Posts Tagged ‘exit 1’

Simple bash shell Script to easy and quickly automate deploy RHEL Linux Virtual Machines on KVM Virtualization

Friday, November 3rd, 2023


Earlier I've blogged in about howto build KVM Virtual Machine RHEL 8.3 Linux install on Redhat 8.3 Linux Hypervisor with custom tailored kickstart.cfg as one of the Projects i was involved in my work duty as system administrator, we had the task to build
a KVM virtual machines and build a High Availability Linux  PCS Corosync / Pacemaker / haproxy cluster on it to save some money for the company from purchasing VMWare licenses.

The setup of the KVM Virtual machine on a first glimpse is relatively simple and I thought, this can be done just for 2 / 3 days but it turned out to take up 2 weeks or so to properly prepare the kickstarter file and learn a bit about basic virt-install KVM options and experiment with them until
we can produce a noral working Virtual machines. 

The original developed simple script that I used to bring up a new KVM virtual machines in a bit easier way looked like so:

# Script to build a new VM based on a kickstart.cfg file template
# with virt-install
# Author Georgi Georgiev hip0

VM_DESCR='CentOS 8.3 Virtual Machine';
# size is in Gigabytes

virt-install -n "$VMNAME" –description "$VM_DESCR" –os-type=Linux –os-variant=rhel8.3 –ram=8192 –vcpus=8 –location="$ISO_LOCATION" –disk path=$VM_IMG_FILE,bus=virtio,size=$IMG_VM_SIZE –graphics none –initrd-inject=/root/$KS_FILE –extra-args "console=ttyS0 ks=file:/$KS_FILE"


The script basicly did what it was aimed for but modifying the kickstarter ks.cfg every time with multiple additional parameters, like network configurations as well some additional modifications to ks.cfg for VM parameters was annoying.

Recently as we had to repeat the same task again in order to migrate old customer containing a Linux OpenVZ Virtual machines to a newer  OS installed RHEL versionb with KVM virtual machines, i've took some hours and scripted a small script that would easiy our task to build new KVM Virtual Machines
from scratch relatively easy, if we have to repeat the Linux OS build operation again and again.

Before proceeding to use the script of course one has to use LVM and setup the partitions on the Host which will be the Hypervisor where the KVM VMs will be installed as well you need to download an ISO image of Redhat Enterprise Linux / CentOS / Fedora or whatever kind of RPM based Linux
you would like to setup as well as do the basic configurations regarding the emulated Hardware node "Power" of the new Virtual Machine (CPU / Memory / Disk Partition) as well as choose a proper meaningful VM name (preferrably following some good meaningful crafted naming convention, that will talk a bit about what is inside the KVM VM container).

The script that automates a bit the KVM VM installation which you find below you can also download from here


virt_install_path=$(which virt-install);
vm_machine_description='Name Production system';
ks_vm_read_loc=$(echo $ks_file_location |sed -e 's#root/##g');
#–ip= –netmask= –gateway= –nameserver=

echo "Checking if defined $vm_host image $vm_img_location is not already present";
if [ ! -f $vm_img_location ]; then
echo 'Exiting $vm_img_location is present';
echo "To destroy exiting VM image $vm_img_location run manually cmds:";
echo 'virsh list; virsh destroy $vm_host; virsh undefine $vm_host –remove-all-storage';
exit 1;

alias cp='cp -f';
/usr/bin/cp -rpf $ks_file_location_template $ks_file_location;

echo "Setting  VM Main IP: $vm_main_ip";
echo "Setting  VM netmask: $vm_netmask";
echo "Setting  VM Gateway: $vm_gateway";
echo "Setting  VM Nameserver $vm_nameserver";
/usr/bin/perl -pi -e "s/ip=a1.a2.a3.a4/ip=$vm_main_ip/" $ks_file_location
/usr/bin/perl -pi -e "s/netmask=b1.b2.b3.b4/netmask=$vm_netmask/" $ks_file_location
/usr/bin/perl -pi -e "s/gateway=c1.c2.c3.c4/nameserver=$vm_nameserver/" $ks_file_location
/usr/bin/perl -pi -e "s/nameserver=d1.d2.d3.d4/gateway=$vm_gateway/" $ks_file_location
/usr/bin/perl -pi -e "s/vm-hostname/$vm_host/" $ks_file_location

echo "Running VM install:";
echo $virt_install_path -n $vm_host –description "$vm_machine_description" –os-type=Linux –os-variant=$os_version –ram=$vm_ram –vcpus=$vm_cpus_count –location=$boot_iso –disk path=$vm_img_location,bus=virtio,size=90 –graphics none –initrd-inject=$ks_file_location –extra-args "console=ttyS0 ks=file:$ks_vm_read_loc"

$virt_install_path -n $vm_host –description "$vm_machine_description" –os-type=Linux –os-variant=$os_version –ram=$vm_ram –vcpus=$vm_cpus_count –location=$boot_iso –disk path=$vm_img_location,bus=virtio,size=90 –graphics none –initrd-inject=$ks_file_location –extra-args "console=ttyS0 ks=file:$ks_vm_read_loc"


Modify the script to insert the required parameters of the new VM in the script header session, you will have to provide below options.


vm_machine_description='Name Production system';
ks_vm_read_loc=$(echo $ks_file_location |sed -e 's#root/##g');

The automatic Build virtual machine script is tested and works with Redhat Enterprise Linux and of course is pretty primitive as there is so much available online that would do similar, but still I like it because it works for me 🙂

You will need also the ks.cfg.templ file which has the basic kickstarter configuration that will bring up the Virtual machines according to predefined configurations.
Here is the ks.cfg.templ and ks.cfg files as well, you will have to place them under /root/ or some other directory.
Of course this script is just a basic one, it can be easily updated to accept its variable options as arguments if you need to bring up a multitude of virtual machines relatively quickly with few minor modifications. 

Hope the script is helpful to some sysadmin out there. If so don't forget to donate me for a beer in my Patreon account found in the widgets section 🙂

Create and Configure SSL bundle file for GoGetSSL issued certificate in Apache Webserver on Linux

Saturday, November 3rd, 2018


I had a small task to configure a new WildCard SSL for domains on a Debian GNU / Linux Jessie running Apache 2.4.25.

The official documentation on how to install the SSL certificate on Linux given by GoGetSSL (which is by COMODO was obsolete as of time of writting this article and suggested as install instructions:

SSLEngine on
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/ssl.key/server.key
SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/ssl.crt/yourDomainName.crt
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/ssl/ssl.crt/

Adding such configuration to domain Vhost and testing with apache2ctl spits an error like:


root@webserver:~# apache2ctl configtest
AH02559: The SSLCertificateChainFile directive (/etc/apache2/sites-enabled/the-domain-name-ssl.conf:17) is deprecated, SSLCertificateFile should be used instead
Syntax OK


To make issued GoGetSSL work with Debian Linux, hence, here is the few things done:

The files issued by Gogetssl.COM were the following:



The webserver had already SSL support via mod_ssl Apache module, e.g.:


root@webserver:~# ls -al /etc/apache2/mods-available/*ssl*
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 3112 окт 21  2017 /etc/apache2/mods-available/ssl.conf
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   97 сеп 19  2017 /etc/apache2/mods-available/ssl.load
root@webserver:~# ls -al /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/*ssl*
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 26 окт 19  2017 /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/ssl.conf -> ../mods-available/ssl.conf
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 26 окт 19  2017 /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/ssl.load -> ../mods-available/ssl.load

For those who doesn't have mod_ssl enabled, to enable it quickly run:


# a2enmod ssl

The VirtualHost used for the domains had Apache config as below:




NameVirtualHost *:443

<VirtualHost *:443>
    ServerAlias *

    DocumentRoot /home/the-domain-namecom/www
    SSLEngine On
#    <Directory />
#        Options FollowSymLinks
#        AllowOverride None
#    </Directory>
    <Directory /home/the-domain-namecom/www>
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
        AllowOverride None
        Include /home/the-domain-namecom/www/htaccess_new.txt
        Order allow,deny
        allow from all

    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
    <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
        AllowOverride None
        Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log

    # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
    # alert, emerg.
    LogLevel warn

    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

#    Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
#   <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
#       Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
#       AllowOverride None
#       Order deny,allow
#       Deny from all
#       Allow from ::1/128
#   </Directory>
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/
SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/chain.crt



The config directives enabling and making the SSL actually work are:

SSLEngine On
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/
SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/chain.crt


The chain.crt file is actually a bundle file containing a bundle of the gogetssl CA_ROOT and RSA_Certification_Authority 3 files, to prepare that file, I've used small script found on here I've made a mirror of on here   the script content is as follows:

To prepare the chain.crt  bundle, I ran:


sh _iq-test_cc.crt chain.crt
sh _iq-test_cc.crt >chain.crt
sh COMODO_RSA_Certification_Authority.crt >> chain.crt
sh AddTrust_External_CA_Root.crt >> chain.crt

Then I copied the file to /etc/apache2/ssl together with file earlier generated using openssl command earlier explained in my article how to install RapidSSL certificate on Linux

/etc/apache2/ssl was not previously existing (on Debian Linux), so to create it:


root@webserver:~# mkdir /etc/apache2/ssl
root@webserver:~# ls -al /etc/apache2/ssl/chain.crt
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 20641 Nov  2 12:27 /etc/apache2/ssl/chain.crt
root@webserver:~# ls -al /etc/apache2/ssl/
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 6352 Nov  2 20:35 /etc/apache2/ssl/


As I needed to add the SSL HTTPS configuration for multiple domains, further on I've wrote and used a tiny shell script which accepts as argument the domain name I want to add. The script works with a sample Skele (Template) file, which is included in the script itself and can be easily modified for the desired vhost config.
To add my multiple domains, I've used the script as follows:



Here is the complete script as well:


# Shell script to add easily new domains for virtual hosting on Debian machines
# arg1 should be a domain name
# This script takes the domain name which you type as arg1 uses it and creates
# Docroot / cgi-bin directory for the domain, create seperate site's apache log directory
# then takes a file and substitutes a with your domain name and directories
# This script's aim is to easily enable sysadmin to add new domains in Debian
# the directory where the file is
# base directory where site log dir to be created
# owner of the directories
# read arg0 and arg1
if [[ -z $arg1 ]]; then
echo "Missing domain name";
exit 1;


# skele template
echo "#
# (/etc/apache2/sites-available/
<VirtualHost *>

        # Indexes + Directory Root.
        DirectoryIndex index.php index.htm index.html index.cgi index.phtml index.jsp index.asp

        DocumentRoot /var/www/jail/home/www-data/sites/skelecom/www/docs
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin "/var/www/jail/home/www-data/sites/skelecom/cgi-bin"
        # Logfiles
        ErrorLog  /var/log/apache2/sites/skelecom/error.log
        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/sites/skelecom/access.log combined
#       CustomLog /dev/null combined
      <Directory /var/www/jail/home/www-data/sites/skelecom/www/docs/>
                Options FollowSymLinks MultiViews -Includes
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
                # This directive allows us to have apache2's default start page
                # in /apache2-default/, but still have / go to the right place
#               RedirectMatch ^/$ /apache2-default/

        <Directory /var/www/jail/home/www-data/sites/skelecom/www/docs/>
                Options FollowSymLinks ExecCGI -Includes
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all

" > $skele_dir/;

domain_dir=$(echo $arg1 | sed -e 's/\.//g');
echo "Creating $new_site_dir";
mkdir -p $new_site_dir;
mkdir -p $sites_base_dir/cgi-bin;
echo "Creating sites's Docroot and CGI directory";
chown -R $username:$username $new_site_dir;
chown -R $username:$username $sites_base_dir/cgi-bin;
echo "Creating site's Log files Directory";
mkdir -p $cr_sep_log_file_d/$domain_dir;
echo "Creating sites's VirtualHost file and adding it for startup";
sed -e "$arg1#g" -e "s#skelecom#$domain_dir#g" $skele_dir/ >> $skele_dir/$arg1;
ln -sf $skele_dir/$arg1 /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/;
echo "All Completed please restart apache /etc/init.d/apache restart to Load the new virtual domain";

# Date Fri Jan 11 16:27:38 EET 2008

Using the script saves a lot of time to manually, copy vhost file and then edit it to change ServerName directive, for vhosts whose configuration is identical and only the ServerName listener has to change, it is perfect to create all necessery domains, I've created a simple text file with each of the domains and run it in a loop:

while :; do sh $i; done < domain_list.txt


How to generate user password for digest_pw_auth SQUID digest authentication

Wednesday, July 6th, 2011

Squid Proxy pass prompt / real squid fun picture

I needed to generate new password for proxy user configured on SQUID proxy server configured with digest user authentication.
My dear colleague was kind to provide me with the below script, which generates the one line string which needs to go to the squid user password file:

if [ -z "$1" -o -z "$2" -o -z "$3" ] ; then
echo "Usage: $0 user password 'realm'";
exit 1
ha1=$(echo -n "$user:$realm:$pass"|md5sum |cut -f1 -d' ')
echo "$user:$realm:$ha1"

You can alternatively download the script here

The script accepts three arguments;
proxy-server:~# ./
Usage: ./ user password 'realm'

Thus to generate a new user and password and insert it immediately into let’s say a squid configured user/pass file in /etc/squid3/users execute command:

proxy-server:~# ./ admin_user MySecretPassword 'Squid_Configured_Realm'
>> /etc/squid3/users

Where Squid_Configured_Realm depends on the realm name configured in squid.conf, for example if squid.conf includes some auth configuration similar to:

auth_param digest program /usr/lib/squid3/digest_pw_auth -c /etc/squid3/users
auth_param digest children 2
auth_param digest realm My_Proxy_Realm
acl localusers proxy_auth REQUIRED

The realm script argument should be My_Proxy_realm . If squid_generate_pass does completes without errors, it should add a line to /etc/squid3/users file similar to:

proxy-server:~# cat /etc/squid3/users

Cheers 😉