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How to configure bond0 bonding and network bridging for KVM Virtual machines on Redhat / CentOS / Fedora Linux

Tuesday, February 16th, 2021

configure-bond0-bonding-channel-with-bridges-on-hypervisor-host-for-guest-KVM-virtual-machines-howto-sample-Hypervisor-Virtual-machines-pic
 1. Intro to Redhat RPM based distro /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/* config vars shortly explained

On RPM based Linux distributions configuring network has a very specific structure. As a sysadmin just recently I had a task to configure Networking on 2 Machines to be used as Hypervisors so the servers could communicate normally to other Networks via some different intelligent switches that are connected to each of the interfaces of the server. The idea is the 2 redhat 8.3 machines to be used as  Hypervisor (HV) and each of the 2 HVs to each be hosting 2 Virtual guest Machines with preinstalled another set of Redhat 8.3 Ootpa. I've recently blogged on how to automate a bit installing the KVM Virtual machines with using predefined kickstart.cfg file.

The next step after install was setting up the network. Redhat has a very specific network configuration well known under /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eno*# or if you have configured the Redhats to fix the changing LAN card naming ens, eno, em1 to legacy eth0, eth1, eth2 on CentOS Linux – e.g. to be named as /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/{ifcfg-eth0,1,2,3}.

The first step to configure the network from that point is to come up with some network infrastrcture that will be ready on the HV nodes server-node1 server-node2 for the Virtual Machines to be used by server-vm1, server-vm2.

Thus for the sake of myself and some others I decide to give here the most important recognized variables that can be placed inside each of the ifcfg-eth0,ifcfg-eth1,ifcfg-eth2 …

A standard ifcfg-eth0 confing would look something this:
 

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
NAME=eth0
UUID=…
ONBOOT=yes
HWADDR=0e:a4:1a:b6:fc:86
IPADDR0=10.31.24.10
PREFIX0=23
GATEWAY0=10.31.24.1
DNS1=192.168.50.3
DNS2=10.215.105.3
DOMAIN=example.com
IPV6_PEERDNS=yes
IPV6_PEERROUTES=yes


Lets say few words to each of the variables to make it more clear to people who never configured Newtork on redhat without the help of some of the console ncurses graphical like tools such as nmtui or want to completely stop the Network-Manager to manage the network and thus cannot take the advantage of using nmcli (a command-line tool for controlling NetworkManager).

Here is a short description of each of above configuration parameters:

TYPE=device_type: The type of network interface device
BOOTPROTO=protocol: Where protocol is one of the following:

  • none: No boot-time protocol is used.
  • bootp: Use BOOTP (bootstrap protocol).
  • dhcp: Use DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).
  • static: if configuring static IP

EFROUTE|IPV6_DEFROUTE=answer

  • yes: This interface is set as the default route for IPv4|IPv6 traffic.
  • no: This interface is not set as the default route.

Usually most people still don't use IPV6 so better to disable that

IPV6INIT=answer: Where answer is one of the following:

  • yes: Enable IPv6 on this interface. If IPV6INIT=yes, the following parameters could also be set in this file:

IPV6ADDR=IPv6 address

IPV6_DEFAULTGW=The default route through the specified gateway

  • no: Disable IPv6 on this interface.

IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL|IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=answer: Where answer is one of the following:

  • yes: This interface is disabled if IPv4 or IPv6 configuration fails.
  • no: This interface is not disabled if configuration fails.

ONBOOT=answer: Where answer is one of the following:

  • yes: This interface is activated at boot time.
  • no: This interface is not activated at boot time.

HWADDR=MAC-address: The hardware address of the Ethernet device
IPADDRN=address: The IPv4 address assigned to the interface
PREFIXN=N: Length of the IPv4 netmask value
GATEWAYN=address: The IPv4 gateway address assigned to the interface. Because an interface can be associated with several combinations of IP address, network mask prefix length, and gateway address, these are numbered starting from 0.
DNSN=address: The address of the Domain Name Servers (DNS)
DOMAIN=DNS_search_domain: The DNS search domain (this is the search Domain-name.com you usually find in /etc/resolv.conf)

Other interesting file that affects how routing is handled on a Redhat Linux is

/etc/sysconfig/network

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network
# Created by anaconda
GATEWAY=10.215.105.

Having this gateway defined does add a default gateway

This file specifies global network settings. For example, you can specify the default gateway, if you want to apply some network settings such as routings, Alias IPs etc, that will be valid for all configured and active configuration red by systemctl start network scripts or the (the network-manager if such is used), just place it in that file.

Other files of intesresting to control how resolving is being handled on the server worthy to check are 

/etc/nsswitch.conf

and

/etc/hosts

If you want to set a preference of /etc/hosts being red before /etc/resolv.conf and DNS resolving for example you need to have inside it, below is default behavior of it.
 

root@redhat1 :~ ]#   grep -i hosts /etc/nsswitch.conf
#     hosts: files dns
#     hosts: files dns  # from user file
# Valid databases are: aliases, ethers, group, gshadow, hosts,
hosts:      files dns myhostname

As you can see the default order is to read first files (meaning /etc/hosts) and then the dns (/etc/resolv.conf)
hosts: files dns

Now with this short intro description on basic values accepted by Redhat's /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg* prepared configurations.


I will give a practical example of configuring a bond0 interface with 2 members which were prepared based on Redhat's Official documentation found in above URLs:

https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/8/html/configuring_and_managing_networking/configuring-network-bonding_configuring-and-managing-networking
 

# Bonding on RHEL 7 documentation
https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/networking_guide/sec-network_bonding_using_the_command_line_interface

https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html/networking_guide/sec-verifying_network_configuration_bonding_for_redundancy

https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/6/html/deployment_guide/s2-networkscripts-interfaces_network-bridge

# Network Bridge with Bond documentation
https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/6/html/deployment_guide/sec-Configuring_a_VLAN_over_a_Bond

https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/Fedora/24/html/Networking_Guide/sec-Network_Bridge_with_Bond.html


2. Configuring a single bond connection on eth0 / eth2 and setting 3 bridge interfaces bond -> br0, br1 -> eth1, br2 -> eth2

The task on my machines was to set up from 4 lan cards one bonded interface as active-backup type of bond with bonded lines on eth0, eth2 and 3 other 2 eth1, eth2 which will be used for private communication network that is connected via a special dedicated Switches and Separate VLAN 50, 51 over a tagged dedicated gigabit ports.

As said the 2 Servers had each 4 Broadcom Network CARD interfaces each 2 of which are paired (into a single card) and 2 of which are a solid Broadcom NetXtreme Dual Port 10GbE SFP+ and Dell Broadcom 5720 Dual Port 1Gigabit Network​.

2-ports-broadcom-netxtreme-dual-port-10GBe-spf-plus

On each of server-node1 and server-node2 we had 4 Ethernet Adapters properly detected on the Redhat

root@redhat1 :~ ]# lspci |grep -i net
01:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Inc. and subsidiaries NetXtreme BCM5720 2-port Gigabit Ethernet PCIe
01:00.1 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Inc. and subsidiaries NetXtreme BCM5720 2-port Gigabit Ethernet PCIe
19:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Inc. and subsidiaries BCM57412 NetXtreme-E 10Gb RDMA Ethernet Controller (rev 01)
19:00.1 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Inc. and subsidiaries BCM57412 NetXtreme-E 10Gb RDMA Ethernet Controller (rev 01)


I've already configured as prerogative net.ifnames=0 to /etc/grub2/boot.cfg and Network-Manager service disabled on the host (hence to not use Network Manager you'll see in below configuration NM_CONTROLLED="no" is telling the Redhat servers is not to be trying NetworkManager for more on that check my previous article Disable NetworkManager automatic Ethernet Interface Management on Redhat Linux , CentOS 6 / 7 / 8.

3. Types of Network Bonding

mode=0 (balance-rr)

This mode is based on Round-robin policy and it is the default mode. This mode offers fault tolerance and load balancing features. It transmits the packets in Round robin fashion that is from the first available slave through the last.

mode-1 (active-backup)

This mode is based on Active-backup policy. Only one slave is active in this band, and another one will act only when the other fails. The MAC address of this bond is available only on the network adapter part to avoid confusing the switch. This mode also provides fault tolerance.

mode=2 (balance-xor)

This mode sets an XOR (exclusive or) mode that is the source MAC address is XOR’d with destination MAC address for providing load balancing and fault tolerance. Each destination MAC address the same slave is selected.

mode=3 (broadcast)

This method is based on broadcast policy that is it transmitted everything on all slave interfaces. It provides fault tolerance. This can be used only for specific purposes.

mode=4 (802.3ad)

This mode is known as a Dynamic Link Aggregation mode that has it created aggregation groups having same speed. It requires a switch that supports IEEE 802.3ad dynamic link. The slave selection for outgoing traffic is done based on a transmit hashing method. This may be changed from the XOR method via the xmit_hash_policy option.

mode=5 (balance-tlb)

This mode is called Adaptive transmit load balancing. The outgoing traffic is distributed based on the current load on each slave and the incoming traffic is received by the current slave. If the incoming traffic fails, the failed receiving slave is replaced by the MAC address of another slave. This mode does not require any special switch support.

mode=6 (balance-alb)

This mode is called adaptive load balancing. This mode does not require any special switch support.

Lets create the necessery configuration for the bond and bridges

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-bond0
DEVICE=bond0
NAME=bond0
TYPE=Bond
BONDING_MASTER=yes
#IPADDR=10.50.21.16
#PREFIX=26
#GATEWAY=10.50.0.1
#DNS1=172.20.88.2
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
BONDING_OPTS="mode=1 miimon=100 primary=eth0"
NM_CONTROLLED="no"
BRIDGE=br0


[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-bond0.10
DEVICE=bond0.10
BOOTPROTO=none
ONPARENT=yes
#IPADDR=10.50.21.17
#NETMASK=255.255.255.0
VLAN=yes

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-br0
STP=yes
BRIDGING_OPTS=priority=32768
TYPE=Bridge
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6INIT=yes
#IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
#IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
#IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=br0
UUID=4451286d-e40c-4d8c-915f-7fc12a16d595
DEVICE=br0
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=10.50.50.16
PREFIX=26
GATEWAY=10.50.0.1
DNS1=172.20.0.2
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-br1
STP=yes
BRIDGING_OPTS=priority=32768
TYPE=Bridge
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=no
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6INIT=yes
#IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
#IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
#IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
IPV6INIT=no
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=br1
UUID=40360c3c-47f5-44ac-bbeb-77f203390d29
DEVICE=br1
ONBOOT=yes
##IPADDR=10.50.51.241
PREFIX=28
##GATEWAY=10.50.0.1
##DNS1=172.20.0.2
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-br2
STP=yes
BRIDGING_OPTS=priority=32768
TYPE=Bridge
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=no
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6INIT=yes
#IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
#IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
#IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
IPV6INIT=no
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=br2
UUID=fbd5c257-2f66-4f2b-9372-881b783276e0
DEVICE=br2
ONBOOT=yes
##IPADDR=10.50.51.243
PREFIX=28
##GATEWAY=10.50.0.1
##DNS1=172.20.10.1
NM_CONTROLLED=no
NM_CONTROLLED=no
BRIDGE=br0

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-eth0
TYPE=Ethernet
NAME=bond0-slaveeth0
BOOTPROTO=none
#UUID=61065574-2a9d-4f16-b16e-00f495e2ee2b
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat1 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-eth1
TYPE=Ethernet
NAME=eth1
UUID=b4c359ae-7a13-436b-a904-beafb4edee94
DEVICE=eth1
ONBOOT=yes
BRIDGE=br1
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat1 :~ ]#  cat ifcfg-eth2
TYPE=Ethernet
NAME=bond0-slaveeth2
BOOTPROTO=none
#UUID=821d711d-47b9-490a-afe7-190811578ef7
DEVICE=eth2
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat1 :~ ]#  cat ifcfg-eth3
TYPE=Ethernet
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
#BOOTPROTO=dhcp
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=no
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6INIT=yes
#IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
#IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
#IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
IPV6INIT=no
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
BRIDGE=br2
NAME=eth3
UUID=61065574-2a9d-4f16-b16e-00f495e2ee2b
DEVICE=eth3
ONBOOT=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat2 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-bond0
DEVICE=bond0
NAME=bond0
TYPE=Bond
BONDING_MASTER=yes
#IPADDR=10.50.21.16
#PREFIX=26
#GATEWAY=10.50.21.1
#DNS1=172.20.88.2
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
BONDING_OPTS="mode=1 miimon=100 primary=eth0"
NM_CONTROLLED="no"
BRIDGE=br0

# cat ifcfg-bond0.10
DEVICE=bond0.10
BOOTPROTO=none
ONPARENT=yes
#IPADDR=10.50.21.17
#NETMASK=255.255.255.0
VLAN=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no
BRIDGE=br0

[root@redhat2 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-br0
STP=yes
BRIDGING_OPTS=priority=32768
TYPE=Bridge
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=yes
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6INIT=yes
#IPV6_AUTOCONF=yes
#IPV6_DEFROUTE=yes
#IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=br0
#UUID=f87e55a8-0fb4-4197-8ccc-0d8a671f30d0
UUID=4451286d-e40c-4d8c-915f-7fc12a16d595
DEVICE=br0
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=10.50.21.17
PREFIX=26
GATEWAY=10.50.21.1
DNS1=172.20.88.2
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat2 :~ ]#  cat ifcfg-br1
STP=yes
BRIDGING_OPTS=priority=32768
TYPE=Bridge
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=no
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6INIT=no
#IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
#IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
#IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
IPV6INIT=no
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=br1
UUID=40360c3c-47f5-44ac-bbeb-77f203390d29
DEVICE=br1
ONBOOT=yes
##IPADDR=10.50.21.242
PREFIX=28
##GATEWAY=10.50.21.1
##DNS1=172.20.88.2
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat2 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-br2
STP=yes
BRIDGING_OPTS=priority=32768
TYPE=Bridge
PROXY_METHOD=none
BROWSER_ONLY=no
BOOTPROTO=none
DEFROUTE=no
IPV4_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6INIT=no
#IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
#IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
#IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
#IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
IPV6INIT=no
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
IPV6_DEFROUTE=no
IPV6_FAILURE_FATAL=no
IPV6_ADDR_GEN_MODE=stable-privacy
NAME=br2
UUID=fbd5c257-2f66-4f2b-9372-881b783276e0
DEVICE=br2
ONBOOT=yes
##IPADDR=10.50.21.244
PREFIX=28
##GATEWAY=10.50.21.1
##DNS1=172.20.88.2
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat2 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-eth0
TYPE=Ethernet
NAME=bond0-slaveeth0
BOOTPROTO=none
#UUID=ee950c07-7eb2-463b-be6e-f97e7ad9d476
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat2 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-eth1
TYPE=Ethernet
NAME=eth1
UUID=ffec8039-58f0-494a-b335-7a423207c7e6
DEVICE=eth1
ONBOOT=yes
BRIDGE=br1
NM_CONTROLLED=no

[root@redhat2 :~ ]# cat ifcfg-eth2
TYPE=Ethernet
NAME=bond0-slaveeth2
BOOTPROTO=none
#UUID=2c097475-4bef-47c3-b241-f5e7f02b3395
DEVICE=eth2
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=no


Notice that the bond0 configuration does not have an IP assigned this is done on purpose as we're using the interface channel bonding together with attached bridge for the VM. Usual bonding on a normal physical hardware hosts where no virtualization use is planned is perhaps a better choice. If you however try to set up an IP address in that specific configuration shown here and you try to reboot the machine, you will end up with inacessible machine over the network like I did and you will need to resolve configuration via some kind of ILO / IDRAC interface.

4. Generating UUID for ethernet devices bridges and bonds

One thing to note is the command uuidgen you might need that to generate UID identificators to fit in the new network config files.

Example:
 

[root@redhat2 :~ ]#uuidgen br2
e7995e15-7f23-4ea2-80d6-411add78d703
[root@redhat2 :~ ]# uuidgen br1
05e0c339-5998-414b-b720-7adf91a90103
[root@redhat2 :~ ]# uuidgen br0
e6d7ff74-4c15-4d93-a150-ff01b7ced5fb


5. How to make KVM Virtual Machines see configured Network bridges (modify VM XML)

To make the Virtual machines installed see the bridges I had to

[root@redhat1 :~ ]#virsh edit VM_name1
[root@redhat1 :~ ]#virsh edit VM_name2

[root@redhat2 :~ ]#virsh edit VM_name1
[root@redhat2 :~ ]#virsh edit VM_name2

Find the interface network configuration and change it to something like:

    <interface type='bridge'>
      <mac address='22:53:00:56:5d:ac'/>
      <source bridge='br0'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x01' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>
    <interface type='bridge'>
      <mac address='22:53:00:2a:5f:01'/>
      <source bridge='br1'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x07' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>
    <interface type='bridge'>
      <mac address='22:34:00:4a:1b:6c'/>
      <source bridge='br2'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x08' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>


6. Testing the bond  is up and works fine

# ip addr show bond0
The result is the following:

 

4: bond0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,MASTER,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:cb:25:82 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff


The bond should be visible in the normal network interfaces with ip address show or /sbin/ifconfig

 

# cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.7.1 (April 27, 2011)

Bonding Mode: fault-tolerance (active-backup)
Primary Slave: None
Currently Active Slave: eth0
MII Status: up
MII Polling Interval (ms): 100
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0

Slave Interface: eth2
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 00:0c:29:ab:2a:fa
Slave queue ID: 0

 

According to the output eth0 is the active slave.

The active slaves device files (eth0 in this case) is found in virtual file system /sys/

# find /sys -name *eth0
/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:15.0/0000:03:00.0/net/eth0
/sys/devices/virtual/net/bond0/lower_eth0
/sys/class/net/eth0


You can remove a bond member say eth0 by 

 

 cd to the pci* directory
Example: /sys/devices/pci000:00/000:00:15.0

 

# echo 1 > remove


At this point the eth0 device directory structure that was previously located under /sys/devices/pci000:00/000:00:15.0 is no longer there.  It was removed and the device no longer exists as seen by the OS.

You can verify this is the case with a simple ifconfig which will no longer list the eth0 device.
You can also repeat the cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0 command from Step 1 to see that eth0 is no longer listed as active or available.
You can also see the change in the messages file.  It might look something like this:

2021-02-12T14:13:23.363414-06:00 redhat1  device eth0: device has been deleted
2021-02-12T14:13:23.368745-06:00 redhat1 kernel: [81594.846099] bonding: bond0: releasing active interface eth0
2021-02-12T14:13:23.368763-06:00 redhat1 kernel: [81594.846105] bonding: bond0: Warning: the permanent HWaddr of eth0 – 00:0c:29:ab:2a:f0 – is still in use by bond0. Set the HWaddr of eth0 to a different address to avoid conflicts.
2021-02-12T14:13:23.368765-06:00 redhat1 kernel: [81594.846132] bonding: bond0: making interface eth1 the new active one.

 

Another way to test the bonding is correctly switching between LAN cards on case of ethernet hardware failure is to bring down one of the 2 or more bonded interfaces, lets say you want to switch from active-backup from eth1 to eth2, do:
 

# ip link set dev eth0 down


That concludes the test for fail over on active slave failure.

7. Bringing bond updown (rescan) bond with no need for server reboot

You know bonding is a tedious stuff that sometimes breaks up badly so only way to fix the broken bond seems to be a init 6 (reboot) cmd but no actually that is not so.

You can also get the deleted device back with a simple pci rescan command:

# echo 1 > /sys/bus/pci/rescan


The eth0 interface should now be back
You can see that it is back with an ifconfig command, and you can verify that the bond sees it with this command:

# cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0


That concludes the test of the bond code seeing the device when it comes back again.

The same steps can be repeated only this time using the eth1 device and file structure to fail the active slave in the bond back over to eth0.

8. Testing the bond with ifenslave command (ifenslave command examples)

Below is a set of useful information to test the bonding works as expected with ifenslave command  comes from "iputils-20071127" package

– To show information of all the inerfaces

                  # ifenslave -a
                  # ifenslave –all-interfaces 

 

– To change the active slave

                  # ifenslave -c bond0 eth1
                  # ifenslave –change-active bond0 eth1 

 

– To remove the slave interface from the bonding device

                  # ifenslave -d eth1
                  # ifenslave –detach bond0 eth1 

 

– To show master interface info

                  # ifenslave bond0 

 

– To set the bond device down and automatically release all the slaves

                  # ifenslave bond1 down 

– To get the usage info

                  # ifenslave -u
                  # ifenslave –usage 

– To set to verbose mode

                  # ifenslave -v
                  # ifenslave –verbose 

9. Testing the bridge works fine

Historically over the years all kind of bridges are being handled with the brctl part of bridge-utils .deb / .rpm installable package.

The classical way to check a bridge is working is to do

# brctl show
# brctl show br0; brctl show br1; brctl show br2

# brctl showmacs br0
 

etc.

Unfortunately with redhat 8 this command is no longer available so to get information about configured bridges you need to use instead:

 

# bridge link show
3:eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 master bridge0 state forwarding priority 32 cost 100
4:eth2: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 master bridge0 state listening priority 32 cost 100


10. Troubleshooting network connectivity issues on bond bridges and LAN cards

Testing the bond connection and bridges can route proper traffic sometimes is a real hassle so here comes at help the good old tcpdump

If you end up with issues with some of the ethernet interfaces between HV1 and HV2 to be unable to talk to each other and you have some suspiciousness that some colleague from the network team has messed up a copper (UTP) cable or there is a connectivity fiber optics issues. To check the VLAN tagged traffic headers on the switch you can listen to each and every bond0 and br0, br1, br2 eth0, eth1, eth2, eth3 configured on the server like so:

# tcpdump -i bond0 -nn -e vlan


Some further investigation on where does a normal ICMP traffic flows once everything is setup is a normal thing to do, hence just try to route a normal ping via the different server interfaces:

# ping -I bond0 DSTADDR

# ping -i eth0 DSTADDR

# ping -i eth1 DSTADDR

# ping -i eth2 DSTADDR


After conducting the ping do the normal for network testing big ICMP packages (64k) ping to make sure there are no packet losses etc., e.g:

# ping -I eth3 -s 64536  DSTADDR


If for 10 – 20 seconds the ping does not return package losses then you should be good.

Listing installed RPMs by vendor installed on CentOS / RedHat Linux

Friday, January 8th, 2021

Listing installed RPMs by vendor installed on CentOS / RedHat Linux

Listing installed RPMs by vendor is useful sysadmin stuff if you have third party software installed that is not part of official CentOS / RedHat Linux and you want to only list this packages, here is how this is done

 

[root@redhat ~]# rpm -qa –qf '%{NAME} %{VENDOR} %{PACKAGER} \n' | grep -v 'CentOS' | sort

criu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
gskcrypt64 IBM IBM
gskssl64 IBM IBM
ipxe-roms-qemu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libevent (none) (none)
libguestfs-appliance Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs-tools-c Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlcommon Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk-python Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlxmlmodel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libtcmu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvcmmd Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-client Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-interface Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-network Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nodedev Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nwfilter Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-qemu Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-core Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-kvm Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-libs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-python Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzevent Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
openvz-logos Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
p7zip-plugins Fedora Project Fedora Project
ploop-lib Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
ploop Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prlctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disk-tool Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disp-service Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
python2-lockfile Fedora Project Fedora Project
python2-psutil Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-daemon Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-subprocess32 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-img-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-common-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-vz Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
rkhunter Fedora Project Fedora Project
seabios-bin Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
seavgabios-bin Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
spfs Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
TIVsm-API64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-APIcit IBM (none)
TIVsm-BAcit IBM (none)
TIVsm-BA IBM (none)
vcmmd Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vmauth Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzctl Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt-lib Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
zabbix-agent (none) (none)

 


That instructs rpm to output each package's name and vendor, then we exclude those from "Red Hat, Inc." (which is the exact string Red Hat conveniently uses in the "vendor" field of all RPMs they pacakge).

By default, rpm -qa uses the format '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE}', and it's nice to see version and release, and on 64-bit systems, it's also nice to see the architecture since both 32- and 64-bit packages are often installed. Here's how I did that:

[root@redhat ~]# rpm -qa –qf '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE}.%{ARCH} %{VENDOR} %{PACKAGER} \n' | grep -v 'CentOS' | sort

criu-3.10.0.23-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
gskcrypt64-8.0-55.17.x86_64 IBM IBM
gskssl64-8.0-55.17.x86_64 IBM IBM
ipxe-roms-qemu-20170123-1.git4e85b27.1.vz7.5.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libevent-2.0.22-1.rhel7.x86_64 (none) (none)
libguestfs-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs-appliance-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libguestfs-tools-c-1.36.10-6.2.vz7.12.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlcommon-7.0.162-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk-7.0.226-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlsdk-python-7.0.226-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libprlxmlmodel-7.0.80-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libtcmu-1.2.0-16.2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvcmmd-7.0.22-3.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-client-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-config-nwfilter-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-interface-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-network-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nodedev-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-nwfilter-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-qemu-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-driver-storage-core-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-daemon-kvm-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-libs-3.9.0-14.vz7.38.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvirt-python-3.9.0-1.vz7.1.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzctl-7.0.506-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
libvzevent-7.0.7-5.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
openvz-logos-70.0.13-1.vz7.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
p7zip-plugins-16.02-10.el7.x86_64 Fedora Project Fedora Project
ploop-7.0.137-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
ploop-lib-7.0.137-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prlctl-7.0.164-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disk-tool-7.0.43-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
prl-disp-service-7.0.925-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
python2-lockfile-0.11.0-17.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
python2-psutil-5.6.7-1.el7.x86_64 Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-daemon-1.6-4.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
python-subprocess32-3.2.7-1.vz7.5.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-img-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-common-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qemu-kvm-vz-2.10.0-21.7.vz7.67.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
qt-4.8.7-2.vz7.2.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
rkhunter-1.4.6-2.el7.noarch Fedora Project Fedora Project
seabios-bin-1.10.2-3.1.vz7.3.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
seavgabios-bin-1.10.2-3.1.vz7.3.noarch Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
spfs-0.09.0010-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
TIVsm-API64-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-APIcit-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-BA-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
TIVsm-BAcit-8.1.11-0.x86_64 IBM (none)
vcmmd-7.0.160-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vmauth-7.0.10-2.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzctl-7.0.194-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel-3.10.0-862.11.6.vz7.64.7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vzkernel-3.10.0-862.20.2.vz7.73.29.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt-7.0.63-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker-7.0.2-1.vz7.i686 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt_checker-7.0.2-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
vztt-lib-7.0.63-1.vz7.x86_64 Virtuozzo Virtuozzo (http://www.virtuozzo.com/support/)
zabbix-agent-3.2.11-1.el7.x86_64 (none) (none)

Display Content of SSL certificate .pem file with openssl command

Thursday, October 11th, 2018

display-content-of-pem-der-and-scr-file-how-to-view-pem-file-linux

If you have generated a .pem formatted SSL certificate or you have multiple .pem SSL certificates and you're not sure which .pem file is generated for which domain / subdomain it is useful to Display content of SSL Certificate .PEM file with openssl command.

Viewing certificate's content is also very useful if you have hosted multiple websites hosted on a server and you want to check which of the SSLs assigned in the Virtualhosts has Expired (for example if you have domains that expire in short term period (365 days).


1. How to Display Content of SSL certificate .pem file?

 

root@pcfreak:~# openssl x509 -in cert.pem -text
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            04:d1:ad:55:91:f3:f9:ef:3e:53:ea:2c:3a:f4:5f:e6:ce:c1
    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
        Issuer: C = US, O = Let's Encrypt, CN = Let's Encrypt Authority X3
        Validity
            Not Before: Oct 10 17:49:34 2018 GMT
            Not After : Jan  8 17:49:34 2019 GMT
        Subject: CN = mail.www.pc-freak.net

        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                Public-Key: (2048 bit)
                Modulus:
                    00:bb:b0:c9:1c:83:82:61:47:f9:c2:73:60:c0:48:
                    e6:0c:f2:a1:ff:db:ae:f1:84:17:14:5d:fc:a3:b2:
                    e4:00:3a:d1:85:42:90:da:41:a9:e9:a8:af:20:3d:
                    12:ef:8e:ca:61:a1:71:f2:cc:43:bf:40:0d:fa:08:
                    7d:d9:61:2b:ea:5d:30:e0:52:43:db:18:30:92:0c:
                    2c:ce:87:93:84:ea:91:61:b7:70:db:11:7c:b6:a4:
                    33:de:d8:3f:d6:61:47:42:f2:36:12:7f:3d:e3:f7:
                    5b:11:3e:1c:f0:af:96:cd:61:8a:1a:a0:f0:b5:23:
                    65:73:b6:b4:9c:19:a7:09:dd:43:96:37:ac:48:fc:
                    21:07:02:52:67:26:2c:81:24:f4:d7:10:e6:f4:12:
                    69:53:ef:91:2a:15:6a:21:06:22:ea:fe:31:38:82:
                    b4:5a:b5:9b:67:90:16:b8:31:e8:27:38:f2:41:b9:
                    19:02:8f:c7:6e:e1:2c:84:75:19:6d:bb:30:3b:d2:
                    02:f0:65:f1:76:82:15:9c:ce:31:3a:d4:7c:83:ca:
                    d1:f9:e1:b7:76:f6:78:93:47:d2:00:f9:63:aa:94:
                    41:d4:78:d0:ee:bc:e6:e9:14:14:e4:ae:54:31:88:
                    f8:58:8d:7b:3e:9f:87:5c:f2:04:e5:07:e0:4c:9a:
                    81:eb
                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Key Usage: critical
                Digital Signature, Key Encipherment
            X509v3 Extended Key Usage:
                TLS Web Server Authentication, TLS Web Client Authentication
            X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
                CA:FALSE
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                DB:AB:81:E3:14:5F:6D:BE:B4:78:7B:5E:7D:FB:66:BF:56:37:C5:1D
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:A8:4A:6A:63:04:7D:DD:BA:E6:D1:39:B7:A6:45:65:EF:F3:A8:EC:A1

 

            Authority Information Access:
                OCSP – URI:http://ocsp.int-x3.letsencrypt.org
                CA Issuers – URI:http://cert.int-x3.letsencrypt.org/

            X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:
                DNS:mail.www.pc-freak.net
            X509v3 Certificate Policies:
                Policy: 2.23.140.1.2.1
                Policy: 1.3.6.1.4.1.44947.1.1.1
                  CPS: http://cps.letsencrypt.org
                  User Notice:
                    Explicit Text: This Certificate may only be relied upon by Relying Parties and only in accordance with the Certificate Policy found at https://letsencrypt.org/repository/

            CT Precertificate SCTs:
                Signed Certificate Timestamp:
                    Version   : v1 (0x0)
                    Log ID    : E2:69:4B:AE:26:E8:E9:40:09:E8:86:1B:B6:3B:83:D4:
                                3E:E7:FE:74:88:FB:A4:8F:28:93:01:9D:DD:F1:DB:FE
                    Timestamp : Oct 10 18:49:34.453 2018 GMT
                    Extensions: none
                    Signature : ecdsa-with-SHA256
                                30:46:02:21:00:D6:DE:47:AD:D2:32:BE:BE:DD:B3:EB:
                                EE:84:9E:02:8A:4F:33:E2:63:21:D5:F7:4D:47:82:92:
                                AB:B9:0A:49:62:02:21:00:E8:7D:17:81:32:E3:4F:CF:
                                2D:79:8C:97:46:E1:EF:5E:99:F4:8A:8B:B5:6D:23:5F:
                                05:84:E2:14:6A:56:8E:A0
                Signed Certificate Timestamp:
                    Version   : v1 (0x0)
                    Log ID    : 29:3C:51:96:54:C8:39:65:BA:AA:50:FC:58:07:D4:B7:
                                6F:BF:58:7A:29:72:DC:A4:C3:0C:F4:E5:45:47:F4:78
                    Timestamp : Oct 10 18:49:34.451 2018 GMT
                    Extensions: none
                    Signature : ecdsa-with-SHA256
                                30:44:02:20:6C:8E:E7:E2:70:AD:33:A6:5C:E0:89:84:
                                FB:0B:F6:E1:5C:05:06:0A:A8:DB:8B:1C:7A:D0:52:99:
                                5F:3F:A2:64:02:20:4B:CD:0B:E7:A0:27:04:31:19:18:
                                58:99:51:73:49:6B:77:25:A7:E7:5B:10:8C:BD:ED:54:
                                03:DD:40:E4:2D:31
    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
         9c:86:b3:34:64:af:ac:9d:c4:d3:a7:cc:fc:8a:32:18:75:95:
         95:47:9b:9c:3c:0e:3b:61:f9:88:61:38:1a:a6:92:69:3d:14:
         6a:53:13:14:65:e6:ca:fa:b9:8e:48:c9:d4:73:f6:e4:74:8a:
         1f:2b:f2:14:86:f1:18:55:26:1b:a0:97:89:15:0b:62:c6:2b:
         27:81:6f:60:af:55:68:b3:2c:5b:10:56:a2:7d:28:cb:8e:fc:
         f0:21:65:78:9b:3a:52:d3:9d:27:ff:d7:24:95:de:0f:d8:3d:
         a2:43:6e:fc:a5:2d:f2:ad:37:e9:ea:db:b5:75:b8:7c:ad:23:
         45:1d:bd:fe:4e:36:c7:f4:e2:3d:47:c9:06:fc:cb:75:ba:d4:
         0a:90:17:ea:e1:7f:49:e6:68:27:97:8a:70:c7:50:e9:19:4a:
         8a:21:18:26:79:a3:61:ff:1b:26:9e:fe:85:8f:20:ed:c6:4d:
         c1:0e:04:21:a8:05:d4:29:69:99:53:63:81:c7:d5:58:71:df:
         02:b5:94:c9:36:48:c9:35:80:ab:71:78:d9:12:f6:f5:10:25:
         3d:38:c5:40:75:25:b1:95:18:d8:1c:96:f1:c6:1a:d2:c4:99:
         f5:01:2e:f4:e1:4a:1f:10:42:0e:34:ed:92:8e:53:9f:c2:7b:
         11:51:78:6a
—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–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—–END CERTIFICATE—–

 

Same way a .der files content / encryption algorithm and domain name could be grasped.
 

root@pcfreak:~# openssl x509 -in cert.der -inform der -text
Certificate:
    Data:
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number:
            ad:c2:96:6f:4b:db:31:5c
    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
        Issuer: CN = example.com
        Validity
            Not Before: Jun 22 04:00:37 2015 GMT
            Not After : Jul 22 04:00:37 2015 GMT

        Subject: CN = example.com
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                Public-Key: (512 bit)

                Modulus:
                    00:ac:75:73:b4:51:ed:1f:dd:ae:70:52:43:fc:df:
                    c7:5b:d0:2c:75:1b:14:b8:75:01:04:10:e5:1f:03:
                    65:45:dd:df:a7:9f:34:ae:fd:be:e9:05:84:df:47:
                    16:81:d9:89:4b:ce:8e:6d:1c:fa:95:44:e8:af:84:
                    74:4f:ed:c2:e5
                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
                26:CF:C8:ED:4B:D7:94:B2:E4:25:03:58:24:8F:04:C0:74:D5:97:8A
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
                keyid:26:CF:C8:ED:4B:D7:94:B2:E4:25:03:58:24:8F:04:C0:74:D5:97:8A

 

            X509v3 Basic Constraints:
                CA:TRUE
    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
         0c:8b:ff:12:80:9e:4c:90:bc:26:b0:96:20:ab:76:0c:64:71:
         d2:15:48:a5:33:f6:47:e4:03:df:76:5e:0f:cd:e1:1b:5e:d1:
         4d:c2:1f:8d:b8:63:2f:c9:7d:6e:5c:3b:cb:cd:a3:d0:d8:27:
         74:66:a3:76:06:a5:fb:81:3a:b6
—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–
MIIBdTCCAR+gAwIBAgIJAK3Clm9L2zFcMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBCwUAMBYxFDASBgNV
BAMMC2V4YW1wbGUuY29tMB4XDTE1MDYyMjA0MDAzN1oXDTE1MDcyMjA0MDAzN1ow
FjEUMBIGA1UEAwwLZXhhbXBsZS5jb20wXDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAANLADBIAkEA
rHVztFHtH92ucFJD/N/HW9AsdRsUuHUBBBDlHwNlRd3fp580rv2+6QWE30cWgdmJ
S86ObRz6lUTor4R0T+3C5QIDAQABo1AwTjAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUJs/I7UvXlLLkJQNY
JI8EwHTVl4owHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAUJs/I7UvXlLLkJQNYJI8EwHTVl4owDAYDVR0T
BAUwAwEB/zANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFAANBAAyL/xKAnkyQvCawliCrdgxkcdIVSKUz
9kfkA992Xg/N4Rte0U3CH424Yy/JfW5cO8vNo9DYJ3Rmo3YGpfuBOrY=
—–END CERTIFICATE—–

 

2. How to display content and info about .CSR (Certificate Signing request)

 

root@pcfreak:~# openssl req -in cert.csr -noout -text
 

Certificate Request:
    Data:
        Version: 1 (0x0)
        Subject: C = BG, ST = BG, L = Dobrich, O = Pc Freak, CN = mail.www.pc-freak.net, emailAddress = hipo@www.pc-freak.net
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                Public-Key: (2048 bit)
                Modulus:
                    00:b1:83:a7:07:62:19:d4:60:95:58:49:de:b3:48:
                    a8:39:31:fa:5a:bd:2b:d6:73:94:50:36:72:74:18:
                    58:b6:27:d3:0b:26:75:15:a8:ba:1b:77:a7:c9:54:
                    96:1f:c7:8d:da:bd:c9:17:91:53:85:9e:0a:f4:71:
                    3c:fb:d6:e4:75:41:c1:95:32:e1:22:fc:7b:1f:36:
                    23:12:00:ca:37:27:d5:f9:9b:29:48:4a:51:95:d1:
                    40:d0:ea:94:51:98:98:6b:d3:d9:79:1d:a1:65:bb:
                    a9:d1:ab:c9:46:6e:03:ee:24:45:e5:f2:73:e5:f4:
                    82:4a:08:57:b1:06:52:c3:cc:42:9a:02:5b:7a:7c:
                    bd:34:d5:5f:d7:ba:ef:27:d5:3d:97:16:69:06:c7:
                    c1:06:5e:d9:07:16:3f:a3:61:50:9d:dd:ea:95:32:
                    f1:ee:93:82:48:df:20:8b:ae:d2:95:89:05:e4:3d:
                    0c:d7:e1:cf:07:ae:55:84:11:06:92:be:34:b4:a2:
                    a1:ce:07:06:bf:21:bc:80:e2:03:d2:85:b4:64:02:
                    8d:cd:d2:86:1c:49:41:52:43:a8:12:f8:ef:2c:f4:
                    be:a0:dc:ac:ea:27:3a:f9:ab:ab:27:da:28:63:1d:
                    10:5a:4f:b8:51:42:40:ae:be:c0:2d:e9:a3:5a:5a:
                    23:7f
                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
        Attributes:
            a0:00
    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
         47:f0:54:cd:5e:46:6f:2c:cc:48:7e:85:f0:a8:96:10:ca:a3:
         15:98:77:d3:02:95:8c:67:84:e3:55:d2:0c:e8:d5:a7:ba:82:
         95:fb:ce:73:4c:bc:8f:da:85:97:0c:a8:59:32:b3:a4:af:0a:
         80:4c:78:7f:62:cd:1b:00:01:e8:51:27:9c:eb:75:29:80:e9:
         99:24:fc:86:e2:09:28:be:47:5a:1d:bf:b1:b4:c4:29:4e:6e:
         f3:70:b4:58:f8:d9:a6:63:03:8b:a1:ef:ee:6d:1a:35:33:1e:
         b2:32:25:c1:33:37:3d:46:82:37:9b:0d:4c:40:20:ae:ff:e0:
         cc:51:a2:6b:dd:74:26:d6:93:26:89:c7:76:29:13:cf:6e:5a:
         0f:7c:1b:f5:80:be:3b:6a:a3:c0:10:cd:07:1e:a2:31:8b:49:
         94:d7:63:cf:93:8d:80:03:75:4a:76:b4:cd:14:fe:96:62:61:
         6b:96:8f:c0:a5:ef:67:c7:5e:c0:a5:4b:4f:95:57:b6:43:03:
         8b:6d:10:5f:ab:f2:95:54:ba:85:8e:8b:c1:99:ea:fd:3f:5e:
         23:01:d4:27:f3:e9:20:37:c4:05:47:30:67:94:53:f0:87:27:
         48:73:57:55:f2:70:04:b1:e9:29:eb:2e:2c:9a:cc:55:f4:cc:
         a4:71:c2:5a


That's all folks 🙂

 

Papusza – Polish movie (2013) about the life of the gipsys and first gipsy poet

Tuesday, November 4th, 2014

Papusza-A-movie-about-the-life-of-the-gipsys
Gipsys (Romani-people)
 as a communities all around mostly Europe has always raised interest during the last few centuries however little is known on their stereotype of living. Gipsys are famous for their illiteracy, for their cheerful temper, wild character and nomadic life-style as well as strong closed community. Gipsys are famous for that they don't have their own writting (even though they have a number of gipsy languages) and because of them Romani, doesn't keep any record of their history and any history or lifestyle of them is only to be found by non-gipsies. Gipsies are famous for being able to steal for their inclination to telling fantastic stories, be involved with fortune-telling, exaggerating facts or telling lies about their private life, they're famous as good virtuosos musicians and good artists. Most of Gipsys are Christian, Muslim or Atheists. The high-level of illiteracy they have makes anyone educated among them to be considered a success in life.

The interesting way of living of Gipsys has triggered many people to create movies, trying to picture Gipsys life-style like Emil Kosturica's Time of the Gipsys.

Yesteday I was invited by Andrea (an ipo-diakonus) in Saint George Dyrvenica Church in the Polish Culture center here in Sofia to see another movie dedicated to Papusza (Bronisława Wajs) – (1908-1987), a famous gipsy who is practically the first (Polish Gipsy Romani) classic poet and singer. The word Papusza in Gipsy language means 'A Doll' – a name given to the future poetess by her mother.
The movie is a great to saw for anyone willing to know more about the history and culture of gipsys in a synthesized form. My interest into Gipsys is because in Bulgaria officially we have about 350 000 Gipsys and I've encounted many gipsys in my life. During my studies in Netherlands, I had the chance to spend quite a lot of time, being in close relations with Bulgarian gipsy family and I was fascinated on how good hearted and primitive truthfulness of gipsys.

Now back to the movie The fact that a gipsy woman could write a beatiful inspired poems and sing so beatiful and most importantly read was almost scandalous! for the post age of World War II and 1960-80s.
Papusza movie is mostly interesting to anyone interested in culturology and antropology as it depicts the Gipsys common lifestyle and for those who already encountered gipsys in their life gives another understanding on why gipsys are who they're and why they choose to live the nomad, poor, uneducated, often careless but joyful and passionable life.

The movie start showing Papusza's mother while still pregnant with the future poetes. In the 1900s when the story goes Roma (Rom meaning man), just like jewish were quite a closed community moving all through the country of Poland or any other country residing using a horse-drawn caravans (tabors) as a moving houses.
Consorting with non-romas (Gadjo's – meaning like the Jewish Goa distinguishment for non jewish) for any reason different than trade was considered unclean. 
However the young poetes had the non-gipsy Wajs surname because according to legend her family used to be touring the great courts of Europe with their harps entertaining kings and aristocrats.

cyganie-historia-i-kultura-2012-08-20-tabor-cyganski-fot-z-dorozynski-caravan-with-gipsys-history-of-gipsy-culture

From her birth Papusza was known to be different. A spirit predicted that she would either bring great honor or dishonor to gipsys.
According to the movie she did both. The young Papusza defies her family's wishes and learns to read and write at time,
where almost none gipsy was literate. She is presented stealing a chicken and preseting it to a Jewish store-keeper lady in return for lessons in learning.
Even though her family is strongly again her education (beats her burns her books) she is strunggling to read secretly which later
is shown to have brought supposedly "a curse" on her people.

Papusza meets the Polish poet Jerzy Ficowski in 1949 at a time after being forcefully married to her step-uncle Dionizy Wajs for more than 25 years.
The Gadjo (Ficowski) travels with Wajs caravan for about 2 years as he aims to learn the Romani (Gipsy) language and the gipsy was of life.
He is struck by the beatifulness of Papusza's songs and liking them encourages to continue writting poems.

Papusza-with-gadjo-kissing-non-gipsy

Later Ficowski returns to Warsaw in 1951 and translates from Gipsy Papusza's verses which broughts Gipsy to a mindset that Papusza reveals their secrets. Later the scandal progresses as Ficowski publishes a monograph book "Polish Gypsies" – a book about the beliefs and moral code of the Roma Gipsy people. Being grieved Papusza's clan takes decision to cast her out.

The movie is amazingly giving "a feel" on the fascinating and simple Gipsy nomad lifestyle during the first and second World War in which they were chased marked and killed by Hitler's Germany just like the Jews. The bitter experience later led to Papusza's creating one of her most famous songs. 

papusza_the-first-gipsy-poetrist-with-a-cigar

The movie is quite intersting from jumping from time to different stages of Papusza's life not in a specific order but often showing facts backwards etc.
After the end of the war in Poland Communist authorities enforce laws to make Gipsys settle, tryting to ensure them work and job and try to "program" and make part of communist society gipsy kids by using Kindergarden. Romani's a are shown to have problems with authorities and their desperate discontent to go against the country program for settlement of Gipsys, they cannot any more hire the randomly old houses to survive the winter and while unable to survive the harsh Polish winter, they finally settle in attempt to become part of society.

papusza-with-her-uncle-and-husband-krzyszotof-ptak

However in the newly built communistic society, they fail to fit well as always considered a second class people, they mourn for their old nomadic vagrant way of people and they fail to integrate to society (pretty much like today). Papusza's spent rest of her life in misery being rejected by both her native Gipsy community for betraying some of gipsys secrets and same time unaccepted by Polish people that continue to consider gipsys inferior. 
 

Downloading your favourity flash video from Youtube with a simple command (youtube-dl)

Wednesday, April 13th, 2011

downloading-flash-videos-from-youtube-on-linux-and-bsd-youtube-downloader-logo
Watching videos in youtube today and already for about 2 years is the de-facto hype.
There is almost none a day passed without almost each one of us has watched a dozen videos in Youtube.

Watching videos in youtube has become even more addictive for many than the early days of Internet Relay Chats (IRC)

As youtube is very accessible for people and it’s a comparativily easy way people share more and more with the day.
There is no question that the business idea of youtube is great and youtube generates millions of dollars for Google day by day, however I have a serious objection here! All is good the only pitfall is that you don’t own the youtube videos you watch!

Youtube’s story is not that different from the story of the cloud computing threat to internet users Freedom

The good thing here is that we’re not still completely dependant on youtube and there is still way to retrieve your favourite youtube video and store it for later watching or distribution.

Probably the most famous browser plugin that allows files retrieval from youtube, as most people know is DownloadHelper .

However using download helper is browser dependant, you need to use the browser to save the plugin and I don’t find it to be the best way to download a youtube video.

Since the old days I have started using Linux, I’ve been quite addicted to as many things on my linux as possible from the command line (terminal / console) (CLI) .

In that manner of thoughts it was a real delight for me to find out that a group of free software developer guys has come up with a command line tool that allows downloads of youtube videos straight from terminal, the great software is called youtube-dl and at the moment of this post writting it’s to be found on the URL address:

http://rg3.github.com/youtube-dl/

Youtube-dl is written in python so, it requires the Python interpreter, version 2.5 in order to properly run on Unix, Mac OS X or even on Windows!

The fact that it’s written in python has made the little shiny tool quite a multi-platform one.
To start using immediately the tool on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux you will have to install python (even though in most cases you must have it already installed):

1. To make sure you have python interpreter installed issue the cmd:

debian:~# apt-get install python
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
python is already the newest version.
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.

As you can see from above apt-get’s output I do have it installed so nothing gets installed.

2. As a next step I used links to download the youtube-dl python script, like so:

debian:~# links https://github.com/rg3/youtube-dl/raw/2011.03.29/youtube-dl >> youtube-dl
Use the links interface to save youtube-dl and use gzip to ungzip it
debian:~# gzip -d youtube-dl.gz
debian:~# chmod +x youtube-dl

Now to make it system wide accessible I have copied the youtube-dl to /usr/local/bin , whether I selected /usr/local/bin as a location as this location is predetermined to contain mostly files which does not belong to a regular deb package.

3. Move youtube-dl to /usr/local/bin

debian:~# mv youtube-dl /usr/local/bin

4. Test the newly installed youtube-dl command line youtube retrieval tool:

debian:~# ./youtube-dl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7tvI6JCXD0
[youtube] Setting language
[youtube] g7tvI6JCXD0: Downloading video webpage
[youtube] g7tvI6JCXD0: Downloading video info webpage
[youtube] g7tvI6JCXD0: Extracting video information
[download] Destination: g7tvI6JCXD0.flv
[download] 53.3% of 22.62M at 33.23k/s ETA 05:25
[download] 100.0% of 22.62M at 31.91k/s ETA 00:00 [u

As you might have noticed from the above youtube-dl command output the newly retrieved youtube file will be saved under a name g7tvI6JCXD0.flv

The line I passed to youtube-dl is directly taken from my browser and pasted to console, the file downloading from youtube took me about 10 minutes but this is mostly because of some kind of youtube server speed restrictions …

In general at least I have this video for later, watching, so after a while I can watch it once again without loosing a lot of time trying to remember what was the video headline name

5. To use youtube-dl in a bit advanced way you can for instance invoke the command with options like:

debian:~# ./youtube-dl -l -w -c https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7tvI6JCXD0
[youtube] Setting language
[youtube] g7tvI6JCXD0: Downloading video webpage
[youtube] g7tvI6JCXD0: Downloading video info webpage
[youtube] g7tvI6JCXD0: Extracting video information
[download] Destination: BSD is Dying, Jason Dixon, NYCBSDCon 2007-g7tvI6JCXD0.flv
[download] 4.4% of 22.62M at 1.43M/s ETA 00:15

As you can see now youtube-dl was even able to detect the downloaded video file name and store it on the computer with a correct name 😉

I would recommend you also to check out the youtube-dl help page, to do use command: youtube-dl –help
 

Richard Stallman explaining Why IPads and Cell Phones are bad for freedom

Wednesday, July 11th, 2012

It is a public secret that Mobile Phones which does us very good and generally makes our daily lifes way easier are also a big enemy to our natural ihnibited freedom. Life has become such that it is almost inevitable to do any business or do a daily simple jobs without using Mobile Phone. There is almost none practically today that has wilfully rejected to use the mobile phone on any basis, almost anyone except some strangers like Richard Stallman and probably few others security freaks.

I've been shocked to find out the Father of Free Software (Richard Mathew Stallman), well known in the hacker dome as RMS does not own and didn't use any mobiles. The concerns he pointed are very much logical and rightful. Owning a mobile is a great security hole in personal privacy (mobile phones can be easily sniffed by Mobile Operators) as well as anyone wearing a mobile can be tracked up to 5 to 2 meters to the exact location where he is based on the mobile phone cells to which the mobile is connected.

Many people are not aware actually of the severeness of the issue of constant tracking of people everywhere through this call "goodies". Many mobile operators are already running a software which is building place behaviour patterns of every user of their mobile network. In other words, as we're used to bring and use the mobile everywhere in automated program is creating a map for each number assigned in some of the mobile operators. The gathered data about our location going habits can then be easily used as a indicator for predicting our future behaviour, bying habits (how many times we go to super-market), how many times we go to cinema, what kind of interests we hold etc. etc.
This combined with Google, account monitoring could possibly create a system similar to the old movies Big Brother, where all people goods and even attitudes or desires is monitored, influenced and controlled ….

The severeness of the future implications of this constant "personal surveillance and tracking device" as Stallman use to call it is very dangerous for our freedoms.

I tried to live without a mobile phone, just like Stallman for about months, and to tell you the truth the world around seems completely different when you decide not to use 'em. The time I lived wihtout a mobile, clearly show me we have come to the point we cannot any more live without GSM. We fall the trap of dependanding the little "talk box" communication for absolutely everything, obviously sacrificing privacy and freedom for convenience.
Mobiles are just one side of the coin, as the non-free software which is ruling the software market and the use of computers puts another treat and takes away many foundamential freedoms we used to have in the less technological world.

Apple as a vendor of software and hardware also denies and breaks our freedom very badly, as the company tracks everyone who owns anything created by apple connected to the internet. Besides that non-free software producers, could change the user software with a press of a button giving them the opportunity to decide what is good and bad for us, leaving us at a state of a helpless dependable users.

The topic of technological little-by-little enslavement, we're going through nowdays and the denying freedoms, we experience while being convinced by companies that we became more free by each next mambo-jambo gadget or by owning the latest smart-phone is very huge and complex but unfortunately underseen in society. I don't understand why, is it due to the low technical skills of mass users is it due to a "not-care what will happen in future" attitude, but obviously people openly discussing or protesting the technologization taking away our freedom is almost zero ….

Here is the video I found in youtube in which Stallman is asked few, questions on Ipads (IBADS) and Mobile Phone use. I believe his short explanation synthesizes the problem quite well ;;;;

I just wonder after you check the video, Would you still accept an Ipad as a birthday gift ? 🙂
Do you still think cell-phones are "good" freedom safe and reliable ?

Color Trick Microsoft and Google use to keep their users loyal and happy unwalfully

Tuesday, June 12th, 2012

Color mind influence has been longly researched. It is researched and there are some findingings on how we people react on colors. This researches are not much known and most of them are not put on the internet (??) One model claiming to have explained how colors influence is called HBDIHerrmann Brain Dominance Instruments.

In the picture beginning of this post, I have presented a quick "Personal Profile" of HBDI on how one think in order to determine in "which colors" one tends to think more ___

In short HBDI model claims to explain how people think in another model.
My personal view of it is it is like most science nowdays more based on faith than on a clearly conducted scientific research and facts. We know pretty well many people tried to explain how brain operates and many people give models to explain it however none of the models could grasp in completeness the complexity of human brain. Hence Businessman people who use this model in their daily life and they push it to us has put the model in action not that they know it is working but rather they believe it does .., Saying this few words as introduction I will contninue onwards to explain you about HBDI as in the business world it is considered as a "Strategic Asset" for a company success. Hence the use of richest companies of the model has a serious impact on us the common people and unknowing (uninformed) computer users.

Some of the companies who integrated the HBDI to their models we all know are of course not strangely Microsoft and Google
;;;

Below I present you a picture showing the HBDI The Whole Brain Model |||

HBDI The whole brain model

Next I show you Microsoft Windows OS worldly "infamous" flag |||

Microsoft Windows OS Flag

You can see for yourself the basic color from HBDI WHOLE brain model are integrated in the Microsoft flag, only the order of colors present and the color gamma is different;;;;

The basic colors in HBDI model to explain how human brain works is separated in 4 segments as you can see from above screenshot. There are a number of tests one can do to determine what is his exact HBDI profile, and in abstract terms in which kind of colors he prefers to think.

There are a whole "army" of people involved into this sect like philosophy (I call it philosophy as surely every model that tries to explain everything is doomed to fail it is the nature in which God created the universe so complex and he put us be part of it and not controllers of it that any Universal model trying to explain it has never succeeded so far. The HBDI has some fruits for the only reason it is believed to work well by the people with money.

As you see in the colors HBDI claims there are 4 segments corresponding to four basic colors

  • BLUE
  • YELLOW
  • GREEN
  • RED

Each of the colors is an indicator on how the person tends to think the BLUE people as HBDI practicioners (believers) calls them are —

Analytical, Fact Based, Logal, Quantitative

The YELLOW oriented people are claimed to be —

Holistic, Intuitive, Integrating, Synthesizing

The GREEN ones in model terms are interested in —

Organizing, Sequentiality, Planning, Detailizing facts

Finally the RED Ones are said to be —

Interpersonal, Feeling based, Kinesthetic, Emotional

Now as you can understand this model though it looks like promising is based on a philosophy which rejects the existing of spirit realm God Angels or good or evil. It claims everything we're are or we want to be can be achieved following the HBDI to develop your own brain.

This model as every human made model however does reject the fact that besides internal factors and brains we're put into external environment most of which we cannot control and therefore even if we try our best to have certain goals and complete them the external uncontrolled facts can be a reason to stop us to complete our goals.

Now back to my point, that Google, Microsoft and probably many other products and physical goods are heavily using the HBDI color scheme ;;;
Here is the Google Inc. Logo the color trait of HBDI is there:

Google Search Engine Logo and HBDI 4 colors embedded

For those doubting that Google Inc. and Microsoft Inc. are along the false believers of HBDI color scheme brain ideology I present below the Logo of Google Web Browser =- Google Chrome

Google Web Chrome Browser Logo 4 colors HBDI microsoft flag

It is evident 4 colors used as a main ones in the HBDI tool are present in Google Chrome just like in Microsoft Windows logo flag, the only difference is in the order of colors.
Also it is interesting the name Chrome that Google Chrome took is most likely taken from Aldous Huxley's – Brave New World (A book depicting a short future highly conditioned society) , the book story line goes around a society programmed to do the things they do.

I assume it is very likely that Google's founders Sergey Brin or some of their subordinate working for Google are very much into the idea of conditioning people just like in the book and this is most likely the reason they choose the Chrome as a title for Google's browser ,,,

The 4 Colors from HBDI yellow, green, blue, red are embedded also in the google .ico file (the little icon showing in browser URL bar), below is a screenshot of a tab where google is opened showing the .ico image:

Google Icon 4 colors Linux Debian Epiphany Browser tab screenshot

Do you remember the good old Windows XP start button, have you noticed the Windows flag embedded in it, if not let me show you;;;

Microsoft Windows XP Start Button and HBDI 4 colors scheme

But wait the Windows flag placed on the left bottom of Ms Windows-es is not only on XP it is also on Windows 3.11 cover, Winblows 98, Vista, Windows 2003, Windows 2007 and actually all the M$ operating systems ever produced since the very early days M$ become a top OS producer :::

Windows 3.11 Operating system logo flag

Microsoft Windows 95 4 colors flag and blue sky

Here is also the 4 colored (a bit like Nazi like looking) flag on M$ Win-doze 7 |||

MS Windows 7 start Menu m$ windows well known flag

Also the Microsoft Flag is positioned on the bottom left screen on purpose. It is well known fact that most of the world (except Arabic) are used to read the text from Left to Right

, therefore it is natural for our eyesight to look for the text on the left side. I just wonder why they placed the START on the bottom and not on top. It is natural we read text and books from the most top to the most bottom ,,,.,

Even Apple Computers nowdays Macs has most likely used the HBDI as the main 4 colors and some gamma from rainbow colors are present on their Classical Apple Computer logo

Old Apple Computer/s logo colors of rainbow 4 hbdi colors are there

Makes me wonder if Jobs employed the HBDI model in his company. Well what is the reason for people loving so much this rainbow colors combination. If we think for a second outside of HBDI's brainwashing ideology for what each color would stand for. Well it is simple is comes from our young years most of the people between age 2 and 50 years has been more or less exposed to the so colorful Kids Cartoons, which are all so colorfully painted. Since our very early age we've placed in us a love for colorfulness outlook (well again not all of us for example I prefer less colors, I'm sure there are plenty of people who don't like the heavy colors we see in almost everywhere around us).

The problem with this 4 colors use on purpose and all this unnatural color placing everywhere is that it is unnatural and not in good synergy with our surrounding natural environment. Therefore I personally think using a colorful color paintings on everywhere in both computer programs and the physical world plays us a bad joke and is one of the reasons so many people are on the virge to get crazy nowdays and many have already had already cracked out.

It is my firm believe more and more people should be educated on the harm of HBDI and the fact that, we're forced to 'live it' unwilfully every day by using even as "simple things" as computers and daily technology or buying food in the super market ,,,

How to add visitor/visitors counter in Joomla based website using the VINAORA joomla plugin

Wednesday, December 29th, 2010

One of the websites based on Joomla, that I’m managing, had to have the option to show a Visitors Counter on the page bottom.

I did some research online to check for some Joomla plugins that are capable of aiming my Joomla installation with the Visitor Counter feature.

There are a couple of plugins available out there that are able to provide a Joomla installation with a Web Counter, however I’ll just mention the few which I have tested myself.
The ones I’ve tested myself are;

1. VCNT
2. Count your Visitors
3. Cool Hits Counter
and finally the one that I really liked the most:

4. VINAORA

All the prior 3 aforementioned VCNT, Count your Visitors and Cool Hits Counter, are actually working right after installation. I haven’t had the time to test them thoroughfully but from a first look they appear to be counting the visitors.

The Count your visitors – joomla plugin’s download main page was in German with no option to revert to English, so that wasn’t nice.

Though the plugin seems to work fine after just downloaded and installed and configured from

Extensions -> Module Manager

The configuration options for Count your visitors are quite obscure but if you’re a looking for a really simple way to count your Joomla based website visitors it might be a good choice. The plugin is based on the initial Joomla module called Statistics.

By the way I’ve read some reports online that actually Joomla 1.5 also includes some kind of minimal integrated web counter embedded in itself throughout the Joomla Statistics module .
However I personally couldn’t really follow the methods describe to take advantage of the Joomla install integrated Statistics module, however if somebody has already succeeded in using the Statistics default joomla module I’ll be glad, if he shares with me.

I’ve found the VCNT visitor statistics plugin a handy one, but this module had this major problem that the VCNT 1.5 text which was appearing as a heading before the statistics was hard to wipe out of my web page, so eventually I got pissed of and thought and tested the Cool Hits Counter.

The Cool Hits Counter is actually a simplistic module which presents a counter about visitors on the web site in numeric digit numbers.
These module uses the integrated Joomla 1.5 module mod_stats the only difference is the support for numeric digit numbers.

As I’ve said none of the above modules wasn’t flexible enough and therefore wasn’t what I was looking for, thus I decided to use my installed VINAORA Joomla web(users) counter plugin.

The VINAORA is actually quite straight foward to configure, right after installation to start with the configuration I had to navigate to:

Extension -> Module Manager -> Vinaora Visitors Counter -> Module Parameters

Since I wanted just a simple counter without any external statistics I personally prefered using Vinaora’s counter with the optionsDisplay Mode: Simple as well as the Zero-Statistics turned on to (Yes)

Some of the other options I found to be best matching my desires for the Visitors Counter was:

Show Title: No and Position: Left

Now I had this shiny visitors statistics in my Joomla installation but there was the annoying Link in my Visitors Counter appearing on the page, thus in order to remove the default link Visitors Counter which was pointing to the VINAORA’s web page, I had to edit the file:
modules/mod_vvisit_counter/tmpl/default.php located in my Joomla Document Root directory.

First I’ve edited the code on line 21 where I’ve removed out the Vinaora string since I didn’t wanted any reference to Vinaora to occur in my Joomla HTML code.

In line 162 in the code:

$html .= ….

By removing it I’ve completed scraped out the annoying references to VINAORA and their link to http://vinaora.com website and thus made the Visitors counter a look a bit more professional.

Now the counter is working with a graphical numeric digits and everything is just fine with my Web counter Joomla counter thanks to VINAORA 🙂
 

How to take area screenshots in GNOME – Take quick area selection screenshots in G* / Linux and BSD

Thursday, March 15th, 2012

Quick Area screenshot in GNOME how to make quick area selection screenshots in Linux and FreeBSD gnome-screenshot shot

Often when, you do something on your PC, you need to make a quick screenshot of a screen area.. Yes GNOME's feature to take complete screenshots of Screen with Print Screen SysRQ and consequential picture edit with GIMP is one way, but this is far away from quick. This method to chop out of a complete display screenshot usually takes from 40 secs to 1 minute to properly cut and save a selection of the whole picture.
Another common use, that I love in GNOME is the ALT + Print Screen SysRQ key combination. alt+ print scr sysrq is handy while taking a single window screenshot is desired. Anyways often you only need to make a screenshot of a tiny area of the screen. Many people might think this is not possible currently in GNOME, but they will be wrong as there are no impossible but hard things to achieve on Linux / FreeBSD 😉

There are at least two ways using a predefined command for taking quick area screen snapshot.

1. Taking quick area screenshot by using ImageMagick's import command

To use import you will need to have installed ImageMagickswiss army knife of command line image manipulation 😉
For area screenshot with import, press ALT+F2 and type inside Run Application box:

Screenshot GNOME run application GNU / Linux Debian ImageMagick import area screenshot

import -frame screenshot.png

Now make the selection of the exact screen area you would like to screeshot in file screenshot.png
Note that screenshot.png file will be saved by default in your home directory as it is read from $HOME shell variable:

hipo@noah:~$ echo $HOME/home/hipo
hipo@noah:~$ ls -al screenshot.png
-rw-r--r-- 1 hipo hipo 4950 Mar 14 21:11 screenshot.png

You see my $HOME equals /home/hipo, therefore screenshot.png just grabbed is saved in there.

One downside of taking the screenshot with import is that picture snapshot is not further edittable, if it has to be further processed with GIMP or some other graphic editor program.

In the screenshot, below I show you one screen area of my XMMS taken with import -frame screenshot.png cmd:

XMMS Screen Area Screenshot import screenshot

Trying to open the screenshot.png, file with GIMP displays the following error in GIMP:

PNG image message PNG the file specifies offset that caused the layer to be positioned outiside image GIMP screenshot

Not all area snapshots taken with import -frame, create this issue sometimes screenshots are opening in GIMP but only area of the screenshot.png is visible in gimp.

Thanksfull, there is work around to this issue by converting the import generated PNG format picture to JPEG with ImageMagick's convert and then edit the .JPEG with GIMP etc.:

hipo@noah:~$ convert screenshot.png screenshot.jpg

Hence to permanently work around it, in case you intend to apply (GIMP modifications), once area snapshot is made instruct import to save its output picture in .jpeg, e.g.:

hipo@noah:~$ import -frame screenshot.jpeg

2. Taking quick area screenshot using gnome-screenshot cmd

Once again invoke the GNOME command Launcher by pressing Alt+F2 (holding alt and pressing F2) and type in the launch box:

gnome-screenshot -a

gnome-screenshot Run Application in GNOME 2.30 on Debian GNU / Linux

Below is a small area from my desktop, chopped with gnome-screenshot 🙂

GNOME desktop area chop screenshot with gnome-screenshot on my home Debian Linux

You see on above screenshot a tiny (picture) icon one of the greatest, if not the greatest bulgarian saint – saint John of Rila. St. John's lived as hermit for many years in Rila mountain and by God's grace possessed incorruptable body. His incorruptable body is still kept and can be venerated in Rila Monastery. The monastery is located 160 km from Bulgaria's capital city Sofia

St. Johns first Bulgarian established monastery Rila Monastery is currently the biggest functioing monastery in Bulgaria. The saints monastery is considered one of the most holy places in Bulgaria. If you have a travel or plan a holiday in Bulgaria, I warmly recommend you go there and venerate the saint incorruptable relics.

3. Binding keys to allow quick area screenshot taking with gnome-screenshot in GNOME

This configuration is for GNOME 2.x and is tested to work on my Debian (Squeeze 6.0), GNOME ver. 2.30.2, it should work in earlier Ubuntu versions shipped with GNOME 2.2.xx too. As I've red on the Internet it works well with Ubuntu 10.10Binding a key for screenshot area grab, should be working properly also on any GNOME 2.2.x supporting OS, including the BSD family OSes (FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD)

a) setting gnome-screenshot key binding for interactive screenshot area grab

Navigate the mouse cursor to GNOME main menus panel in left top, where you see (Applications, Places, System).
Therein use menus:

System -> Preferences -> Keybord Shortcuts -> Add ->

Alternatively if you prefer you can directly invoke the Keyboard Shortcuts configuration with command:

hipo@noah:~$ gnome-keybinding-properties

Further on, assign a shortcut by filling in something like:

name: grab-screen-area
command: gnome-screenshot -i -a

GNOME add keyboard shortcut map key for area interactive screenshot

press Apply and next map a key to the new defined key binding:

GNOME add keyboard shortcut map key

Under the Shortcut column click on Disabled and assign some key combination to invoke the cmd for example Ctrl+F4

The command gnome-screenshot -i makes gnome-screenshot, show interactive make screenshot dialog like the one in below screenshot.

GNOME screenshot interactive screenshot select area grab shot

b) creating gnome-screenshot -a area screenshot key binding for quick area screenshots "on the fly"

The procedure is precisely the same as with adding interactive screenshot; Under Keyboard Shortcuts GNOME config assign new key binding by pressing Add button and adding:

name: grab-screen-area1
command: gnome-screenshot -a

Once again in Shortcut column in line starting with grab-screen-area1 add your desired key switch. I personally like Ctrl+Print Screen SysRQ as it is close to the default GNOME key combination assigned for taking screenshot for a Windows Alt+Print SysRq

It was logical, that this key binding should work and a direct selection mouse cursor to appear once Alt+Print SysRQ is pressed, however for some reason this is not working (hmm, maybe due to bug) ??

Thanksfully it is always possible to substitute the just assigned gnome-screenshot -a key binding with import -frame /home/hipo/Desktop/screenshot.png

If you have followed literally my article so far and you did tried to place a bind for gnome-screenshot -a, modifty grab-screen-area1 to be something like:

name: grab-screen-area1
command: import -frame /home/hipo/Desktop/screenshot.png

Where modify the path /home/hipo/Desktop/screenshot.png, to wherever you prefer the region screep capture to be stored.

c) bind keys for delayed screenshot

This also a handy binding, especially if you every now and then need to make screenshots of screen with a few secs interval.
Add one more keyboard shortcut;

name: grab-screen-area2
command: gnome-screenshot -d 5

Assign a key to make a screenshot of the active display after a delay of 5 seconds. I prefer Ctrl+F5

Onwards every time you would like to make an area screenshot, just use the defined keys:

Ctrl+F4 - will prompt you interactively for the precise type of screenshot you would like to take
Ctrl+Print SysRQ - will prompt you for a direct area to select and once selected will immediately screenshot it
Ctrl+F5 - would do delayed screenshot of entire screen after a delay of 5 seconds

4. Adding border and drop shadow effects with gnome-screenshot Actually, there is plenty of interesting things to do with Screenshots which I never thought were possible.
While reading gnome-screenshot's man page, I've stumbled to an interesting argument:

-e, --effect=EFFECT,
Add an effect to the outside of the screenshot border. EFFECT can be ``shadow'' (adding drop shadow), ``border'' (adding
rectangular space around the screenshot) or ``none'' (no effect). Default is ``none''.

This would have been a nice feature but as of time of writting this article, untofrtunately it is not working in GNOME 2.30.2. I'm not sure if this is a local Debian bug, however I suspect on other Linux distributions with different GNOME build configuration, this features might be working well. My guess here is drop shadow effect and border effect are not working because, gnome-screenshot was compiled without (support for ImageMagick?).
Anyways the way the feature is supposed to be work is by invoking commands:
:

hipo@noah:~$ gnome-screenshot --border-effect=shadow
hipo@noah:~$ nome-screenshot --border-effect=border

The same basic effects, are also available through GIMP's menus:

Image -> Effects

5. Setting default behaviour of gnome-screenshot in gconf-editor GConf (Gnome config registry db)

Experienced, GNOME users should already know about the existence of gconf-editor and the gnome registry database. For those who have don't, coming from MS-Windows background gconf-editor is GNOME (graphical environment) equivalent to Microsoft Windows registry regedit command

gconf-editor can be used to atune the way the screenshots are taken by default. To do so, launch gconf-editor cmd and follow to sub-structure:

/ -> apps -> gnome-screenshot

gconf-editor GNOME screenshot border effect none default gnome-screenshot gnome behaviour

The settings in above screenshot are configurations which are used by default by gnome-screenshot, right after install.
You can play with the options to change the default way PrintScreen SysRQ key press will take screenshots.
Here is one example for changing the gnome-screenshot default GNOME behaviour:

GConf Editor GNOME screenshot, border effect drop shadow and include border option set on Linux Debian

As you can see in above screenshot, I've changed my default gnome-screenshot snap taking to include a drop shadow effect:
Name | Value
border_effect | shadow include_border | (tick on)
last_save_directory | file://home/hipo/Desktop

As you see you can also control, where by default gnome-screenshot will save its screenshots, by default, its saved in $HOME/Desktop
. If you prefer some custom directory to only contain Screenshots taken for instance $HOME/Screenshots, create the directory:
hipo@noah:~$ mkdir ~/Screenshots

and then change the value for last_save_directory gconf var:

last_save_directory | file://home/hipo/Screenshots

Once settings are applied screenshots with Print Screen SysRQ key will be made with Shadow Border effect and saved in /home/hipo/Screenshots

Strangely enough, changing gnome-screenshot default screenshotting values to include screenshot effects like drop shadow or screenshot border effect works just fine.
Even though gnome-screenshot –border-effect=shadow and gnome-screenshot –border-effect=border doesn't directly affect the current screenshot to be made, I've later noticed writting this two commands in the gnome-terminal, does change the border settings for gconf-editor screenshot border.

If you enjoyed, this article and you intend to become "a professional screnshotter" :), you might also enjoy my two other articles:

Happy screenshotting 😉