Posts Tagged ‘installed’

Check the Type and Model of available installed Memory on Linux / Unix / BSD Server howto

Monday, October 30th, 2023


As a system administrator one of the common task, one has to do is Add / Remove or Replace (of Broken or failing Bank of RAM memory) a piece of additional Bank of memory Bank to a Linux / BSD / Unix server.  Lets say you need to fullfil the new RAM purchase and provide some information to the SDM (Service Delivery Manager) of the compnay you're hirder in or you need to place the purchase yourself. Then you  need to know the exact speed and type of RAM currently installed on the server installed.

In this article i'll shortly explain how do I find out ram (SDRAM) information from a via ordinary remote ssh shell session cmd prompt. In short will be shown how can one check RAM speed configured and detected by Linux / Unix kernel ? 
As well as  how to Check the type of memory (if it is DDR / DDR2 / DDR or DDR4) or ECC with no access to Hardware Console.  Please note this article will be definitely boring for the experienced sysadmins but might help to a starter sysadmins to get on board with a well know basic stuff.

There are several approaches, of course easiest one is to use remote hardware access interrace statistics web interface of ILO (on IBM machine) or the IDRAC on (Dell Server) or Fujitsu's servers iRMC. However as not always access to remote Remote hardware management interface is available to admin. Linux comes with few commands that can do the trick, that are available to most Linux distributions straight for the default package repositories.

Since mentioning about ECC a bit up, most old school admins and computer users knows pretty well about DDRs as they have been present over time but ECC is being used over actively on servers perhaps over the last 10 / 15 years and for those not dealt with it below is a short description on what is ECC RAM Memory.

ECC RAM, short for Error Correcting Code Random Access Memory, is a kind of RAM can detect most common kinds of memory errors and correct a subset of them. ECC RAM is common in enterprise deployments and most server-class hardware. Above a certain scale and memory density, single-bit errors which were up to this point are sufficiently statistically unlikely begin to occur with enough frequency that they can no longer be ignored. At certain scales and densities of memory arbitrary memory errors that are literally "one in a million chances" (or more) may in fact occur several times throughout a system's operational life.

Putting some basics, Lets proceed and Check RAM speed and type (line DDR or DDR2 or DDR3 or DDR4) without having to physically go to the the Data Center numbered rack that is containing the server.

Most famous and well known (also mentioned) on few occasions in my previous articles are: dmidecode and lshw

Quickest way to get a quick overview of installed servers memory is with:

root@server:~# dmidecode -t memory | grep -E "Speed:|Type:" | sort | uniq -c
      4     Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
     12     Configured Memory Speed: Unknown
      4     Error Correction Type: Multi-bit ECC
      2     Speed: 2133 MT/s
      2     Speed: 2400 MT/s
     12     Speed: Unknown
     16     Type: DDR4


To get more specifics on the exact type of memory installed on the server, the respective slots that are already taken and the free ones:

root@server:~# dmidecode –type 17 | less

Usually the typical output the command would produce regarding lets say 4 installed Banks of RAM memory on the server will be like:

Handle 0x002B, DMI type 17, 40 bytes
Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x0029
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
Size: 16 GB
        Form Factor: RIMM
        Set: None
        Locator: CPU1 DIMM A1
        Bank Locator: A1_Node0_Channel0_Dimm1
Type: DDR4
        Type Detail: Synchronous
Speed: 2400 MT/s
        Manufacturer: Micron
Serial Number: 15B36358
        Asset Tag: CPU1 DIMM A1_AssetTag
Part Number: 18ASF2G72PDZ-2G3B1 
        Rank: 2
Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
        Minimum Voltage: Unknown
        Maximum Voltage: Unknown
        Configured Voltage: Unknown

Handle 0x002E, DMI type 17, 40 bytes
Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x0029
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: Unknown
        Data Width: Unknown
        Size: No Module Installed
        Form Factor: RIMM
        Set: None
        Locator: CPU1 DIMM A2
        Bank Locator: A1_Node0_Channel0_Dimm2
        Type: DDR4
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: Unknown
        Manufacturer: NO DIMM
        Serial Number: NO DIMM
        Asset Tag: NO DIMM
        Part Number: NO DIMM
        Rank: Unknown
        Configured Memory Speed: Unknown
        Minimum Voltage: Unknown
        Maximum Voltage: Unknown
        Configured Voltage: Unknown


Handle 0x002D, DMI type 17, 40 bytes
Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x0029
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
        Size: 16 GB
        Form Factor: RIMM
        Set: None
        Locator: CPU1 DIMM B1
        Bank Locator: A1_Node0_Channel1_Dimm1
        Type: DDR4
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: 2400 MT/s
        Manufacturer: Micron
        Serial Number: 15B363AF
        Asset Tag: CPU1 DIMM B1_AssetTag
        Part Number: 18ASF2G72PDZ-2G3B1 
        Rank: 2
        Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
        Minimum Voltage: Unknown
        Maximum Voltage: Unknown
        Configured Voltage: Unknown

Handle 0x0035, DMI type 17, 40 bytes
Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x0031
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
        Size: 16 GB
        Form Factor: RIMM
        Set: None
        Locator: CPU1 DIMM D1
        Bank Locator: A1_Node0_Channel3_Dimm1
        Type: DDR4
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: 2133 MT/s
        Manufacturer: Micron
        Serial Number: 1064B491
        Asset Tag: CPU1 DIMM D1_AssetTag
        Part Number: 36ASF2G72PZ-2G1A2  
        Rank: 2
        Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
        Minimum Voltage: Unknown
        Maximum Voltage: Unknown
        Configured Voltage: Unknown

Handle 0x0033, DMI type 17, 40 bytes
Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x0031
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
        Size: 16 GB
        Form Factor: RIMM
        Set: None
        Locator: CPU1 DIMM C1
        Bank Locator: A1_Node0_Channel2_Dimm1
        Type: DDR4
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: 2133 MT/s
        Manufacturer: Micron
        Serial Number: 10643A5B
        Asset Tag: CPU1 DIMM C1_AssetTag
        Part Number: 36ASF2G72PZ-2G1A2  
        Rank: 2
        Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
        Minimum Voltage: Unknown
        Maximum Voltage: Unknown
        Configured Voltage: Unknown


The marked in green are the banks of memory that are plugged in the server. The

field Speed: and Configured Memory Speed: are fields indicating respectively the Maximum speed on which a plugged-in RAM bank can operate and the the actual Speed the Linux kernel has it configured and uses is at.

It is useful for the admin to usually check the complete number of available RAM slots on a server, this can be done with command like:

root@server:~#  dmidecode –type 17 | grep -i Handle | grep 'DMI'|wc -l

As you can see at this specific case 16 Memory slots are avaiable (4 are already occupied and working configured on the machine at 2133 Mhz and 12 are empty and can have installed a memory banks in).

Perhaps the most interesting information for the RAM replacement to be ordered is to know the data communication SPEED on which the Memory is working on the server and interacting with Kernel and Processor to find out.

root@server:~#  dmidecode –type 17 | grep -i "speed"|grep -vi unknown
    Speed: 2400 MT/s
    Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
    Speed: 2400 MT/s
    Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
    Speed: 2133 MT/s
    Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s
    Speed: 2133 MT/s
    Configured Memory Speed: 2133 MT/s


If you're lazy to remember the exact dmidecode memory type 17 you can use also memory keyword:

root@server:~# dmidecode –type memory | more

For servers that have the lshw command installed, a quick overview of RAM installed and Full slots available for memory placement can be done with:

root@server:~#  lshw -short -C memory
H/W path                 Device        Class          Description
/0/0                                   memory         64KiB BIOS
/0/29                                  memory         64GiB System Memory
/0/29/0                                memory         16GiB RIMM DDR4 Synchronous 2400 MHz (0.4 ns)
/0/29/1                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/2                                memory         16GiB RIMM DDR4 Synchronous 2400 MHz (0.4 ns)
/0/29/3                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/4                                memory         16GiB RIMM DDR4 Synchronous 2133 MHz (0.5 ns)
/0/29/5                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/6                                memory         16GiB RIMM DDR4 Synchronous 2133 MHz (0.5 ns)
/0/29/7                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/8                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/9                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/a                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/b                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/c                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/d                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/e                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/29/f                                memory         RIMM DDR4 Synchronous [empty]
/0/43                                  memory         768KiB L1 cache
/0/44                                  memory         3MiB L2 cache
/0/45                                  memory         30MiB L3 cache

Now once we know the exact model and RAM Serial and Part number you can google it online and to purchase more of the same RAM Model and Type you need so the installed memory work on the same Megaherzes as the installed ones.

How to Install ssh client / server on Windows 10, Windows Server 2019 and Windows Server 2022 using PowerShell commands

Wednesday, March 2nd, 2022


Historically to have a running ssh client on Windows it was required to install CygWin or MobaXterm as told in my previous articles Some Standard software programs to install on Windows to make your Desktop feel  more Linux / Unix Desktop and Must have software on Freshly installed Windows OS.
Interesting things have been developed on the Windows scene since then and as of year 2022 on Windows 10 (build 1809 and later) and on Windows 2019, Windows Server 2022, the task to have a running ssh client to use from cmd.exe (command line) became trivial and does not need to have a CygWin Collection of GNU and Open Source tools installed but this is easily done via Windows embedded Apps & Features GUI tool:

To install it from there on 3 easy steps:


  1. Via  Settings, select Apps > Apps & Features, then select Optional Features.
  2. Find OpenSSH Client, then click Install
  3. Find OpenSSH Server, then click Install

For Windows domain administrators of a small IT company that requires its employees for some automated script to run stuff for example to tunnel encrypted traffic from Workers PC towards a server port for example to secure the 110 POP Email clients to communicate with the remote Office server in encrypted form or lets say because ssh client is required to be on multiple domain belonging PCs used as Windows Desktops by a bunch of developers in the company it also possible to use PowerShell script to install the client on the multiple Windows machines.

Install OpenSSH using PowerShell

To install OpenSSH using PowerShell, run PowerShell as an Administrator. To make sure that OpenSSH is available, run the following cmdlet in PowerShell

Get-WindowsCapability -Online | Where-Object Name -like 'OpenSSH*'

This should return the following output if neither are already installed:


Name  : OpenSSH.Client~~~~
State : NotPresent

Name  : OpenSSH.Server~~~~
State : NotPresent

Then, install the server or client components as needed:

Copy in PS cmd window

# Install the OpenSSH Client
Add-WindowsCapability -Online -Name OpenSSH.Client~~~~

# Install the OpenSSH Server
Add-WindowsCapability -Online -Name OpenSSH.Server~~~~

Both of these should return the following output:

Path          :
Online        : True
RestartNeeded : False

If you want to also allow remote access via OpenSSH sshd daemon, this is also easily possible without installing especially an openssh-server Windows variant !

Start and configure OpenSSH Server

To start and configure OpenSSH Server for initial use, open PowerShell as an administrator, then run the following commands to start the sshd service:

# Start the sshd service
Start-Service sshd

# OPTIONAL but recommended:
Set-Service -Name sshd -StartupType 'Automatic'

# Confirm the Firewall rule is configured. It should be created automatically by setup. Run the following to verify
if (!(Get-NetFirewallRule -Name "OpenSSH-Server-In-TCP" -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | Select-Object Name, Enabled)) {
    Write-Output "Firewall Rule 'OpenSSH-Server-In-TCP' does not exist, creating it…"
    New-NetFirewallRule -Name 'OpenSSH-Server-In-TCP' -DisplayName 'OpenSSH Server (sshd)' -Enabled True -Direction Inbound -Protocol TCP -Action Allow -LocalPort 22
} else {
    Write-Output "Firewall rule 'OpenSSH-Server-In-TCP' has been created and exists."

Connect to OpenSSH Server

Once installed, you can connect to OpenSSH Server from a Windows 10 or Windows Server 2019 device with the OpenSSH client installed using PowerShell or Command Line tool as Administrator and use the ssh client like you would use it on any *NIX host.

C:\Users\User> ssh username@servername

The authenticity of host 'servername (' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:(<a large string>).
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
Selecting yes adds that server to the list of known SSH hosts on your Windows client.

You are prompted for the password at this point. As a security precaution, your password will not be displayed as you type.

Once connected, you will see the Windows command shell prompt:

Domain\username@SERVERNAME C:\Users\username>


CentOS 8 / Redhat 8 insert additional guests additions to VM to enable Fullscreen, Copy / Paste and Shared Folder from host OS

Monday, January 10th, 2022


My experience with enabling virtualbox additions guest tools on many of the separate Linux distributions throughout time is pretty bad as it always is a pain in the ass to enable fully functional full screen and copy paste for Virtualbox…
For those who installed it for a first time vbox guest addition tools for Virtualbox are additional software components added so the Emulated Operating system
could allow better screen resolution and better mouse integration support.

So far I've installed virtualbox additions tools to CentOS 7 and Debian Linux various releases and faced complications there as well.
Few days ago my colleague Georgi Stoyanov have installed CentOS 8.3 with current version of VirtualBox 6.1 (vesrsion from beginning of 2022) and he has also shared had issues with enabling the CentOS 8.3 Linux to work with guestadditions but eventually found a resolution.

Thus he has shared with me the solution and I share it with you, so hopefully someone else could enable Guesttools on his CentOS 8.3 with less digging online.
The error received is:

# ./

Trying to install Guest Additions in RHEL 8.3.

VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel
modules. This may take a while.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: To build modules for other installed kernels, run
VirtualBox Guest Additions: /sbin/rcvboxadd quicksetup
VirtualBox Guest Additions: or
VirtualBox Guest Additions: /sbin/rcvboxadd quicksetup all
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the modules for kernel

VirtualBox Guest Additions: Look at /var/log/vboxadd-setup.log to find out what
went wrong
ValueError: File context for /opt/VBoxGuestAdditions-6.0.20/other/mount.vboxsf already defined
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Running kernel modules will not be replaced until
the system is restarted
Press Return to close this window…

No idea what to do next. Been trying for sometime.

To enable guestaddtions in CentOS 8.3, e.g. get arount the error you have to:

1. Install all necessery dependncies RPMs required by GuestAddition tools


# dnf install tar bzip2 kernel-devel-$(uname -r) kernel-headers perl gcc make elfutils-libelf-devel

# dnf -y install gcc automake make kernel-headers dkms bzip2 libxcrypt-compat kernel-devel perl

2.  Run below semanage and restorecon commands


# semanage fcontext -d /opt/VBoxGuestAdditions-/other/mount.vboxsf
# restorecon /opt/VBoxGuestAdditions-/other/mount.vboxsf


3.  Insert Virtualbox guest additions ISO and Run it



Devices -> Insert Guest Additions CD Image


Click Run button to exec Vbox_GAs_6.0.18 script or run it manually


or mount it manually with mount command and execute the to do so:


$ cd /run/media/`whoami`/VB*
$ su
# ./
Installing additional modules …
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules.  This may take a while.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Running kernel modules will not be replaced until the system is restarted
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.


4. Reboot the VM

# reboot

5. Check and Confirm Virtualbox guest additions are properly installed and running

# lsmod | grep vbox


6. Enable Copy / Paste from to Virttual Machine e.g. Shared Clipboard / Shared Folder etc.




The three options most useful besides the support for FullScreen OS emulation by Virtualbox to enable right after
guesttools is on are:

1. Devices -> Shared Clipboard -> Bidirectional
2. Devices -> Drag and Drop -> Bidirectional
3. Devices -> Shared Folders -> Shared Folder Settings


Listing installed RPMs by vendor installed on CentOS / RedHat Linux

Friday, January 8th, 2021

Listing installed RPMs by vendor installed on CentOS / RedHat Linux

Listing installed RPMs by vendor is useful sysadmin stuff if you have third party software installed that is not part of official CentOS / RedHat Linux and you want to only list this packages, here is how this is done


[root@redhat ~]# rpm -qa –qf '%{NAME} %{VENDOR} %{PACKAGER} \n' | grep -v 'CentOS' | sort

criu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
gskcrypt64 IBM IBM
gskssl64 IBM IBM
ipxe-roms-qemu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libevent (none) (none)
libguestfs-appliance Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libguestfs-tools-c Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libguestfs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlcommon Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlsdk-python Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlsdk Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlxmlmodel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libtcmu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvcmmd Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-client Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-interface Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-network Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-nodedev Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-nwfilter Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-qemu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-core Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-kvm Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-libs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-python Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvzctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvzevent Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
openvz-logos Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
p7zip-plugins Fedora Project Fedora Project
ploop-lib Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
ploop Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
prlctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
prl-disk-tool Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
prl-disp-service Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
python2-lockfile Fedora Project Fedora Project
python2-psutil Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-daemon Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-subprocess32 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qemu-img-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qemu-kvm-common-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qemu-kvm-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
rkhunter Fedora Project Fedora Project
seabios-bin Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
seavgabios-bin Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
spfs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
TIVsm-API64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-APIcit IBM (none)
TIVsm-BAcit IBM (none)
TIVsm-BA IBM (none)
vcmmd Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vmauth Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vzctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vzkernel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vzkernel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt_checker Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt_checker Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt-lib Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
zabbix-agent (none) (none)


That instructs rpm to output each package's name and vendor, then we exclude those from "Red Hat, Inc." (which is the exact string Red Hat conveniently uses in the "vendor" field of all RPMs they pacakge).

By default, rpm -qa uses the format '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE}', and it's nice to see version and release, and on 64-bit systems, it's also nice to see the architecture since both 32- and 64-bit packages are often installed. Here's how I did that:

[root@redhat ~]# rpm -qa –qf '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE}.%{ARCH} %{VENDOR} %{PACKAGER} \n' | grep -v 'CentOS' | sort

criu- Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
gskcrypt64-8.0-55.17.x86_64 IBM IBM
gskssl64-8.0-55.17.x86_64 IBM IBM
ipxe-roms-qemu-20170123-1.git4e85b27.1.vz7.5.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libevent-2.0.22-1.rhel7.x86_64 (none) (none)
libguestfs-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libguestfs-appliance-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libguestfs-tools-c-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlcommon-7.0.162-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlsdk-7.0.226-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlsdk-python-7.0.226-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libprlxmlmodel-7.0.80-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libtcmu-1.2.0-16.2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvcmmd-7.0.22-3.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-client-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-interface-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-network-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-nodedev-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-nwfilter-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-qemu-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-core-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-daemon-kvm-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-libs-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvirt-python-3.9.0-1.vz7.1.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvzctl-7.0.506-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
libvzevent-7.0.7-5.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
openvz-logos-70.0.13-1.vz7.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
p7zip-plugins-16.02-10.el7.x86_64 Fedora Project Fedora Project
ploop-7.0.137-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
ploop-lib-7.0.137-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
prlctl-7.0.164-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
prl-disk-tool-7.0.43-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
prl-disp-service-7.0.925-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
python2-lockfile-0.11.0-17.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
python2-psutil-5.6.7-1.el7.x86_64 Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-daemon-1.6-4.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-subprocess32-3.2.7-1.vz7.5.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qemu-img-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qemu-kvm-common-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qemu-kvm-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
qt-4.8.7-2.vz7.2.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
rkhunter-1.4.6-2.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
seabios-bin-1.10.2-3.1.vz7.3.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
seavgabios-bin-1.10.2-3.1.vz7.3.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
spfs-0.09.0010-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
TIVsm-API64-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-APIcit-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-BA-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-BAcit-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
vcmmd-7.0.160-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vmauth-7.0.10-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vzctl-7.0.194-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vzkernel-3.10.0-862.11.6.vz7.64.7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vzkernel-3.10.0-862.20.2.vz7.73.29.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt-7.0.63-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt_checker-7.0.2-1.vz7.i686 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt_checker-7.0.2-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
vztt-lib-7.0.63-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (
zabbix-agent-3.2.11-1.el7.x86_64 (none) (none)

How to install and use memcached on Debian GNU / Linux to share php sessions between DNS round robined Apache webservers

Monday, November 9th, 2020


Recently I had to come up with a solution to make A bunch of websites hosted on a machine to be high available. For the task haproxy is one of logical options to use. However as I didn't wanted to set new IP addresses and play around to build a cluster. I decided the much more simplistic approach to use 2 separate Machines each running Up-to-date same version of Apache Webserver as front end and using a shared data running on Master-to-Master MySQL replication database as a backend. For the load balancing itself I've used a simple 2 multiple DNS 'A' Active records, configured via the Bind DNS name server an Round Robin DNS load balancing for each of the domains, to make them point to the the 2 Internet IP addresses (XXX.XXX.XXX.4 and YYY.YYY.YYY.5) each configured on the 2 Linux servers eth0.

So far so good, this setup worked but immediately, I've run another issue as I found out the WordPress and Joomla based websites's PHP sessions are lost, as the connectivity by the remote client browser reaches one time on XXX…4 and one time on YYY…4 configured listerner on TCP port 80 and TCP p. 443. In other words if request comes up to Front end Apache worker webserver 1 with opened channel data is sent back to Client Browser and the next request is sent due to the other IP resolved by the DNS server to come to Apache worker webserver 2 of course webserver 2 has no idea about this previous session data and it gets confused and returns soemething like a 404 or 500 or any other error … not exciting really huh …

I've thought about work around and as I didn't wanted to involve thirty party stuff as Privoxy / Squid  / Varnish / Polipo etc. just as that would add extra complexity as if I choose to use haproxy from the beginning, after short investigation came to a reason to use memcached as a central PHP sessions storage.


Why I choose memcached ?

Well it is relatively easy to configure, it doesn't come with mambo-jambo unreadable over-complicated configuration and the time to configure everything is really little as well as the configuration is much straight forward, plus I don't need to occupy more IP addresses and I don't need to do any changes to the already running 2 WebServers on 2 separate Linux hosts configured to be reachable from the Internet.
Of course using memcached is not a rock solid and not the best solution out there, as there is risk that if a memcached dies out for some reason all sessions stored in are lost as they're stored only in volatile memory, as well as there is a drawback that if a communication was done via one of the 2 webservers and one of them goes down sessions that were known by one of Apache's workers disappears.

So let me proceed and explain you the steps to take to configure memcached as a central session storage system.

1. Install memcached and php-memcached packages

To enable support for memcached besides installing memcached daemon, you need to have the php-memcached which will provide the used by Apache loaded php script interpretter module.

On a Debian / Ubuntu and other deb based GNU / Linux it should be:

webserver1:~# apt-get install memcached php-memcached

TO use php-memcached I assume Apache and its support for PHP is already installed with lets say:

webserver1:~# apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php php-mcrypt

On CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux it is a little bit more complicated as you'll need to install php-pear and compile the module with pecl


[root@centos ~]# yum install php-pear

[root@centos ~]# yum install php-pecl-memcache

Compile memcache

[root@centos ~]# pecl install memcache


2. Test if memcached is properly loaded in PHP

Once installed lets check if memcached service is running and memcached support is loaded as module into PHP core.


webserver1:~# ps -efa  | egrep memcached
nobody   14443     1  0 Oct23 ?        00:04:34 /usr/bin/memcached -v -m 64 -p 11211 -u nobody -l -l

root@webserver1:/# php -m | egrep memcache

To get a bit more verbose information on memcache version and few of memcached variable settings:

root@webserver1:/# php -i |grep -i memcache
memcached support => enabled
libmemcached version => 1.0.18
memcached.compression_factor => 1.3 => 1.3
memcached.compression_threshold => 2000 => 2000
memcached.compression_type => fastlz => fastlz
memcached.default_binary_protocol => Off => Off
memcached.default_connect_timeout => 0 => 0
memcached.default_consistent_hash => Off => Off
memcached.serializer => php => php
memcached.sess_binary_protocol => On => On
memcached.sess_connect_timeout => 0 => 0
memcached.sess_consistent_hash => On => On
memcached.sess_consistent_hash_type => ketama => ketama
memcached.sess_lock_expire => 0 => 0
memcached.sess_lock_max_wait => not set => not set
memcached.sess_lock_retries => 5 => 5
memcached.sess_lock_wait => not set => not set
memcached.sess_lock_wait_max => 150 => 150
memcached.sess_lock_wait_min => 150 => 150
memcached.sess_locking => On => On
memcached.sess_number_of_replicas => 0 => 0
memcached.sess_persistent => Off => Off
memcached.sess_prefix => memc.sess.key. => memc.sess.key.
memcached.sess_randomize_replica_read => Off => Off
memcached.sess_remove_failed_servers => Off => Off
memcached.sess_sasl_password => no value => no value
memcached.sess_sasl_username => no value => no value
memcached.sess_server_failure_limit => 0 => 0
memcached.store_retry_count => 2 => 2
Registered save handlers => files user memcached

Make sure /etc/default/memcached (on Debian is enabled) on CentOS / RHELs this should be /etc/sysconfig/memcached

webserver1:~# cat default/memcached 
# Set this to no to disable memcached.

As assured on server1 memcached + php is ready to be used, next login to Linux server 2 and repeat the same steps install memcached and the module and check it is showing as loaded.

Next place under some of your webservers hosted websites under check_memcached.php below PHP code

if (class_exists('Memcache')) {
    $server = 'localhost';
    if (!empty($_REQUEST[‘server’])) {
        $server = $_REQUEST[‘server’];
    $memcache = new Memcache;
    $isMemcacheAvailable = @$memcache->connect($server);

    if ($isMemcacheAvailable) {
        $aData = $memcache->get('data');
        echo '<pre>';
        if ($aData) {
            echo '<h2>Data from Cache:</h2>';
        } else {
            $aData = array(
                'me' => 'you',
                'us' => 'them',
            echo '<h2>Fresh Data:</h2>';
            $memcache->set('data', $aData, 0, 300);
        $aData = $memcache->get('data');
        if ($aData) {
            echo '<h3>Memcache seem to be working fine!</h3>';
        } else {
            echo '<h3>Memcache DOES NOT seem to be working!</h3>';
        echo '</pre>';

if (!$isMemcacheAvailable) {
    echo 'Memcache not available';


Launch in a browser, the browser output should be as on below screenshot:


3. Configure memcached daemons on both nodes

All we need to set up is the listen IPv4 addresses

On Host Webserver1
You should have in /etc/memcached.conf


webserver1:~# grep -Ei '\-l' /etc/memcached.conf 

On Host Webserver2



webserver2:~# grep -Ei '\-l' /etc/memcached.conf


4. Configure memcached in php.ini

Edit config /etc/php.ini (on CentOS / RHEL) or on Debians / Ubuntus etc. modify /etc/php/*/apache2/php.ini (where depending on the PHP version you're using your php location could be different lets say /etc/php/5.6/apache2/php.ini):

If you wonder where is the php.ini config in your case you can usually get it from the php cli:

webserver1:~# php -i | grep "php.ini"
Configuration File (php.ini) Path => /etc/php/7.4/cli
Loaded Configuration File => /etc/php/7.4/cli/php.ini


! Note: That on on PHP-FPM installations (where FastCGI Process Manager) is handling PHP requests,path would be rather something like:


in php.ini you need to change as minimum below 2 variables

session.save_handler =
session.save_path =

By default session.save_path would be set to lets say session.save_path = "


To make php use a 2 central configured memcached servers on webserver1 and webserver2 or even more memcached configured machines set it to look as so:


Also modify set

session.save_handler = memcache

Overall changed php.ini configuration on Linux machine 1 ( webserver1 ) and Linux machine 2 ( webserver2 ) should be:

session.save_handler = memcache


Below is approximately how it should look on both :

webserver1: ~# grep -Ei 'session.save_handler|session.save_path' /etc/php.ini
;; session.save_handler = files
session.save_handler = memcache
;     session.save_path = "N;/path"
;     session.save_path = "N;MODE;/path"
;session.save_path = "/var/lib/php7/sessions"
;       (see session.save_path above), then garbage collection does *not*


webserver2: ~# grep -Ei 'session.save_handler|session.save_path' /etc/php.ini
;; session.save_handler = files
session.save_handler = memcache
;     session.save_path = "N;/path"
;     session.save_path = "N;MODE;/path"
;session.save_path = "/var/lib/php7/sessions"
;       (see session.save_path above), then garbage collection does *not*

As you can see I have configured memcached on webserver1 to listen on internal local LAN IP and on Local LAN eth iface on TCP port 11211 (this is the default memcached connections listen port), for security or obscurity reasons you might choose another empty one. Make sure to also set the proper firewalling to that port, the best is to enable connections only between and on each of machine 1 and machine 2.


5. Enable Memcached for session redundancy

Next step is to configure memcached to allow failover (e.g. use both memcached on 2 linux hosts) and configure session redundancy.
Configure /etc/php/7.3/mods-available/memcache.ini or /etc/php5/mods-available/memcache.ini or respectively to the right location depending on the PHP installed and used webservers version.

webserver1 :~#  vim /etc/php/7.3/mods-available/memcache.ini

; configuration for php memcached module
; priority=20
; settings to write sessions to both servers and have fail over


webserver2 :~# vim /etc/php/7.3/mods-available/memcache.ini

; configuration for php memcached module
; priority=20
; settings to write sessions to both servers and have fail over


memcache.session_redundancy directive must be equal to the number of memcached servers + 1 for the session information to be replicated to all the servers. This is due to a bug in PHP.
I have only 2 memcached configured that's why I set it to 3.

6. Restart Apache Webservers

Restart on both machines webserver1 and webserver2 Apache to make php load

webserver1:~# systemctl restart httpd

webserver2:~# systemctl restart httpd


7. Restart memcached on machine 1 and 2


webserver1 :~# systemctl restart memcached

webserver2 :~# systemctl restart memcached


8. Test php sessions are working as expected with a php script

Copy to both website locations to accessible URL a file test_sessions.php:


echo "Sessions is ".$_SESSION[‘georgi’]."!\n";
echo "Session ID: ".session_id()."\n";
echo "Session Name: ".session_name()."\n";
echo "Setting 'georgi' to 'cool'\n";


Now run the test to see PHP sessions are kept persistently:

hipo@jeremiah:~/Desktop $ curl -vL -s 2>&1 | grep 'Set-Cookie:'
< Set-Cookie: PHPSESSID=micir464cplbdfpo36n3qi9hd3; expires=Tue, 10-Nov-2020 12:14:32 GMT; Max-Age=86400; path=/

hipo@jeremiah:~/Desktop $ curl -L –cookie "PHPSESSID=micir464cplbdfpo36n3qi9hd3"
Session is cool!
Session is cool!


Copy to the locations that is resolving to both DNS servers some sample php script such as sessions_test.php  with below content:

    header('Content-Type: text/plain');
        echo "This is the first time you're visiting this server\n";
        $_SESSION[‘visit’] = 0;
            echo "Your number of visits: ".$_SESSION[‘visit’] . "\n";


    echo "Server IP: ".$_SERVER[‘SERVER_ADDR’] . "\n";
    echo "Client IP: ".$_SERVER[‘REMOTE_ADDR’] . "\n";

Test in a Web Opera / Firefox / Chrome browser.

You should get an output in the browser similar to:

Your number of visits: 15
Server IP:
Client IP:
    [_ga] => GA1.2.651288003.1538922937
    [__utma] => 238407297.651288003.1538922937.1601730730.1601759984.45
    [__utmz] => 238407297.1571087583.28.4.utmcsr=google|utmccn=(organic)|utmcmd=organic|utmctr=(not provided)
    [shellInABox] => 467306938:1110101010
    [fpestid] => EzkIzv_9OWmR9PxhUM8HEKoV3fbOri1iAiHesU7T4Pso4Mbi7Gtt9L1vlChtkli5GVDKtg
    [__gads] => ID=8a1e445d88889784-22302f2c01b9005b:T=1603219663:RT=1603219663:S=ALNI_MZ6L4IIaIBcwaeCk_KNwmL3df3Z2g
    [PHPSESSID] => mgpk1ivhvfc2d0daq08e0p0ec5

If you want to test php sessions are working with text browser or from another external script for automation use something as below PHP code:

// save as "session_test.php" inside your webspace  
ini_set('display_errors', 'On');


$sessionSavePath = ini_get('session.save_path');

echo '<br><div style="background:#def;padding:6px">'
   , 'If a session could be started successfully <b>you should'
   , ' not see any Warning(s)</b>, otherwise check the path/folder'
   , ' mentioned in the warning(s) for proper access rights.<hr>';
echo "WebServer IP:" . $_SERVER[‘SERVER_ADDR’] . "\n<br />";
if (empty($sessionSavePath)) {
    echo 'A "<b>session.save_path</b>" is currently',
         ' <b>not</b> set.<br>Normally "<b>';
    if (isset($_ENV[‘TMP’])) {
        echo  $_ENV[‘TMP’], ‘” ($_ENV[“TMP”]) ';
    } else {
        echo '/tmp</b>" or "<b>C:\tmp</b>" (or whatever',
             ' the OS default "TMP" folder is set to)';
    echo ' is used in this case.';
} else {
    echo 'The current "session.save_path" is "<b>',
         $sessionSavePath, '</b>".';

echo '<br>Session file name: "<b>sess_', session_id()
   , '</b>".</div><br>';

You can download the test_php_sessions.php script here.

To test with lynx:

hipo@jeremiah:~/Desktop $ lynx -source ''
<br><div style="background:#def;padding:6px">If a session could be started successfully <b>you should not see any Warning(s)</b>, otherwise check the path/folder mentioned in the warning(s) for proper access rights.<hr>WebServer IP:
<br />The current "session.save_path" is "<b>tcp://, tcp://</b>".<br>Session file name: "<b>sess_5h18f809b88isf8vileudgrl40</b>".</div><br>

Remove old unused kernels and cleanup orphaned packages on CentOS / RHEL/ Fedora and Debian Linux

Friday, October 23rd, 2020


If you administer CentOS 7 / CentOS  8 bunch of servers it is very likely after one of the scheduled Patch days every 6 months or so, you end up with a multiple Linux OS kernels installed on the system.
In normal situation on a freshly installed CentOS machine only one rpm package is installed on the system with the kernel release shipped with CentOS / RHEL / Fedora distro:
The reason to remove the old unused kernels is very simple, you don't want to have a messy installation and after some of the updates to boot up in a revert back old kernel or if you're pedantic to simply save few megas of space.
Some people choose to have more than one kernel just to make sure, if the new installed one doesn't boot, after a restart from ILO / IDRAC remote console interface you can select to boot the proper kernel. I agree having the old kernel before the system *kernel* upgrade as backup recovery is a good thing but this is a good thing to the point the system gets booted after reboot (you know we sysadmins usually after each major system package upgrade), we like to reboot the system warmly praying and hoping it will boot up next time 🙂

1. Remove CentOS last XX kernels from the OS

Of course removal of old kernels could be managed by a simple

yum remove kernel


One more than one kernel is present you can hence leave only lets say the last 2 installed kernel on the CentOS host (some people prefer to have only one) but just for the sake of having a backup kernel I like more to have last two kernels installed present, to do so run package-cleanup which is contained in yum-utils rpm package CentOS – this is CentOS / Redhat ( RHEL) specific command.

[root@centos ~ ]:# package-cleanup –oldkernels –count=2


–count=number argument – tells how many from the  latest version kernels to get removed.

Note if you don't have the package-cleanup command install yum-utils package:

[root@centos ~ :]#  yum install -y yum-utils


2. RemoveOld kernels from Fedora Linux – leave only the latest 3 installed

This is done with dnf by setting the –-latest-limit arg to negative value to how many last kernels want to keep

[root@fedora ~ ]:# dnf remove $(dnf repoquery –installonly –latest-limit=-3 -q)


3. Set how many kernels you want to be present on system all the time after package upgrades

It is possible to tell CentOS / RHEL / Fedora's on how many kernels show be kept installed on the system, the default configured on Operating system install time is to keep the last 5 installed kernel on the OS. This is controlled from installonly_limit=5 value that is usually as of year 2020 RPM based distributions found under /etc/yum.conf (on CentOS / RHEL) and in /etc/dnf/dnf.conf (in Fedora) configuration file and sets the desired number of kernels present on system after issuing commands yum upgrade / dnf upgrade –refresh etc.
The minimum number to give to  installonly_limit is 2.

4. Remove orphan rpm packages from server

The next thing to do is to check the installed orphan packages to see if we can safely remove them; by orphaned packages we mean all packages which no longer serve a purpose of package dependencies.
Orphan packages are packages who left over from some old dependencies that are no longer needed on the system but just take up space and impose a possible security risk as some of them might end up with time with a public well known and hacked CVE vulnearbility.

Let me try to explain this concept with a quick example: package A is depended on package B, thus, in order to install package A the package B must also be installed. Once the package A is removed the package B might still be installed, hence the package B is now orphaned package.
Here’s how we can safely see the orphan packages we do have on our system:

[root@centos ~ :]#  package-cleanup –quiet –leaves –exclude-bin

And here’s how we can delete them:

[root@centos ~ :]# package-cleanup –quiet –leaves –exclude-bin | xargs yum remove -y

The above commands should be launched multiple times, because the packages deleted with the first batch could create additional orphan packages, and so on: be sure to perform these tasks until no orphan packages appear anymore after the first package-cleanup command.


5. Delete Old Kernels and keep only last three ones on Debian / Ubuntu Linux

To do the same on a debian based distribution there is a command is provided by a deb package byobu, if you want to clean up old kernels on Debians :

$ sudo purge-old-kernels –keep 3

That's all folks enjoy ! 🙂


How to check version of most used mail servers Postfix / Qmail / Exim / Sendmail

Wednesday, October 14th, 2020

How to check version of a Linux host's installed Mail server?

Most used mail servers Postfix / Qmail / Exim / Sendmail and usually you have to do a dpkg -l / rpm -qa or whatever package manager to get the package version. But sometimes the package is built to have a different naming convention from the actual installed MTA.

As recently I had to check on a Linux host what kind of version was the installed and used one to the SMTP, below is how to find conrete versions of Postfix / Qmail / Exim / Sendmail.
If none of the 4 is installed and something more cryptic like ssmtp is installed if another one is installed perhaps the best way would be to check with lsof -i :25 command and see  what process has binded and listens on TCP port 25.




1. How to check Postfix exact mail server version


Once you can find Postfix is the Network listening MTA, you might think you can simply use postfix -v however, but no …
Unlike many other applications, Postfix has no -v or –versions switch. But you can get the version information easily by using the postconf command as shown below:

root@server :~# postconf mail_version


Other approach is to dump all postfix configuration settings (this is useful to get more info on how postfix is configured) and explicitly grep for the version.
 How to check version of a Linux host's installeded webserver?

root@server :~# postconf -d | grep mail_version


2. How to check Exim MTA running version ?

root@exim-mail :/ # exim -bV
Exim version 4.72 #1 built 13-Jul-2010 21:54:55
Copyright (c) University of Cambridge, 1995 – 2007
Berkeley DB: Sleepycat Software: Berkeley DB 4.3.29: (September 19, 2009)
Support for: crypteq iconv() Perl OpenSSL move_frozen_messages Content_Scanning DKIM Old_Demime
Lookups: lsearch wildlsearch nwildlsearch iplsearch cdb dbm dbmnz
Authenticators: cram_md5 plaintext spa
Routers: accept dnslookup ipliteral manualroute queryprogram redirect
Transports: appendfile/maildir/mailstore/mbx autoreply lmtp pipe smtp
Size of off_t: 8
OpenSSL compile-time version: OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008
OpenSSL runtime version: OpenSSL 0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 01 Jul 2008
Configuration file is /etc/exim.conf


3. How to check Sendmail Mail Transport Agent exact Mail version ?

Though sendmail is rarely used this days and it usually works mostly on obsolete old scrap hosts
or in some old fashioned conservative organizations such as Banks and Payment services providers, you might need to invertise it, just like the configuration m4 format complexity with its annoying macros, getting the version is also not straight forward:

# sendmail -d0.4 -bv root | grep Version
Version 8.14.4

Above commands should be working on most Linux distributions such as Debian / Ubuntu / Fedora / CentOS / SuSE and other Linux derivatives

4. How to check Qmail MTA version?

This is a bit of complicated question, as Qmail's base has not been significantly changed for years.
The latest published qmail package is qmail-1.03.tar.gz.  1.03 was released in 1998, Qmail is famous for its unbreakable security. The author of qmail  Daniel J. Bernstein is famous for writting Qmail to make the work installation and configuration of SMTP simple as of the time of writting sendmail was the defacto standard and sendmail was hard to configure.
Also sendmail was famous for a set of Security holes that got a lot of Sendmail MTA's on the Net got hacked. Thus the QMAIL was written as a more security-aware mail transport agent.

In contrast to sendmail, qmail has a modular architecture composed of mutually untrusting components; for instance, the SMTP listener component of qmail runs with different credentials from the queue manager or the SMTP sender. qmail was also implemented with a security-aware replacement to the C standard library, and as a result has not been vulnerable to stack and heap overflows, format string attacks, or temporary file race conditions.

The core qmail package has not been updated for many years. New features were initially provided by third party patches, from which the most important at the time were brought together in a single meta-patch set called netqmail.

The current version of netqmail is at 1.06 netqmail-1.06.tar.gz as of year 2020.

One possible way to get some info about installed qmail or components is to use the documentation look up command apropos

qmail:~# apropos qmail

or check the manual or at worst check for the installation source files that the person that installed the qmail used 🙂

A fun fact about qmail few might know is D. Bernstein offered in 1997 a US$500 reward for the first person to publish a verifiable security hole in the latest version of the software, for many years till 2005 no hole was found security researcher Georgi Guninski found an integer overflow in qmail. On 64-bit platforms, in default configurations with sufficient virtual memory, the delivery of huge amounts of data to certain qmail components may allow remote code execution. Bernstein disputes that this is a practical attack, arguing that no real-world deployment of qmail would be susceptible. Configuration of resource limits for qmail components mitigates the vulnerability.

On November 1, 2007, Bernstein raised the reward to US$1000. At a slide presentation the following day, Bernstein stated that there were 4 "known bugs" in the ten-year-old qmail-1.03, none of which were "security holes." He characterized the bug found by Guninski as a "potential overflow of an unchecked counter." "Fortunately, counter growth was limited by memory and thus by configuration, but this was pure luck.

5. Quick way to check the type of Mail server installed on Debian based Linux that doesn't have telnet installed

As you know simple telnet localhost 25 or a simple ps -ef could reveal at most times general information on the installed server. However there is another way to do it using package manager. by using embedded bash shell type type command like so:

# type -p sendmail |
xargs dpkg -S


Another hacky way to check whether exim, postfix or sendmail SMTP is installed is with:

hipo@freak:~$ echo $(man sendmail)| grep "exim"|wc -l
hipo@freak:~$ echo $(man sendmail)| grep "postfix"|wc -l
hipo@freak:~$ echo $(man sendmail)| grep "sendmail"|wc -l

I guess there are nice hacks and ways to get versions, so if you're aware of any please share with me.
Enjoy !