# vgdisplay 
  — Volume group —
  VG Name               vg01
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  2
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                1
  Open LV               0
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               <10.00 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              2559
  Alloc PE / Size       2559 / <10.00 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0   
  VG UUID               nYP0tv-IbFw-fBVT-slBB-H1hF-jD0h-pE3V0S
   
  — Volume group —
  VG Name               vg00
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  4
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                3
  Open LV               3
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               <88.00 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              22527
  Alloc PE / Size       22527 / <88.00 GiB
  Free  PE / Size       0 / 0   
  VG UUID               oyo1oY-saSm-0IKk-gZnf-Snwz-utO7-Aw8c60
  


20. Create new ext4 filesystem on the just created vg01-commvault   
 

[root@vm-host ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/vg01-commvault 

[root@vm-host ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/vg01-commvault 
mke2fs 1.45.6 (20-Mar-2020)
Discarding device blocks: done                            
Creating filesystem with 2620416 4k blocks and 655360 inodes
Filesystem UUID: 1491d8b1-2497-40fe-bc40-5faa6a2b2644
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632

Allocating group tables: done                            
Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (16384 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done 


21. Mount vg01-commvault into /opt directory
 

[root@vm-host ~]# mkdir -p /opt/

[root@vm-host ~]# mount /dev/mapper/vg01-commvault /opt/


22. Check mount is present on VM guest OS
 

[root@vm-host ~]# mount|grep -i /opt
/dev/mapper/vg01-commvault on /opt type ext4 (rw,relatime)
[root@vm-host ~]# 

[root@vm-host ~]# df -h|grep -i opt
/dev/mapper/vg01-commvault  9.8G   24K  9.3G   1% /opt
[root@vm-host ~]# 
 

23. Add vg01-commvault to be auto mounted via /etc/fstab on next Virtual Machine reboot
 

[root@vm-host ~]# echo '/dev/mapper/vg01-commvault /opt         ext4            defaults        1        2' >> /etc/fstab

[root@vm-host ~]# rpm -ivh commvault-fs.Instance001-11.0.0-80.240.0.3589820.240.4083067.el8.x86_64.rpm

[root@vm-host ~]# systemctl status commvault
● commvault.Instance001.service – commvault Service
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/commvault.Instance001.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Fri 2023-11-10 15:13:59 CET; 27s ago
  Process: 9972 ExecStart=/opt/commvault/Base/Galaxy start direct -focus Instance001 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
    Tasks: 54
   Memory: 155.5M
   CGroup: /system.slice/commvault.Instance001.service
           ├─10132 /opt/commvault/Base/cvlaunchd
           ├─10133 /opt/commvault/Base/cvd
           ├─10135 /opt/commvault/Base/cvfwd
           └─10137 /opt/commvault/Base/ClMgrS

Nov 10 15:13:57 vm-host.ffm.de.int.atosorigin.com systemd[1]: Starting commvault Service…
Nov 10 15:13:58 vm-host.ffm.de.int.atosorigin.com Galaxy[9972]: Cleaning up /opt/commvault/Base/Temp …
Nov 10 15:13:58 vm-host.ffm.de.int.atosorigin.com Galaxy[9972]: Starting Commvault services for Instance001 …
Nov 10 15:13:59 vm-host.ffm.de.int.atosorigin.com Galaxy[9972]: [22B blob data]
Nov 10 15:13:59 vm-host.ffm.de.int.atosorigin.com systemd[1]: Started commvault Service.
[root@vm-host ~]# 

 

24. Install Commvault backup client RPM in new mounted LVM under /opt

[root@vm-host ~]#  rpm -ivh commvault.rpm