Posts Tagged ‘running’

How to run multiple processes in parallel with xargs

Wednesday, May 29th, 2024

In our company there is a legacy application which developers run in multiple consoles launching its in intedependent components together in different consoles by simply running each component, the question comes then how this can be scripted so no waste of people is done to manually run the different componets from different parallel consoles. To achive the run in parallel of the multiple programs in parallel and background it with xargs and eval (integrated bash command) in Linux from a single script you can use a simple one liner like in the example.

#run in parallel
xargs -P <n> allows you to run <n> commands in parallel.
time xargs -P 3 -I {} sh -c 'eval "$1"' – {} <<'EOF'
program1; sleep 1; echo 1
program2 ; sleep 2; echo 2
program3; sleep 3; echo 3
echo 4
EOF

You can attune the delay up to the exact requirements or completely remove it and the multi run script is ready, enjoy.

Debugging routing and network issues on Linux common approaches. A step by step guide to find out why routing or network service fails

Thursday, November 30th, 2023

For system administrators having a Network issue is among the Hell-ish stuff that can happen every now and then. That is especially true in Heterogenous / Hybrid and complicated Network topologies (with missing well crafted documentation), that were build without an initial overview "on the fly".
Such a networking connectivity or routing issues are faced by every novice, mid or even expert system administrators as the Company's Network IT environments are becoming more and more complicated day by day.

When the "Disaster" of being unable to connect two servers or at times  home laptops / PCs to see each other even though on the Physical layer / Transport Layer (Hardware such as external Switches / Routers / Repeaters / Cabling etc.) is Present machines are connected and everything on the 1 Physical Layer from OSI layears is present happens, then it is time to Debug it with some software tools and methods.

To each operating system the tools and methods to test networking connection and routings is a bit different but generally speaking most concepts are pretty much the same across different types of operating systems (Linux ditros / OpenBSD / FreeBSD / Mac OS / Android / iOS / HP-UX / IBM AIX / DOS / Windows etc.).

Debugging network issues across separate operating systems has its variations but in this specific (ideas) are much close to this article. As the goal at that guide will be to point out how to debug network issues on Linux, in future if I have the time or need to debug other OS-es from Linux, I'll try to put an article on how to debug Network issues on Windows when have some time to do it.

Consider to look for the issue following the basic TCP / IP OSI Level model, every system administrator should have idea about it already, it is part of most basic networking courses such as Cisco's CCNA

TCPIP_OSI_model-networking-levels

1. Check what is the Link status of the Interface with ethtool
 

root@freak:~# ethtool eno1
Settings for eno1:
    Supported ports: [ TP ]
    Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Supported pause frame use: Symmetric
    Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
    Supported FEC modes: Not reported
    Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
    Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
    Advertised FEC modes: Not reported
    Speed: 100Mb/s
    Duplex: Full
    Auto-negotiation: on
    Port: Twisted Pair
    PHYAD: 1
    Transceiver: internal
    MDI-X: on (auto)
    Supports Wake-on: pumbg
    Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
                               drv probe link
    Link detected: yes

 

root@freak:~# ethtool eno2
Settings for eno2:
    Supported ports: [ TP ]
    Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Supported pause frame use: Symmetric
    Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
    Supported FEC modes: Not reported
    Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                            100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
                            1000baseT/Full
    Advertised pause frame use: Symmetric
    Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
    Advertised FEC modes: Not reported
    Speed: 1000Mb/s
    Duplex: Full
    Auto-negotiation: on
    Port: Twisted Pair
    PHYAD: 1
    Transceiver: internal
    MDI-X: on (auto)
    Supports Wake-on: pumbg
    Wake-on: g
        Current message level: 0x00000007 (7)
                               drv probe link
    Link detected: yes

 

For example lets check only if Cable of Network card is plugged in and detected to have a network connection to remote node or switch and show the connection speed on which the 'autoneg on' (autonegiation option) of the LAN card has detected the network exat maximum speed:

root@pcfreak:~# ethtool eth0|grep -i 'link detected'; ethtool eth0 |grep 'Speed: '
    Link detected: yes
    Speed: 100Mb/s


1. Check ip command network configuration output

root@freak:~# ip addr show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eno1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    altname enp7s0
3: eno2: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:17 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    altname enp8s0
4: xenbr0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:13 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.7/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global dynamic xenbr0
       valid_lft 7361188sec preferred_lft 7361188sec
5: xenbr1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.0.5/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global dynamic xenbr1
       valid_lft 536138sec preferred_lft 536138sec
10: vif2.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
11: vif2.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
12: vif3.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
13: vif3.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
14: vif4.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
15: vif4.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
16: vif5.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
17: vif5.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
18: vif6.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
19: vif6.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
30: vif17.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
31: vif17.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
34: vif21.0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
35: vif21.1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state UP group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
48: vif25.0-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr0 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
49: vif25.1-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr1 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
50: vif25.0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
51: vif25.1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
118: vif47.0-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr0 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
119: vif47.1-emu: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master xenbr1 state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
120: vif47.0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
121: vif47.1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq master xenbr1 state DOWN group default qlen 2000
    link/ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
root@freak:~# 

ip a s (is a also a shortcut command alias) you can enjoy if you have to deal with ip command frequently.

2. Check the status of the interfaces

Old fashioned way is to just do:

/sbin/ifconfig

 

root@freak:~# ifconfig 
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:15  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 52366502  bytes 10622469320 (9.8 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 242622195  bytes 274688121244 (255.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb200000-fb27ffff  

eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:17  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 220995454  bytes 269698276095 (251.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 7  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 192319925  bytes 166233773782 (154.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb100000-fb17ffff  

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 14517375  bytes 133226551792 (124.0 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 139688950  bytes 145111993017 (135.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 86113294  bytes 156944058681 (146.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 181513904  bytes 267892940821 (249.4 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 1521875  bytes 88282472 (84.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152691174  bytes 278372314505 (259.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 454915  bytes 81069760 (77.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 266953989  bytes 425692364876 (396.4 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 26 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 20043711  bytes 1283926794 (1.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 141580485  bytes 277396881113 (258.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73004  bytes 3802174 (3.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267151006  bytes 425621892663 (396.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2736348  bytes 295661367 (281.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 260385509  bytes 265751226663 (247.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 200 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 145387  bytes 36011655 (34.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 370314760  bytes 394725961081 (367.6 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 55382861  bytes 130042280927 (121.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 99040097  bytes 147929196318 (137.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5132631  bytes 295493762 (281.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 262314199  bytes 425416945203 (396.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 16 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4902015  bytes 615387539 (586.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 149342891  bytes 277802504143 (258.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 276927  bytes 30720101 (29.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267132395  bytes 425745668273 (396.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 208745  bytes 20096596 (19.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 110905731  bytes 110723486135 (103.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 140517  bytes 14596061 (13.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 150831959  bytes 162931572456 (151.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2030528  bytes 363988589 (347.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152264264  bytes 278131541781 (259.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4169244  bytes 1045889687 (997.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 263561100  bytes 424894400987 (395.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 300242  bytes 16210963 (15.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 153909576  bytes 278461295620 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 43  bytes 1932 (1.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 154205631  bytes 278481298141 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.8  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 13689902  bytes 923464162 (880.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12072932  bytes 1307055530 (1.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.3  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 626995  bytes 180026901 (171.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12815  bytes 942092 (920.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

 

root@freak:~# ifconfig        
eno1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 52373358  bytes 10623034427 (9.8 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 242660000  bytes 274734018669 (255.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb200000-fb27ffff  

eno2: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 221197892  bytes 269978137472 (251.4 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 7  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 192573206  bytes 166491370299 (155.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
        device memory 0xfb100000-fb17ffff  

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2553  bytes 147410 (143.9 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 14519247  bytes 133248290251 (124.0 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 139708738  bytes 145135168676 (135.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif17.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 86206104  bytes 157189755115 (146.3 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 181685983  bytes 268170806613 (249.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 1522072  bytes 88293701 (84.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152712638  bytes 278417240910 (259.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif2.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 454933  bytes 81071616 (77.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267218860  bytes 426217224334 (396.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 26 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 20045530  bytes 1284038375 (1.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 141601066  bytes 277441739746 (258.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 3 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif21.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 73010  bytes 3802474 (3.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267415889  bytes 426146753845 (396.8 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2736576  bytes 295678097 (281.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 260429831  bytes 265797660906 (247.5 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 200 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif25.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 145425  bytes 36018716 (34.3 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 370770440  bytes 395263409640 (368.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 55392503  bytes 130064444520 (121.1 GiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 99052116  bytes 147951838129 (137.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif3.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5133054  bytes 295517366 (281.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 262578665  bytes 425941777243 (396.6 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 16 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4902949  bytes 615496460 (586.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 149363618  bytes 277847322538 (258.7 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif4.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 276943  bytes 30721141 (29.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 267397268  bytes 426270528575 (396.9 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 14 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.0-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 208790  bytes 20100733 (19.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 110950236  bytes 110769932971 (103.1 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif47.1-emu: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 140551  bytes 14599509 (13.9 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 151287643  bytes 163469024604 (152.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 2030676  bytes 363997181 (347.1 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 152285777  bytes 278176471509 (259.0 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 1 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif5.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 4169387  bytes 1045898303 (997.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 263825846  bytes 425419251935 (396.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 300266  bytes 16212271 (15.4 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 153931212  bytes 278506234302 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

vif6.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether fe:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  txqueuelen 2000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 43  bytes 1932 (1.8 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 154227291  bytes 278526238467 (259.3 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 2 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.8  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 13690768  bytes 923520126 (880.7 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12073667  bytes 1307127765 (1.2 GiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

xenbr1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.3  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.0.255
        ether 70:e2:84:13:44:12  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 627010  bytes 180028847 (171.6 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 12815  bytes 942092 (920.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

 

To see ethernet interfaces that seem up and then do a ifconfig -a to check whether some interfaces are down (e.g. not shown in the simple ifconfig list).
/sbin/ifconfig -a

! Please note that some virtual IP configurations might not appear and noly be visible in an (ip addr show) command.

 

3. Check iproute2 for special rt_tables (Routing Tables) rules
 

By default Linux distributions does not have any additional rules in /etc/iproute2/rt_tables however some Linux router machines, needs to have a multiple Gateways. Perhaps the most elegant way to do multiple routings with Linux is to use iproute2's routing tables rt_tables.

Here is example of an OpenXEN system that has 2 Internet providers attached and routes different traffic via

 

root@freak:~# cat /etc/iproute2/rt_tables
#
# reserved values
#
255    local
254    main
253    default

100    INET1
200     INET2
0    unspec
#
# local
#
#1    inr.ruhep

 

root@freak:~# ip rule list
0:    from all lookup local
32762:    from all to 192.168.1.8 lookup INET2
32763:    from 192.168.1.8 lookup INET2
32764:    from all to 192.168.0.3 lookup INET1
32765:    from 192.168.0.3 lookup INET1
32766:    from all lookup main
32767:    from all lookup default
root@freak:~# 
 

4. Using ip route get to find out traffic route (path)

root@freak:~# ip route get 192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1 via 192.168.0.1 dev xenbr1 src 192.168.0.3 uid 0 
    cache 

 

root@freak:~# /sbin/route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
0.0.0.0         192.168.1.1     0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 xenbr0
192.168.0.0     192.168.0.1     255.255.255.0   UG    0      0        0 xenbr1
192.168.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 xenbr1
192.168.1.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 xenbr0
root@freak:~# 

root@freak:~# ip route show
default via 192.168.1.1 dev xenbr0 
192.168.0.0/24 via 192.168.0.1 dev xenbr1 
192.168.0.0/24 dev xenbr1 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.0.3 
192.168.1.0/24 dev xenbr0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.1.8 


If you find that gateway is missing you might want to add it with:

root@freak:~#  ip route add default via 192.168.5.1

If you need to add a speicic network IP range via separate gateways, you can use commands like:

To add routing for 192.168.0.1/24 / 192.168.1.1/24 via 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.1.1

# /sbin/route add -net 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.1 dev eth1
# /sbin/route add -net 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.0.1 dev eth1

 

If you need to delete a configured wrong route with ip command

# ip route del 192.168.1.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 dev eth1
# ip route del 192.168.0.0/24 via 0.0.0.0 dev eth1

5. Use ping (ICMP protocol) the Destionation IP
 

root@freak:~# ping -c 3 192.168.0.1
PING 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.219 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.295 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.0.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.270 ms

— 192.168.0.1 ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2048ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.219/0.261/0.295/0.031 ms
root@freak:~# ping -c 3 192.168.0.39
PING 192.168.0.39 (192.168.0.39) 56(84) bytes of data.
From 192.168.1.80: icmp_seq=2 Redirect Host(New nexthop: 192.168.0.39)
From 192.168.1.80: icmp_seq=3 Redirect Host(New nexthop: 192.168.0.39)
From 192.168.1.80 icmp_seq=1 Destination Host Unreachable


— 192.168.0.39 ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +1 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2039ms
pipe 3

 

Note that sometimes you might get 100% traffic loss but still have connection to the destionation in case if the ICMP protocol is filtered for security.

However if you get something like Network is unreachable that is usually an indicator of some routing problem or wrongly configured network netmask.

root@freak:~# ping 192.168.0.5
ping: connect: Network is unreachable

Test network with different packet size. To send 8972 bytes of payload in a Ethernet frame without fragmentation, the following command can be used:

root@pcfreak:~# ping -s 8972 -M do -c 4 freak
PING xen (192.168.1.8) 8972(9000) bytes of data.
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
ping: local error: message too long, mtu=1500
^C
— xen ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 0 received, +3 errors, 100% packet loss, time 2037ms

root@pcfreak:~# 


 -M pmtudisc_opt
           Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.  pmtudisc_option may be either do (prohibit fragmentation, even local one), want (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size is
           large), or dont (do not set DF flag).

 

root@pcfreak:~# ping -s 8972 -M want -c 4 freak
PING xen (192.168.1.8) 8972(9000) bytes of data.
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=2.18 ms
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.90 ms
8980 bytes from xen (192.168.1.5): icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=2.10 ms
^C
— xen ping statistics —
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.901/2.059/2.178/0.116 ms

root@pcfreak:~# 

  • -M do: prohibit fragmentation
  • -s 8972 8972 bytes of data
  • ICMP header: 8 bytes
  • IP header: 20 bytes (usually, it can be higher)
  • 8980 bytes of bytes is the IP payload
     

These commands can be used to capture for MTU (maximum transmition units) related issues between hosts that are preventing for hosts to properly send traffic between themselves.
A common issue for Linux hosts to be unable to see each other on the same network is caused by Jumbo Frames (MTU 9000) packets enabled on one of the sides and MTU of 1500 on the other side.
Thus it is always a good idea to thoroughully look up all configured MTUs for all LAN Devices on each server.

6. Check traceroute path to host

If there is no PING but ip route get shows routing is properly configured and the routes existing in the Linux machine routing tables, next step is to check the output of traceroute / tracepath / mtr

 

raceroute to 192.168.0.1 (192.168.0.1), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
 1  pcfreak (192.168.0.1)  0.263 ms  0.166 ms  0.119 ms
root@freak:~# tracepath 192.168.1.1
 1?: [LOCALHOST]                      pmtu 1500
 1:  vivacom-gigabit-router                                0.925ms reached
 1:  vivacom-gigabit-router                                0.835ms reached
     Resume: pmtu 1500 hops 1 back 1 

 

It might be useful to get a frequent output of the command (especially on Linux hosts) where mtr command is not installed with:

 

root@freak:~# watch -n 0.1 traceroute 192.168.0.1

 

root@freak:~# traceroute -4 google.com
traceroute to google.com (172.217.17.110), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
 1  vivacom-gigabit-router (192.168.1.1)  0.657 ms  1.280 ms  1.647 ms
 2  213.91.190.130 (213.91.190.130)  7.983 ms  8.168 ms  8.097 ms
 3  * * *
 4  * * *
 5  212-39-66-222.ip.btc-net.bg (212.39.66.222)  16.613 ms  16.336 ms  17.151 ms
 6  * * *
 7  142.251.92.65 (142.251.92.65)  18.808 ms  13.246 ms 209.85.254.242 (209.85.254.242)  15.541 ms
 8  142.251.92.3 (142.251.92.3)  14.223 ms 142.251.227.251 (142.251.227.251)  14.507 ms 142.251.92.3 (142.251.92.3)  15.328 ms
 9  ams15s29-in-f14.1e100.net (172.217.17.110)  14.097 ms  14.909 ms 142.251.242.230 (142.251.242.230)  13.481 ms
root@freak:~# 

If you have MTR then you can get plenty of useful additional information such as the Network HOP name or the Country location of the HOP.

 

To get HOP name:

 

root@freak:~# mtr -z google.com

 

To get info on where (which Country) exactly network HOP is located physically:

root@freak:~# mtr -y 2 google.com

 

7. Check iptables INPUT / FORWARD / OUTPUT rules are messing with something
 

# iptables -L -n 

# iptables -t nat -L -n


Ideally you would not have any firewall

# iptables -L -n 

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

# iptables -t nat -L -n
Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         

Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination         
 


In case if something like firewalld is enabled as a default serviceto provide some modern Linux firewall as Ubuntu and Redhat / CentOS / Fedoras has it often turned on as a service stop and disable the service

# systemctl stop firewalld

# systemctl disable firewalld

 

8. Debug for any possible MAC address duplicates
 

root@pcfrxen:~# arp -an
? (192.168.1.33) at 00:16:3e:59:96:9e [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.1) at 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.1) at 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.1) at 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.11) at 7c:0a:3f:89:b6:fa [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.17) at <incomplete> on eth0
? (192.168.1.37) at 00:16:3e:ea:05:ce [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.80) at 8c:89:a5:f2:e7:d8 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.11) at 7c:0a:3f:89:a5:fa [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.30) at 00:16:3e:bb:46:45 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.210) at 00:16:3e:68:d9:55 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.30) at 00:16:3e:bb:46:45 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.18) at 00:16:3e:0d:40:05 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.211) at 00:16:3e:4d:41:05 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.35) at 00:16:3e:d1:8f:77 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.18) at 00:16:3e:0d:43:05 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.28) at 00:16:3e:04:12:1c [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.3) at 70:e2:84:13:43:12 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.208) at 00:16:3e:51:de:9c [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.241) at 00:16:3e:0d:48:06 [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.1.28) at 00:16:3e:04:12:1c [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.1.33) at 00:16:3e:59:97:8e [ether] on eth1
? (192.168.0.241) at 00:16:3e:0d:45:06 [ether] on eth0
? (192.168.0.209) at 00:16:3e:5c:df:96 [ether] on eth1

root@pcfrxen:~# ip neigh show
192.168.1.33 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:59:96:9e REACHABLE
192.168.1.1 dev eth1 lladdr 18:45:93:c6:d8:00 STALE
192.168.0.1 dev eth1 lladdr 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 REACHABLE
192.168.1.1 dev eth0 lladdr 18:45:93:c6:d9:01 REACHABLE
192.168.1.11 dev eth1 lladdr 7c:0a:3f:89:a6:fb STALE
192.168.1.17 dev eth0  FAILED
192.168.1.37 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:ea:06:ce STALE
192.168.1.80 dev eth0 lladdr 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d9 REACHABLE
192.168.1.11 dev eth0 lladdr 7c:0a:3f:89:a7:fa STALE
192.168.1.30 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:bb:45:46 STALE
192.168.0.210 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:68:d8:56 REACHABLE
192.168.1.30 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:bb:45:46 STALE
192.168.1.18 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:04 STALE
192.168.0.211 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:4d:40:04 STALE
192.168.1.35 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:d2:8f:76 STALE
192.168.1.18 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:06 STALE
192.168.1.28 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:04:11:2c STALE
192.168.0.3 dev eth1 lladdr 70:e2:84:13:44:13 STALE
192.168.0.208 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:51:de:9c REACHABLE
192.168.0.241 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:48:07 STALE
192.168.1.28 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:04:12:1c REACHABLE
192.168.1.33 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:59:96:9e STALE
192.168.0.241 dev eth0 lladdr 00:16:3e:0d:49:06 STALE
192.168.0.209 dev eth1 lladdr 00:16:3e:5c:dd:97 STALE
root@pcfrxen:~# 


9. Check out with netstat / ss for any irregularities such as high amount of error of faulty ICMP / TCP / UDP network packs

 

For example check out the netstat network stack output

# netstat -s

 

root@pcfrxen:~# netstat -s
Ip:
    Forwarding: 2
    440044929 total packets received
    1032 with invalid addresses
    0 forwarded
    0 incoming packets discarded
    439988902 incoming packets delivered
    396161852 requests sent out
    3 outgoing packets dropped
    100 dropped because of missing route
Icmp:
    1025 ICMP messages received
    540 input ICMP message failed
    ICMP input histogram:
        destination unreachable: 1014
        timeout in transit: 11
    519 ICMP messages sent
    0 ICMP messages failed
    ICMP output histogram:
        destination unreachable: 519
IcmpMsg:
        InType3: 1014
        InType11: 11
        OutType3: 519
Tcp:
    1077237 active connection openings
    1070510 passive connection openings
    1398236 failed connection attempts
    111345 connection resets received
    83 connections established
    438293250 segments received
    508143650 segments sent out
    42567 segments retransmitted
    546 bad segments received
    329039 resets sent
Udp:
    1661295 packets received
    278 packets to unknown port received
    0 packet receive errors
    1545720 packets sent
    0 receive buffer errors
    0 send buffer errors
    IgnoredMulti: 33046
UdpLite:
TcpExt:
    1 invalid SYN cookies received
    1398196 resets received for embryonic SYN_RECV sockets
    1737473 packets pruned from receive queue because of socket buffer overrun
    1118775 TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer
    638 time wait sockets recycled by time stamp
    656 packetes rejected in established connections because of timestamp
    2218959 delayed acks sent
    2330 delayed acks further delayed because of locked socket
    Quick ack mode was activated 7172 times
    271799723 packet headers predicted
    14917420 acknowledgments not containing data payload received
    171078735 predicted acknowledgments
    52 times recovered from packet loss due to fast retransmit
    TCPSackRecovery: 337
    Detected reordering 1551 times using SACK
    Detected reordering 1501 times using reno fast retransmit
    Detected reordering 61 times using time stamp
    9 congestion windows fully recovered without slow start
    38 congestion windows partially recovered using Hoe heuristic
    TCPDSACKUndo: 241
    104 congestion windows recovered without slow start after partial ack
    TCPLostRetransmit: 11550
    1 timeouts after reno fast retransmit
    TCPSackFailures: 13
    3772 fast retransmits
    2 retransmits in slow start
    TCPTimeouts: 24104
    TCPLossProbes: 101748
    TCPLossProbeRecovery: 134
    TCPSackRecoveryFail: 3
    128989224 packets collapsed in receive queue due to low socket buffer
    TCPBacklogCoalesce: 715034
    TCPDSACKOldSent: 7168
    TCPDSACKOfoSent: 341
    TCPDSACKRecv: 16612
    150689 connections reset due to unexpected data
    27063 connections reset due to early user close
    17 connections aborted due to timeout
    TCPDSACKIgnoredOld: 158
    TCPDSACKIgnoredNoUndo: 13514
    TCPSpuriousRTOs: 9
    TCPSackMerged: 1191
    TCPSackShiftFallback: 1011
    TCPDeferAcceptDrop: 699473
    TCPRcvCoalesce: 3311764
    TCPOFOQueue: 14289375
    TCPOFOMerge: 356
    TCPChallengeACK: 621
    TCPSYNChallenge: 621
    TCPSpuriousRtxHostQueues: 4
    TCPAutoCorking: 1605205
    TCPFromZeroWindowAdv: 132380
    TCPToZeroWindowAdv: 132441
    TCPWantZeroWindowAdv: 1445495
    TCPSynRetrans: 23652
    TCPOrigDataSent: 388992604
    TCPHystartTrainDetect: 69089
    TCPHystartTrainCwnd: 3264904
    TCPHystartDelayDetect: 4
    TCPHystartDelayCwnd: 128
    TCPACKSkippedPAWS: 3
    TCPACKSkippedSeq: 2001
    TCPACKSkippedChallenge: 2
    TCPWinProbe: 123043
    TCPKeepAlive: 4389
    TCPDelivered: 389507445
    TCPAckCompressed: 7343781
    TcpTimeoutRehash: 23311
    TcpDuplicateDataRehash: 8
    TCPDSACKRecvSegs: 17335
IpExt:
    InMcastPkts: 145100
    OutMcastPkts: 9429
    InBcastPkts: 18226
    InOctets: 722933727848
    OutOctets: 759502627470
    InMcastOctets: 58227095
    OutMcastOctets: 3284379
    InBcastOctets: 1756918
    InNoECTPkts: 440286946
    InECT0Pkts: 936

 

  • List all listening established connections to host

# netstat -ltne

  • List all UDP / TCP connections

# netstat -ltua

or if you prefer to do it with the newer and more comprehensive tool ss:
 

  • List all listening TCP connections 

# ss -lt

  • List all listening UDP connections 

# ss -ua

  • Display statistics about recent connections

root@pcfrxen:~# ss -s
Total: 329
TCP:   896 (estab 70, closed 769, orphaned 0, timewait 767)

Transport Total     IP        IPv6
RAW      0         0         0        
UDP      40        36        4        
TCP      127       118       9        
INET      167       154       13       
FRAG      0         0         0 

  • If you need to debug some specific sport or dport filter out the connection you need by port number

# ss -at '( dport = :22 or sport = :22 )'

 

Debug for any possible issues with ICMP unreachable but ports reachable with NMAP / telnet / Netcat
 

# nc 192.168.0.1 -vz

root@pcfrxen:/ # nc 192.168.0.1 80 -vz
pcfreak [192.168.0.1] 80 (http) open


root@pcfrxen:/ # nc 192.168.0.1 5555 -vz
pcfreak [192.168.0.1] 5555 (?) : Connection refused

 

root@pcfrxen:/# telnet 192.168.0.1 3128
Trying 192.168.0.1…
Connected to 192.168.0.1.
Escape character is '^]'.
^]
telnet> quit
Connection closed.

 

root@pcfrxen:/# nmap -sS -P0 192.168.0.1 -p 443 -O
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-11-27 19:51 EET
Nmap scan report for pcfreak (192.168.0.1)
Host is up (0.00036s latency).

PORT    STATE SERVICE
443/tcp open  https
MAC Address: 8C:89:A5:F2:E8:D8 (Micro-Star INT'L)
Warning: OSScan results may be unreliable because we could not find at least 1 open and 1 closed port
Aggressive OS guesses: Linux 3.11 (96%), Linux 3.1 (95%), Linux 3.2 (95%), AXIS 210A or 211 Network Camera (Linux 2.6.17) (94%), Linux 2.6.32 (94%), Linux 3.10 (94%), Linux 2.6.18 (93%), Linux 3.2 – 4.9 (93%), ASUS RT-N56U WAP (Linux 3.4) (93%), Linux 3.16 (93%)
No exact OS matches for host (test conditions non-ideal).
Network Distance: 1 hop

OS detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 6.24 seconds
root@pcfrxen:/# 

10. Add static MAC address to Ethernet Interface (if you find a MAC address being wrongly assigned to interface)

Sometimes problems with network unrechability between hosts is caused by wrongly defined MAC addresses on a Switch that did not correspond correctly to the ones assigned on the Linux host.
The easiest resolution here if you don't have access to Switch in work environment is to reassign the default MAC addresses of interfaces to proper MAC addresses, expected by remote router.

 

root@pcfrxen:/#  ​/sbin/ifconfig eth2 hw ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d6

root@pcfrxen:/#  /sbin/ifconfig eth1 hw ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d5

 

root@pcfrxen:/#  ifconfig eth0|grep -i ether
        ether 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d6 txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)

 

11. Check for Network Address Translation (NAT) misconfigurations

If you do use some NAT-ing between Linux host and the remote Network Device you cannot reach, make sure IP Forwarding is enabled (i.e. /etc/sysctl.conf was not mistakenly overwritten by a script or admin for whatever reason).
 

root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding
net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding = 1

root@server:~# sysctl net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 0

12. Check for Resolving DNS irregularities with /etc/resolv.conf


If network connectivity is okay on TCP / IP , UDP Level but problems with DNS of course, check what you have configured inside /etc/resolv.conf

And if use newer Linux distributions and have resolving managed by systemd check status of resolvectl
 

root@server:~# cat /etc/resolv.conf
# Dynamic resolv.conf(5) file for glibc resolver(3) generated by resolvconf(8)
#     DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE BY HAND — YOUR CHANGES WILL BE OVERWRITTEN
# 127.0.0.53 is the systemd-resolved stub resolver.
# run "resolvectl status" to see details about the actual nameservers.

nameserver 127.0.0.1
search pc-freak.net
domain pc-freak.net
nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4
nameserver 109.104.195.2
nameserver 109.104.195.1
nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220
options timeout:2 rotate

root@pcfreak:~# 

 

root@server:~# resolvectl status
Global
       Protocols: -LLMNR -mDNS -DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=no/unsupported
resolv.conf mode: stub

Link 2 (ens3)
    Current Scopes: DNS
         Protocols: +DefaultRoute +LLMNR -mDNS -DNSOverTLS DNSSEC=no/unsupported
Current DNS Server: 192.168.5.1
       DNS Servers: 192.168.5.1

 

  As seen see, the systemd-resolved service is used to provide domain names resolution and we can modify its configuration file /etc/systemd/resolved.conf to add the DNS server – the following line is set (two DNS servers’ addresses are added):

For example …

DNS=8.8.8.8 

13. Fix problems with wrongly configured Network Speed between hosts

It is not uncommon to have a Switch between two Linux hosts that is set to communicate on a certain maximum amount of Speed but a Linux host is set to communicate or lesser or more of Speed, this might create network issues so in such cases make sure either you use the Auto Negitionation network feature
or set both sides to be communicating on the same amount of network speed.

To turn on auto negotiation for ether interface 

# ethtool -s eth1 speed 1000 duplex full autoneg on


For example to set a Linux network interface to communicate on 1 Gigabit speed and switch off autonegotiation off.

# ethtool -s eth1 speed 1000 duplex full autoneg off

14. Check arp and icmp traffic with tcpdump

On both sides where the IPs can't see each other we can run a tcpdump to check the ARP and ICMP traffic flowing between the hosts.
 

# tcpdump -i eth1 arp or icmp

cpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v[v]… for full protocol decode
listening on eth1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), snapshot length 262144 bytes
15:29:07.001841 IP freak-eth1 > pcfr_hware_local_ip: ICMP echo request, id 13348, seq 65, length 64
15:29:07.001887 IP pcfr_hware_local_ip > freak-eth1: ICMP echo reply, id 13348, seq 65, length 64
15:29:07.598413 ARP, Request who-has pcfr_hware_local_ip tell zabbix-server, length 46
15:29:07.598425 ARP, Reply pcfr_hware_local_ip is-at 8c:89:a5:f2:e8:d8 (oui Unknown), length 28
15:29:07.633055 ARP, Request who-has freak_vivacom_auto_assigned_dhcp_ip tell 192.168.1.1, length 46
15:29:08.025824 IP freak-eth1 > pcfr_hware_local_ip: ICMP echo request, id 13348, seq 66, length 64
15:29:08.025864 IP pcfr_hware_local_ip > freak-eth1: ICMP echo reply, id 13348, seq 66, length 64

 

# tcpdump -i eth1 -vvv

 

If you want to sniff for TCP protocol and specific port and look up for DATA transfered for SMTP you can use something like:

 

# tcpdump -nNxXi eth0 -s 0 proto TCP and port 25​

 

If you need a bit more thorough explanation on what it would do check out my previous article How to catch / track mail server traffic abusers with tcpdump
 

15. Debugging network bridge issues

Having bridge network interface is another brink where things could go totally wrong.
If you have network bridges configured, check out what is the status of the bridge.
 

root@freak:/etc/network# brctl show
bridge name    bridge id        STP enabled    interfaces
xenbr0        8000.70e284134411    yes        eno1
                            vif1.0
                            vif10.0
                            vif16.0
                            vif16.0-emu
                            vif2.0
                            vif3.0
                            vif4.0
                            vif5.0
                            vif6.0
                            vif9.0
                            vif9.0-emu
xenbr1        8000.70e284134412    yes        eno2
                            vif1.1
                            vif10.1
                            vif16.1
                            vif16.1-emu
                            vif2.1
                            vif3.1
                            vif4.1
                            vif5.1
                            vif6.1
                            vif9.1
                            vif9.1-emu


Check out any configurations such as /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* are not misconfigured if on Redhat / CentOS / Fedora.
Or if on Debian / Ubuntu and other deb based Linuxes look up for /etc/network/interfaces config problems that might be causing the bridge to misbehave.

For example one bridge network issue, I've experienced recently is related to bridge_ports variable configured as bridge_ports all.
This was causing the second bridge xenbr1 to be unable to see another local network that was directly connected with a cable to it.

The fix was bridge_ports none. Finding out this trivial issue caused by a restored network config from old backup took me days to debug.
As everything seemed on a network level to be perfect just like in Physical layer, same way and on Software level, routings were okay.

Checked everything multiple times and did not see anything irregular. ping was missing and hosts cannot see each other even though having the right netmask and
network configuration in place.

Below is my /etc/network/interfaces configuration with the correct bridge_ports none changed.

root@freak:/etc/network# cat /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
 

auto eno1
allow-hotplug eno1
iface eno1 inet manual
dns-nameservers 127.0.0.1 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 207.67.222.222 208.67.220.220
auto eno2
allow-hotplug eno2
iface eno2 inet manual
dns-nameservers 127.0.0.1 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4 207.67.222.222 208.67.220.220

auto xenbr0
allow-hotplug xenbr0
 # Bridge setup
# fetching dhcp ip from 192.168.1.20 (vivacom fiber optics router) routing traffic via 1Gigabit network
 iface xenbr0 inet dhcp
    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11
#    address 192.168.1.5/22
    address 192.168.1.5
    netmask 255.255.252.0
    # address 192.168.1.8 if dhcp takes from vivacom dhcpd
    bridge_ports eno1
    gateway 192.168.1.20
    bridge_stp on
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports none
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4

auto xenbr1
# fetching dhcp ip from pc-freak.net (192.168.0.1) bergon.net routing traffic through it
allow-hotplug xenbr1
 iface xenbr1 inet dhcp
    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:11
##    address 192.168.0.3/22
    address 192.168.0.8
    netmask 255.255.252.0
   # address 192.168.0.8 if dhcp takes from vivacom dhcpd (currently mac deleted from vivacom router)
   # address 192.168.0.9 if dhcp takes from pc-freak.net hware host
#    hwaddress ether 70:e2:84:13:44:13
    gateway 192.168.0.1
    bridge_ports eno2
    bridge_stp on
    bridge_waitport 0
    bridge_fd 0
    bridge_ports none
    dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4
root@freak:/etc/network# 
 

 

root@freak:/etc/network# brctl showstp xenbr0
xenbr0
 bridge id        8000.70e284134411
 designated root    8000.70e284134411
 root port           0            path cost           0
 max age          20.00            bridge max age          20.00
 hello time           2.00            bridge hello time       2.00
 forward delay          15.00            bridge forward delay      15.00
 ageing time           0.00
 hello timer           1.31            tcn timer           0.00
 topology change timer       0.00            gc timer           0.00
 flags            


eno1 (1)
 port id        8001            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost          19
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8001            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif1.0 (2)
 port id        8002            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8002            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif10.0 (12)
 port id        800c            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800c            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif16.0 (13)
 port id        800d            state               disabled
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800d            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.00
 flags            

vif16.0-emu (14)
 port id        800e            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800e            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif2.0 (4)
 port id        8004            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8004            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif3.0 (5)
 port id        8005            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8005            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif4.0 (3)
 port id        8003            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8003            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif5.0 (6)
 port id        8006            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8006            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif6.0 (7)
 port id        8007            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    8007            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

vif9.0 (10)
 port id        800a            state               disabled
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800a            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.00
 flags            

vif9.0-emu (11)
 port id        800b            state             forwarding
 designated root    8000.70e284134411    path cost         100
 designated bridge    8000.70e284134411    message age timer       0.00
 designated port    800b            forward delay timer       0.00
 designated cost       0            hold timer           0.31
 flags            

root@freak:/etc/network# 


Sum it up

We have learned how to debug various routing issues, how to add and remote default gateways, check network reachability with ICMP protocol with ping, traceroute as well check for DNS issues and given some hints how to resolve DNS misconfigurations.
We also learned how to check the configured Network interfaces certain settings and resolve issues caused by Network sides max Speed misconfigurations as well how to track and resolve communication issues caused by wrongly configured MAC addresses.
Further more learned on how to do a basic port and protocol debugging of state of Network packets with netstat and nc and check problems related to iptables Firewall and IP Forwarding misconfigurations.
Finally we learned some basic usage of tcpdump on how to track arp and MAC traffic and look up for a specific TCP / UDP protocol  and its contained data.
There is certainly things this article is missing as the topic of debugging network connectivity issues on Linux is a whole ocean, especially as the complexity of Linux has grown dramatically these days.
I gues it is worthy to mention that unable to see remote network could be caused by wrong VLAN configurations on Linux or even buggy switches and router devices, due to hardware or software,
but I hope this article at least covers the very basics of network debugging and Linux. 

Enjojy 🙂

How to turn On or Off Screen Reader ORCA on Linux Desktop enabled by mistype or a kid smash on the keyboard

Wednesday, November 22nd, 2023

orca-screen-reader-communication-services-logo

For those who type quite fast and use Microsoft Windows, its quite common to start the annoying NARRATOR (Windows Speaking Program) by accidently due to mistyping pressing together Windows key + Control + Enter.
This enables Narrator to read stuff on the screen here and there and to turn it off you just have to either Lock the Windows Computer and press again Windows key + Control + Enter to TURN OFF NARRATOR.

Linux does not have a Narrator but have also embedded Eye impairment Assistive Technology called ORCA.

Orca works with applications and toolkits that support the Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface (AT-SPI), which is the primary assistive technology infrastructure for Linux and Solaris. Applications and toolkits supporting the AT-SPI include the GNOME Gtk+ toolkit, the Java platform's Swing toolkit, LibreOffice, Gecko, and WebKitGtk. AT-SPI support for the KDE Qt toolkit is being pursued.

ORCA is nowadays installed and integrated into many if not most Linux distributions out there. Enabling ORCA is not such a common thing on Linux,so today I got quite puzzled once I came back to the computer, leaving the 3.7 months kid near the Keyboard and finding out that I've enabled aloud screen reader that is reading what is every Window / Menu / Program or object I select with the mouse on my Linux MATE Desktop home GUI environment running on top of Debian Linux.

After a quick look up in Google on what exactly is the Linux program that is reading my screen I came across ORCA, which seem to be visible also as running in my process list:

hipo@jeremiah:~/Downloads$ ps -ef|grep -i orca
hipo     1068376    7960 17 18:48 tty2     00:00:01 orca

After a quick check online I found out that,

To start (Turn On ) Orca Screen Reader using the keyboard:

Windows logo button (Super Key) key + Alt + S 

Of course, it is possible to shut off the annoying reader by simply killing it with:

kill -9 orca

 

Ubuntu users, could start Orca using a mouse and keyboard:

Open the Activities overview and start typing Accessibility.

Click Accessibility to open the panel.

Select thez to open it.

Switch the Screen Reader switch to on.

Problem solved now Screen Reader on Linux is disabled, maybe it is time to disable Orca key press ability to prevent the kid from enabling it again since I don't need it actively thanksfully. with

xmodmap -e 'keycode <value>='

or simply removing the orca package with apt:

# apt remove orca

Perl Modules via HTTP Proxy installation, update and install perl CPAN modules behind a Firewall DMZ-ed networks

Friday, May 19th, 2023

If you have to maintain perl script written applications on Linux servers that are sitting behind a very paranoid set-up firewalls
and Local DMZ network, but you still need to maintain the servers and applications versions including perl CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive networking) module libraries, you could still do so via another Proxy machine Hub on the Local network, where you either have to manually download all the newest perl versions and CPAN module (libraries) or you can set it up that Proxy machine
to access only a specific Secured internet URLs for perl stuff.

Proxying perl downloads can be done via FTP connects, but as FTP is communicating in plain text and the protocol is known
for not behaving very well behind firewalls, it is a better idea to use for CPAN downloads HTTP or HTTPS protocol.

Normlly Perl is using FTP to download files from the internet. To enable Perl using also HTTP, please install the following RPM:

# yum install perl-libwww-perl

After figure out a CPAN-mirror from http://mirrors.cpan.org/search.cgi?country=Germany, we can start with the configuration from CPAN.

or debian package

# apt install libwww-perl

At the first run from /usr/bin/cpan the initial configuration will be started up which will be done automatically:

[username@linux-host ~]$ cpan

/home/linux-username/.cpan/CPAN/MyConfig.pm initialized.


CPAN is the world-wide archive of perl resources. It consists of about
100 sites that all replicate the same contents all around the globe.
Many countries have at least one CPAN site already. The resources
found on CPAN are easily accessible with the CPAN.pm module. If you
want to use CPAN.pm, you have to configure it properly.

If you do not want to enter a dialog now, you can answer 'no' to this
question and I'll try to autoconfigure. (Note: you can revisit this
dialog anytime later by typing 'o conf init' at the cpan prompt.)

Are you ready for manual configuration? [yes] no

— SNIP — SNAP — SNIP — SNAP — SNIP — SNAP —

commit: wrote /home/linux-username/.cpan/CPAN/MyConfig.pm
Terminal does not support AddHistory.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.7602)
ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')

cpan> q
Terminal does not support GetHistory.
Lockfile removed.
[username@linux-host ~]$

After the initial configuration you have to run /usr/bin/cpan again, to configure the HTTP-proxy and an alternative HTTP-URL for the default FTP URL:
 

[username@linux-host ~]$ cpan
Terminal does not support AddHistory.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.7602)
ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')

cpan> o conf http_proxy http://proxy-host-to-internet.com:8080
    http_proxy         http://proxy-host-to-internet.com:8080

cpan> o conf urllist push http://mirrors.zerg.biz/cpan/

cpan> o conf commit
commit: wrote /home/linux-username/.cpan/CPAN/MyConfig.pm

cpan> q
Terminal does not support GetHistory.
Lockfile removed.
[username@linux-host ~]$

From now CPAN will load it's files from the internet with the HTTP-proxy:
 

[username@linux-host ~]$ cpan
Terminal does not support AddHistory.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.7602)
ReadLine support available (try 'install Bundle::CPAN')

cpan> i  Example::DB::Oracle
CPAN: Storable loaded ok
CPAN: LWP::UserAgent loaded ok
Fetching with LWP:
  http://mirrors.zerg.biz/cpan/authors/01mailrc.txt.gz
Going to read /home/linux-host/.cpan/sources/authors/01mailrc.txt.gz
Fetching with LWP:
  http://mirrors.zerg.biz/cpan/modules/02packages.details.txt.gz
Going to read /home/linux-host/.cpan/sources/modules/02packages.details.txt.gz
  Database was generated on Thu, 07 Jan 2010 10:44:22 GMT

  There's a new CPAN.pm version (v1.9402) available!
  [Current version is v1.7602]
  You might want to try
    install Bundle::CPAN
    reload cpan
  without quitting the current session. It should be a seamless upgrade
  while we are running…

Fetching with LWP:
  http://mirrors.zerg.biz/cpan/modules/03modlist.data.gz
Going to read /home/linux-username/.cpan/sources/modules/03modlist.data.gz
Going to write /home/linux-username/.cpan/Metadata
Strange distribution name [Example::DB::Oracle]
Module id = Example::DB::Oracle
    CPAN_USERID  MSERGEANT (MSERGEANT <msergeant@cpan.org>)
    CPAN_VERSION undef
    CPAN_FILE    M/MS/MSERGEANT/DBIx-AnyDBD-2.01.tar.gz
    INST_FILE    (not installed)

cpan> q
Terminal does not support GetHistory.
Lockfile removed.

Now as the new proxy http URL http://proxy-host-to-internet.com:8080 is set on the machine, to upgrade the existing modules non interactively

# perl MCPAN -e upgrade

or do it the old fashioned way via the MCPAN perl shell:

# perl -MCPAN -e shell

Starting with version 2.29 of the cpan shell, a new download mechanism
is the default which exclusively uses cpan.org as the host to download
from. The configuration variable pushy_https can be used to (de)select
the new mechanism. Please read more about it and make your choice
between the old and the new mechanism by running

    o conf init pushy_https

Once you have done that and stored the config variable this dialog
will disappear.

cpan shell — CPAN exploration and modules installation (v2.29)
Enter 'h' for help.

cpan[1]> upgrade

That's all folks after a while if no errors are spit during the Perl modules update you'll be at the latest versions of CPAN and modules.
 

 

Linux script to periodically log enabled systemctl services, configured network IPs and routings, server established connections and iptables firewall rules

Tuesday, January 25th, 2022

bash-script-command-line-script-logo

For those who are running some kind of server be it virtual or physical, where multiple people or many systemins have access, sometimes it could be quite a mess as someone due to miscommunication or whatever could change something on the configured Network Ethernet interfaces, or configured routing tables, or simply issue an update which might change the set of automatically set to run systemctl services due to update. Such changes on a Linux server Operating system often can remain unnoticed and could cause quite a harm. Even when the change is noticed the logical question occurs what was the previous network route on the server or what kind of network was configured on Ethernet interface ethX etc. 
Problems like the described where, pretty common in many public Private Clouds or VMWare / XEN based Hypervisors that host multiple  Virtual machines, for that reason I've developed a small script which is pretty dumb on the first glimpse but mostly useful as it keeps historical records of such important information.
 

#!/bin/sh
# script to show configured services on system, configured IPs, netstat state and network routes
# Script to be used during CentOS and Redhat Enterprise Linux RPM package updates with yum

output_file=network_ip_routes_services_status;
ddate=$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S');
iptables=$(which iptables);
if [ ! -d /root/logs/ ]; then
mkdir /root/logs/;
fi

echo "STARTED: $(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S'):" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# systemctl list-unit-files\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
systemctl list-unit-files –type=service | grep enabled | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e '# systemctl | grep ".service" | grep "running"\n' | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
systemctl | grep ".service" | grep "running" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# netstat -tulpn\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
netstat -tulpn | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# netstat -r\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
netstat -r | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# ip a s\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
ip a s | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# /sbin/route -n\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
/sbin/route -n | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# $iptables -L -n\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# $iptables -t nat -L" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
$iptables -L -n | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
$iptables -t nat -L | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo "ENDED $(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S'):" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log

 

Script produces its logs inside  /root/logs/network_ip_routes_services_status*hostname*currentdate*.log, put the script inside /root/ or wherever you like.

To keep an eye how network routing or ip configuration or firewall changed or there was a peak with the established connections towards daemons running on host (lets say requiring a machine upgrade), I've set the script to run as usually via cron job at the end of the predefined cron job tasks, like so:

# crontab -u root -e
# periodic dump and log network routing tables, netstat and systemctl list-unit-files
*/1 01 01,25 * * /root/show_running_services_netstat_ips_route1.sh 2>&1 >/dev/null

You can download a copy of show_running_services_netstat_ips_route1.sh script here.
The script is written without much of efficiency on mind, as you can see the with the multiple tee -a and for critical hosts it might be a good idea to rewrite it to use '>>' OPERAND instead, anyhows as most machines today are pretty powerful it doesn't really matter much.

Of course today such a script is quite archaic, as most big corporations are using much more complex monitoring software such as Zabbix, Prometheus or if some kind of Elastic Search is used Kibana etc. but for a basic needs and even for a double checking and comparing with other more advanced monitoring tools  (in case if monitoring tools  database gets damaged or temporary down until backupped), still I think such an oldschool simple monitoring script can be of use.

A good addition to that if you use a central logging server is to set another cron to periodically synchronize produced /root/logs/* to somewhere, here is how to do it with simple rsync (considering your host is configured to login with a user without password with ssh key authentication).

# HOSTNAME=$(hostname); rsync -axHv –ignore-existing -e 'ssh -p 22' /bashscripts/  -q -i –out-format="%t %f %b" –log-file=/var/log/rsync_sync_jobs.log –info=progress2 root@BACKUP_SERVER_HOST:/$(HOSTNAME)-logs/

Once something strange occurs with the machine, like the machine needs to be rebuild

I would be glad to hear if some of my readers uses some useful script which I can adopt myself. Cheers  🙂

How to test RAM Memory for errors in Linux / UNIX OS servers. Find broken memory RAM banks

Friday, December 3rd, 2021

test-ram-memory-for-errors-linux-unix-find-broken-memory-logo

 

1. Testing the memory with motherboard integrated tools
 

Memory testing has been integral part of Computers for the last 50 years. In the dawn of computers those older perhaps remember memory testing was part of the computer initialization boot. And this memory testing was delaying the boot with some seconds and the user could see the memory numbers being counted up to the amount of memory. With the increased memory modern computers started to have and the annoyance to wait for a memory check program to check the computer hardware memory on modern computers this check has been mitigated or completely removed on some hardware.
Thus under some circumstances sysadmins or advanced computer users might need to check the memory, especially if there is some suspicion for memory damages or if for example a home PC starts crashing with Blue screens of Death on Windows without reason or simply the PC or some old arcane Linux / UNIX servers gets restarted every now and then for now apparent reason. When such circumstances occur it is an idea to start debugging the hardware issue with a simple memory check.

There are multiple ways to test installed memory banks on a server laptop or local home PC both integrated and using external programs.
On servers that is usually easily done from ILO or IPMI or IDRAC access (usually web) interface of the vendor, on laptops and home usage from BIOS or UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) acces interface on system boot that is possible as well.

memtest-hp
HP BIOS Setup

An old but gold TIP, more younger people might not know is the

 

Prolonged SHIFT key press which once held with the user instructs the machine to initiate a memory test before the computer starts reading what is written in the boot loader.

So before anything else from below article it might be a good idea to just try HOLD SHIFT for 15-20 seconds after a complete Shut and ON from the POWER button.

If this test does not triggered or it is triggered and you end up with some corrupted memory but you're not sure which exact Memory bank is really crashing and want to know more on what memory Bank and segments are breaking up you might want to do a more thorough testing. In below article I'll try to explain shortly how this can be done.


2. Test the memory using a boot USB Flash Drive / DVD / CD 
 

Say hello to memtest86+. It is a Linux GRUB boot loader bootable utility that tests physical memory by writing various patterns to it and reading them back. Since memtest86+ runs directly off the hardware it does not require any operating system support for execution. Perhaps it is important to mention that memtest86 (is PassMark memtest86)and memtest86+ (An Advanced Memory diagnostic tool) are different tools, the first is freeware and second one is FOSS software.

To use it all you'll need is some version of Linux. If you don't already have some burned in somewhere at your closet, you might want to burn one.
For Linux / Mac users this is as downloading a Linux distribution ISO file and burning it with

# dd if=/path/to/iso of=/dev/sdbX bs=80M status=progress


Windows users can burn a Live USB with whatever Linux distro or download and burn the latest versionof memtest86+ from https://www.memtest.org/  on Windows Desktop with some proggie like lets say UnetBootIn.
 

2.1. Run memtest86+ on Ubuntu

Many Linux distributions such as Ubuntu 20.0 comes together with memtest86+, which can be easily invoked from GRUB / GRUB2 Kernel boot loader.
Ubuntu has a separate menu pointer for a Memtest.

ubuntu-grub-2-04-boot-loader-memtest86-menu-screenshot

Other distributions RPM based distributions such as CentOS, Fedora Linux, Redhat things differ.

2.2. memtest86+ on Fedora


Fedora used to have the memtest86+ menu at the GRUB boot selection prompt, but for some reason removed it and in newest Fedora releases as of time such as Fedora 35 memtest86+ is preinstalled and available but not visible, to start on  already and to start a memtest memory test tool:

  •   Boot a Fedora installation or Rescue CD / USB. At the prompt, type "memtest86".

boot: memtest86

2.3 memtest86+ on RHEL Linux

The memtest86+tool is available as an RPM package from Red Hat Network (RHN) as well as a boot option from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux rescue disk.
And nowadays Red Hat Enterprise Linux ships by default with the tool.

Prior redhat (now legacy) releases such as on RHEL 5.0 it has to be installed and configure it with below 3 commands.

[root@rhel ~]# yum install memtest86+
[root@rhel ~]# memtest-setup
[root@rhel ~]# grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg


    Again as with CentOS to boot memtest86+ from the rescue disk, you will need to boot your system from CD 1 of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media, and type the following at the boot prompt (before the Linux kernel is started):

boot: memtest86

memtestx86-8gigabytes-of-memory-boot-screenshot
memtest86+ testing 5 memory slots

As you see all on above screenshot the Memory banks are listed as Slots. There are a number of Tests to be completed until
it can be said for sure memory does not have any faulty cells. 
The

Pass: 0
Errors: 0 

Indicates no errors, so in the end if memtest86 does not find anything this values should stay at zero.
memtest86+ is also usable to detecting issues with temperature of CPU. Just recently I've tested a PC thinking that some memory has defects but it turned out the issue on the Computer was at the CPU's temperature which was topping up at 80 – 82 Celsius.

If you're unfortunate and happen to get some corrupted memory segments you will get some red fields with the memory addresses found to have corrupted on Read / Write test operations:

memtest86-returning-memory-address-errors-screenshot


2.4. Install and use memtest and memtest86+ on Debian / Mint Linux

You can install either memtest86+ or just for the fun put both of them and play around with both of them as they have a .deb package provided out of debian non-free /etc/apt/sources.list repositories.


root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# apt-cache show memtest86 memtest86+
Package: memtest86
Version: 4.3.7-3
Installed-Size: 302
Maintainer: Yann Dirson <dirson@debian.org>
Architecture: amd64
Depends: debconf (>= 0.5) | debconf-2.0
Recommends: memtest86+
Suggests: hwtools, memtester, kernel-patch-badram, grub2 (>= 1.96+20090523-1) | grub (>= 0.95+cvs20040624), mtools
Description-en: thorough real-mode memory tester
 Memtest86 scans your RAM for errors.
 .
 This tester runs independently of any OS – it is run at computer
 boot-up, so that it can test *all* of your memory.  You may want to
 look at `memtester', which allows testing your memory within Linux,
 but this one won't be able to test your whole RAM.
 .
 It can output a list of bad RAM regions usable by the BadRAM kernel
 patch, so that you can still use you old RAM with one or two bad bits.
 .
 This is the last DFSG-compliant version of this software, upstream
 has opted for a proprietary development model starting with 5.0.  You
 may want to consider using memtest86+, which has been forked from an
 earlier version of memtest86, and provides a different set of
 features.  It is available in the memtest86+ package.
 .
 A convenience script is also provided to make a grub-legacy-based
 floppy or image.

Description-md5: 0ad381a54d59a7d7f012972f613d7759
Homepage: http://www.memtest86.com/
Section: misc
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/m/memtest86/memtest86_4.3.7-3_amd64.deb
Size: 45470
MD5sum: 8dd2a4c52910498d711fbf6b5753bca9
SHA256: 09178eca21f8fd562806ccaa759d0261a2d3bb23190aaebc8cd99071d431aeb6

Package: memtest86+
Version: 5.01-3
Installed-Size: 2391
Maintainer: Yann Dirson <dirson@debian.org>
Architecture: amd64
Depends: debconf (>= 0.5) | debconf-2.0
Suggests: hwtools, memtester, kernel-patch-badram, memtest86, grub-pc | grub-legacy, mtools
Description-en: thorough real-mode memory tester
 Memtest86+ scans your RAM for errors.
 .
 This tester runs independently of any OS – it is run at computer
 boot-up, so that it can test *all* of your memory.  You may want to
 look at `memtester', which allows to test your memory within Linux,
 but this one won't be able to test your whole RAM.
 .
 It can output a list of bad RAM regions usable by the BadRAM kernel
 patch, so that you can still use your old RAM with one or two bad bits.
 .
 Memtest86+ is based on memtest86 3.0, and adds support for recent
 hardware, as well as a number of general-purpose improvements,
 including many patches to memtest86 available from various sources.
 .
 Both memtest86 and memtest86+ are being worked on in parallel.
Description-md5: aa685f84801773ef97fdaba8eb26436a
Homepage: http://www.memtest.org/

Tag: admin::benchmarking, admin::boot, hardware::storage:floppy,
 interface::text-mode, role::program, scope::utility, use::checking
Section: misc
Priority: optional
Filename: pool/main/m/memtest86+/memtest86+_5.01-3_amd64.deb
Size: 75142
MD5sum: 4f06523532ddfca0222ba6c55a80c433
SHA256: ad42816e0b17e882713cc6f699b988e73e580e38876cebe975891f5904828005
 

 

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# apt-get install –yes memtest86+

root@jeremiah:/home/hipo# apt-get install –yes memtest86

Reading package lists… Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information… Done
Suggested packages:
  hwtools kernel-patch-badram grub2 | grub
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  memtest86
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 21 not upgraded.
Need to get 45.5 kB of archives.
After this operation, 309 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian buster/main amd64 memtest86 amd64 4.3.7-3 [45.5 kB]
Fetched 45.5 kB in 0s (181 kB/s)     
Preconfiguring packages …
Selecting previously unselected package memtest86.
(Reading database … 519985 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack …/memtest86_4.3.7-3_amd64.deb …
Unpacking memtest86 (4.3.7-3) …
Setting up memtest86 (4.3.7-3) …
Generating grub configuration file …
Found background image: saint-John-of-Rila-grub.jpg
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-18-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.19.0-18-amd64
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-17-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.19.0-17-amd64
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-8-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.19.0-8-amd64
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-6-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.19.0-6-amd64
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.19.0-5-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.19.0-5-amd64
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-4.9.0-8-amd64
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-4.9.0-8-amd64
Found memtest86 image: /boot/memtest86.bin
Found memtest86+ image: /boot/memtest86+.bin
Found memtest86+ multiboot image: /boot/memtest86+_multiboot.bin
File descriptor 3 (pipe:[66049]) leaked on lvs invocation. Parent PID 22581: /bin/sh
done
Processing triggers for man-db (2.8.5-2) …

 

After this both memory testers memtest86+ and memtest86 will appear next to the option of booting a different version kernels and the Advanced recovery kernels, that you usually get in the GRUB boot prompt.

2.5. Use memtest embedded tool on any Linux by adding a kernel variable

Edit-Grub-Parameters-add-memtest-4-to-kernel-boot

2.4.1. Reboot your computer

# reboot

2.4.2. At the GRUB boot screen (with UEFI, press Esc).

2.4.3 For 4 passes add temporarily the memtest=4 kernel parameter.
 

memtest=        [KNL,X86,ARM,PPC,RISCV] Enable memtest
                Format: <integer>
                default : 0 <disable>
                Specifies the number of memtest passes to be
                performed. Each pass selects another test
                pattern from a given set of patterns. Memtest
                fills the memory with this pattern, validates
                memory contents and reserves bad memory
                regions that are detected.


3. Install and use memtester Linux tool
 

At some condition, memory is the one of the suspcious part, or you just want have a quick test. memtester  is an effective userspace tester for stress-testing the memory subsystem.  It is very effective at finding intermittent and non-deterministic faults.

The advantage of memtester "live system check tool is", you can check your system for errors while it's still running. No need for a restart, just run that application, the downside is that some segments of memory cannot be thoroughfully tested as you already have much preloaded data in it to have the Operating Sytstem running, thus always when possible try to stick to rule to test the memory using memtest86+  from OS Boot Loader, after a clean Machine restart in order to clean up whole memory heap.

Anyhow for a general memory test on a Critical Legacy Server  (if you lets say don't have access to Remote Console Board, or don't trust the ILO / IPMI Hardware reported integrity statistics), running memtester from already booted is still a good idea.


3.1. Install memtester on any Linux distribution from source

wget http://pyropus.ca/software/memtester/old-versions/memtester-4.2.2.tar.gz
# tar zxvf memtester-4.2.2.tar.gz
# cd memtester-4.2.2
# make && make install

3.2 Install on RPM based distros

 

On Fedora memtester is available from repositories however on many other RPM based distros it is not so you have to install it from source.

[root@fedora ]# yum install -y memtester

 

3.3. Install memtester on Deb based Linux distributions from source
 

To install it on Debian / Ubuntu / Mint etc. , open a terminal and type:
 

root@linux:/ #  apt install –yes memtester

The general run syntax is:

memtester [-p PHYSADDR] [ITERATIONS]


You can hence use it like so:

hipo@linux:/ $ sudo memtester 1024 5

This should allocate 1024MB of memory, and repeat the test 5 times. The more repeats you run the better, but as a memtester run places a great overall load on the system you either don't increment the runs too much or at least run it with  lowered process importance e.g. by nicing the PID:

hipo@linux:/ $ nice -n 15 sudo memtester 1024 5

 

  • If you have more RAM like 4GB or 8GB, it is upto you how much memory you want to allocate for testing.
  • As your operating system, current running process might take some amount of RAM, Please check available Free RAM and assign that too memtester.
  • If you are using a 32 Bit System, you cant test more than 4 GB even though you have more RAM( 32 bit systems doesnt support more than 3.5 GB RAM as you all know).
  • If your system is very busy and you still assigned higher than available amount of RAM, then the test might get your system into a deadlock, leads to system to halt, be aware of this.
  • Run the memtester as root user, so that memtester process can malloc the memory, once its gets hold on that memory it will try to apply lock. if specified memory is not available, it will try to reduce required RAM automatically and try to lock it with mlock.
  • if you run it as a regular user, it cant auto reduce the required amount of RAM, so it cant lock it, so it tries to get hold on that specified memory and starts exhausting all system resources.


If you have 8 Gigas of RAM plugged into the PC motherboard you have to multiple 1024*8 this is easily done with bc (An arbitrary precision calculator language) tool:

root@linux:/ # bc -l
bc 1.07.1
Copyright 1991-1994, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2012-2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.
For details type `warranty'. 
8*1024
8192


 for example you should run:

root@linux:/ # memtester 8192 5

memtester version 4.3.0 (64-bit)
Copyright (C) 2001-2012 Charles Cazabon.
Licensed under the GNU General Public License version 2 (only).

pagesize is 4096
pagesizemask is 0xfffffffffffff000
want 8192MB (2083520512 bytes)
got  8192MB (2083520512 bytes), trying mlock …Loop 1/1:
  Stuck Address       : ok        
  Random Value        : ok
  Compare XOR         : ok
  Compare SUB         : ok
  Compare MUL         : ok
  Compare DIV         : ok
  Compare OR          : ok
  Compare AND         : ok
  Sequential Increment: ok
  Solid Bits          : ok        
  Block Sequential    : ok        
  Checkerboard        : ok        
  Bit Spread          : ok        
  Bit Flip            : ok        
  Walking Ones        : ok        
  Walking Zeroes      : ok        
  8-bit Writes        : ok
  16-bit Writes       : ok

Done.

 

4. Shell Script to test server memory for corruptions
 

If for some reason the machine you want to run a memory test doesn't have connection to the external network such as the internet and therefore you cannot configure a package repository server and install memtester, the other approach is to use a simple memory test script such as memtestlinux.sh
 

#!/bin/bash
# Downloaded from https://www.srv24x7.com/memtest-linux/
echo "ByteOnSite Memory Test"
cpus=`cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep processor | wc -l`
if [ $cpus -lt 6 ]; then
threads=2
else
threads=$(($cpus / 2))
fi
echo "Detected $cpus CPUs, using $threads threads.."
memory=`free | grep 'Mem:' | awk {'print $2'}`
memoryper=$(($memory / $threads))
echo "Detected ${memory}K of RAM ($memoryper per thread).."
freespace=`df -B1024 . | tail -n1 | awk {'print $4'}`
if [ $freespace -le $memory ]; then
echo You do not have enough free space on the current partition. Minimum: $memory bytes
exit 1
fi
echo "Clearing RAM Cache.."
sync; echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_cachesfile
echo > dump.memtest.img
echo "Writing to dump file (dump.memtest.img).."
for i in `seq 1 $threads`;
do
# 1044 is used in place of 1024 to ensure full RAM usage (2% over allocation)
dd if=/dev/urandom bs=$memoryper count=1044 >> dump.memtest.img 2>/dev/null &
pids[$i]=$!
echo $i
done
for pid in "${pids[@]}"
do
wait $pid
done

echo "Reading and analyzing dump file…"
echo "Pass 1.."
md51=`md5sum dump.memtest.img | awk {'print $1'}`
echo "Pass 2.."
md52=`md5sum dump.memtest.img | awk {'print $1'}`
echo "Pass 3.."
md53=`md5sum dump.memtest.img | awk {'print $1'}`
if [ “$md51” != “$md52” ]; then
fail=1
elif [ “$md51” != “$md53” ]; then
fail=1
elif [ “$md52” != “$md53” ]; then
fail=1
else
fail=0
fi
if [ $fail -eq 0 ]; then
echo "Memory test PASSED."
else
echo "Memory test FAILED. Bad memory detected."
fi
rm -f dump.memtest.img
exit $fail

Nota Bene !: Again consider the restults might not always be 100% trustable if possible restart the server and test with memtest86+

Consider also its important to make sure prior to script run,  you''ll have enough disk space to produce the dump.memtest.img file – file is created as a test bed for the memory tests and if not scaled properly you might end up with a full ( / ) root directory!

 

4.1 Other memory test script with dd and md5sum checksum

I found this solution on the well known sysadmin site nixCraft cyberciti.biz, I think it makes sense and quicker.

First find out memory site using free command.
 

# free
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:      32867436   32574160     293276          0      16652   31194340
-/+ buffers/cache:    1363168   31504268
Swap:            0          0          0


It shows that this server has 32GB memory,
 

# dd if=/dev/urandom bs=32867436 count=1050 of=/home/memtest


free reports by k and use 1050 is to make sure file memtest is bigger than physical memory.  To get better performance, use proper bs size, for example 2048 or 4096, depends on your local disk i/o,  the rule is to make bs * count > 32 GB.
run

# md5sum /home/memtest; md5sum /home/memtest; md5sum /home/memtest


If you see md5sum mismatch in different run, you have faulty memory guaranteed.
The theory is simple, the file /home/memtest will cache data in memory by filling up all available memory during read operation. Using md5sum command you are reading same data from memory.


5. Other ways to test memory / do a machine stress test

Other good tools you might want to check for memory testing is mprime – ftp://mersenne.org/gimps/ 
(https://www.mersenne.org/ftp_root/gimps/)

  •  (mprime can also be used to stress test your CPU)

Alternatively, use the package stress-ng to run all kind of stress tests (including memory test) on your machine.
Perhaps there are other interesting tools for a diagnosis of memory if you know other ones I miss, let me know in the comment section.

Linux: How to set KVM Virtual Machine to autostart on system boot

Thursday, July 15th, 2021

linux-kvm-set-vm-to-automatically-boot-on-linux-system-boot

Recently I've written a short article on how to make auto boot OpenVZ container Virtual Machine if system gets rebooted as I had the task to do so in daily job as sysadmin.
Few days ago after some power outage in one of Frankfurt based Data Centers, some Rack tech equipment has been temporary powered of and once the electricity was up again, some Linux servers  running Kernel Based Virtualization ( KVM ) some of the virtual machines did not managed to automatically start up and we had to manually start them one by one.
To manually start each of the machines that did not start up had to do the trivial:

[root@hypervisor ~]# virsh list
 Id    Name                           State
—————————————————-
 3     VM500                   running

[root@hypervisor ~]# virsh dominfo VM500
Id:             3
Name:           VM500
UUID:           82075903-a4ce-5ec0-a3d8-9ee83d85fc75
OS Type:        hvm
State:          running
CPU(s):         2
CPU time:       247407.9s
Max memory:     2097152 KiB
Used memory:    2097152 KiB
Persistent:     yes
Autostart:      disable
Managed save:   no
Security model: selinux
Security DOI:   0
Security label: system_u:system_r:svirt_t:s0:c447,c723 (permissive)

[root@hypervisor ~]# virsh start VM_domain_Name

Of course logcally to prevent future issues in case if Linux server gets suddenly rebooted due to whatever reason, we had to configure the machines in questions to automatically boot on OS system boot.

In some rare cases if above start command does not help you might want to check what is the status of libvirtd and investigate the logs in /var/log/libvirt/ i.e. /var/log/libvirt/libvirt.log

An alternative but more complicated way to set virtual machine to automatically start on boot is by using default location for automatic VM start just like OpenXEn has its /etc/xen/auto/ dirtory from where each soft symlinked VM configuration from /etc/xen/VM_name.cfg is started in KVM Hypervisor hosts to auto boot a certain vm you have to link /etc/libvirt/qemu/VM-to-autoboot-name.xml to /etc/libvirt/qemu/autostart/VM-to-autoboot-name.xml

[root@hypervisor ~]# systemctl status libvirtd
● libvirtd.service – Virtualization daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/libvirtd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2021-06-29 10:21:30 CEST; 2 weeks 2 days ago
     Docs: man:libvirtd(8)
           https://libvirt.org
 Main PID: 1809 (libvirtd)
    Tasks: 22 (limit: 32768)
   CGroup: /system.slice/libvirtd.service
           ├─1809 /usr/sbin/libvirtd
           ├─2335 /usr/sbin/dnsmasq –conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.conf –leasefile-ro –dhcp-script=/us…
           ├─2336 /usr/sbin/dnsmasq –conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.conf –leasefile-ro –dhcp-script=/us…
           ├─2386 /usr/sbin/dnsmasq –conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/Host-Only.conf –leasefile-ro –dhcp-script=/…
           └─2387 /usr/sbin/dnsmasq –conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/Host-Only.conf –leasefile-ro –dhcp-script=/…

If for some reason libvirtd is not running or disabled state you will have to enable it with:

[root@hypervisor ~]# systemctl enable libvirtd

If the virtualization is running on some RPM based distribtuion OpenSuse whatever and libvirtd is controlled via chkconfig (redhat runlevel alternative system), you will have to :

[root@hypervisor ~]# chkconfig libvirtd on

Disabling KVM Virtual Machine from auto start on server boot

[root@hypervisor ~]# virsh autostart Debian10 –disable
Domain Debian10 unmarked as autostarted

Linux: logrotate fix log file permissions on newly created logs after rotation

Monday, July 5th, 2021

fix logrotate permission issues of newly logrotated files, howto chown chmod logrotate linux logo

If you have to administer a bunch of Web or Application servers you will definetely end up with some machines that has some logrotate misconfiguration.

Perhaps the most common one sysadmin faces is when you have rotated webserver, proxy, mail server logs that gets gzipped with a date timestamp of the rotation and a brand new files is created by logrotate. Such a thing could be seen on various Linux distributions and even a more corporate prodcution ready Linux – es like CentOS and Fedora occasionally end up with issues caused by improperly created user / group permissions (usually root:root) of logrotate. 

The wrong permissions of usually normally logging to file by a service, happens when the log file will get filled (or matches some thresholds) configured by logrotate respective config, the log rotate mechanism will rename this file gzip / bzip it depending on how it is prepared to behave and opens a new one, however the newly produced log file will not have the  read write  permission which are necessery for the respective service because the service is not running as administrator (root), lets say there is a haproxy daemon running with user / group haproxy, haproxy, like it happeed today on one of our legacy CentOS 6.5 servers.

The sad result is /var/log/haproxy.log or whatever log file stays empty forever even though the service is normally working and you end up blind not seeing what's going on …

To solve the empty file due to logrotate dumping the original file permissions to a wrong one due to misconfiguration or a lack of special configuration it is as easy as setting up the logrotated file to write down the new rotated file to a specic user, this is done with a one line addition of code with a syntax like:

create mode owner group

Below is extract from logrotate man page (man logrotate)

Immediately after rotation (before the postrotate script is run) the log file is created (with the same name as the log file just rotated).  mode  specifies the mode for the log file in octal (the same as chmod(2)), owner specifies the user name who will own the log file, and group specifies the group the log file will belong to. Any of the log file attributes may be omitted, in which case those attributes for the new file will use the same values as the original log file for the omitted attributes. This option can be disabled using the nocreate option.

 Lets say you have following /etc/logrotate.d/haproxy configuration that is instructing logrotate to do the rotation and this will create empty file with root:root after rotate:

root@haproxy2:/etc/logrotate.d# cat haproxy

/var/log/haproxy.log {
    daily
    rotate 52
    missingok
    notifempty
    compress
    delaycompress
    postrotate
        /usr/lib/rsyslog/rsyslog-rotate
    endscript
}

To make /var/log/haproxy.log be owned by haproxy user and group and chmod to certain owner permissions hence, do add inside the block something like: 

 

/var/log/haproxy.log {
….
        create 664 user group
….
}


i.e. :

/var/log/haproxy.log {
….
        create 644 haproxy hapoxy
….
}

To test the configuration do a logrotate config dry run do:

root@haproxy2:/etc/logrotate.d# logrotate -v -d -f /etc/logrotate.d/haproxy
WARNING: logrotate in debug mode does nothing except printing debug messages!  Consider using verbose mode (-v) instead if this is not what you want.

reading config file /etc/logrotate.d/haproxy
Reading state from file: /var/lib/logrotate/status
Allocating hash table for state file, size 64 entries
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state
Creating new state

 

Handling 1 logs

rotating pattern: /var/log/haproxy.log  forced from command line (52 rotations)
empty log files are not rotated, old logs are removed
considering log /var/log/haproxy.log
  Now: 2021-07-05 21:51
  Last rotated at 2021-07-05 00:00
  log needs rotating
rotating log /var/log/haproxy.log, log->rotateCount is 52
dateext suffix '-20210705'
glob pattern '-[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]'
compressing log with: /bin/gzip

renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.8.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.9.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 8),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.7.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.8.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 7),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.6.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.7.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 6),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.5.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.6.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 5),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.4.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.5.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 4),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.3.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.4.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 3),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.2.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.3.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 2),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.1.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.2.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 1),
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log.0.gz to /var/log/haproxy.log.1.gz (rotatecount 52, logstart 1, i 0),
log /var/log/haproxy.log.53.gz doesn't exist — won't try to dispose of it
renaming /var/log/haproxy.log to /var/log/haproxy.log.1
creating new /var/log/haproxy.log mode = 0644 uid = 106 gid = 112
running postrotate script
running script with arg /var/log/haproxy.log: "
        /usr/lib/rsyslog/rsyslog-rotate
"

 

 

root@haproxy2:/etc/logrotate.d# grep -Ei '106|112' /etc/passwd
haproxy:x:106:112::/var/lib/haproxy:/usr/sbin/nologin

You do it for any other service respectively by editting whatever /etc/logrotate.d/file, lets say postfix's /var/log/maillog should be owned with 644 by postfix:postfix.
 

# cat /etc/logrotate/postfix
/var/log/maillog {
….
        create 664 postfix postfix
….
}

Howto install Google Chrome web browser on CentOS Linux 7

Friday, December 11th, 2020

After installing CentOS 7 Linux testing Virtual Machine in Oracle Virtualbox 6.1 to conduct some testing with php / html / javascript web script pages and use the VM for other work stuff that I later plan to deploy on production CentOS systems, I came to requirement of having a working Google Chrome browser.

In that regards, next to Firefox, I needed to test the web applications in commercial Google Chrome to see what its usercan expect. For those who don't know it Google Chrome is based on Chromium Open source browser (https://chromium.org) which is available by default via default CentOS EPEL repositories.

One remark to make here is before installing Google Chrome, I've also test my web scripts first with chromium, to install Chromium free browser on CentOS:

[root@localhost mozilla_test0]# yum install chromium
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.wwfx.net
 * epel: mirror.t-home.mk
 * extras: mirror.wwfx.net
 * updates: mirror.wwfx.net
Resolving Dependencies
–> Running transaction check
—> Package chromium.x86_64 0:85.0.4183.121-1.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: chromium-common(x86-64) = 85.0.4183.121-1.el7 for package: chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64
–> Processing Dependency: nss-mdns(x86-64) for package: chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64
–> Processing Dependency: libminizip.so.1()(64bit) for package: chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64
–> Running transaction check
—> Package chromium-common.x86_64 0:85.0.4183.121-1.el7 will be installed
—> Package minizip.x86_64 0:1.2.7-18.el7 will be installed
—> Package nss-mdns.x86_64 0:0.14.1-9.el7 will be installed
–> Finished Dependency Resolution

 

Dependencies Resolved

============================================================================================================================================
 Package                              Arch                        Version                                   Repository                 Size
============================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 chromium                             x86_64                      85.0.4183.121-1.el7                       epel                       97 M
Installing for dependencies:
 chromium-common                      x86_64                      85.0.4183.121-1.el7                       epel                       16 M
 minizip                              x86_64                      1.2.7-18.el7                              base                       34 k
 nss-mdns                             x86_64                      0.14.1-9.el7                              epel                       43 k

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+3 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 113 M
Installed size: 400 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/4): minizip-1.2.7-18.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                               |  34 kB  00:00:00     
(2/4): chromium-common-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                |  16 MB  00:00:08     
(3/4): chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                       |  97 MB  00:00:11     
(4/4): nss-mdns-0.14.1-9.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                              |  43 kB  00:00:00     
——————————————————————————————————————————————–
Total                                                                                                       9.4 MB/s | 113 MB  00:00:12     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : minizip-1.2.7-18.el7.x86_64                                                                                              1/4
  Installing : chromium-common-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64                                                                               2/4
  Installing : nss-mdns-0.14.1-9.el7.x86_64                                                                                             3/4
  Installing : chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                      4/4
  Verifying  : chromium-common-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64                                                                               1/4
  Verifying  : minizip-1.2.7-18.el7.x86_64                                                                                              2/4
  Verifying  : chromium-85.0.4183.121-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                      3/4
  Verifying  : nss-mdns-0.14.1-9.el7.x86_64                                                                                             4/4

Installed:
  chromium.x86_64 0:85.0.4183.121-1.el7                                                                                                     

Dependency Installed:
  chromium-common.x86_64 0:85.0.4183.121-1.el7            minizip.x86_64 0:1.2.7-18.el7            nss-mdns.x86_64 0:0.14.1-9.el7           

Complete!

Chromium browser worked however it is much more buggy than Google Chrome and the load it puts on the machine as well as resources it consumes is terrible if compared to Proprietary G. Chrome.

Usually I don't like google chrome as it is a proprietary product and I don't even install it on my Linux Desktops, neither use as using is against any secure wise practice and but I needed this time ..

Thus to save myself some pains therefore proceeded and installed Google Chromium.
Installion  of Google Chrome is a straight forward process you download the latest rpm run below command to resolve all library dependencies and you're in:

chromium-open-source-browser-on-centos-7-screenshot

 

[root@localhost mozilla_test0]# rpm -ivh google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm
warning: google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 7fac5991: NOKEY
error: Failed dependencies:
    liberation-fonts is needed by google-chrome-stable-87.0.4280.88-1.x86_64
    libvulkan.so.1()(64bit) is needed by google-chrome-stable-87.0.4280.88-1.x86_64
[root@localhost mozilla_test0]# wget https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm
–2020-12-11 07:03:02–  https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm
Resolving dl.google.com (dl.google.com)… 172.217.17.238, 2a00:1450:4017:802::200e
Connecting to dl.google.com (dl.google.com)|172.217.17.238|:443… connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response… 200 OK
Length: 72280700 (69M) [application/x-rpm]
Saving to: ‘google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm

 

100%[==================================================================================================>] 72,280,700  11.0MB/s   in 6.6s   

2020-12-11 07:03:09 (10.4 MB/s) – ‘google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm’ saved [72280700/72280700]

[root@localhost mozilla_test0]# yum localinstall google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Examining google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm: google-chrome-stable-87.0.4280.88-1.x86_64
Marking google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm to be installed
Resolving Dependencies
–> Running transaction check
—> Package google-chrome-stable.x86_64 0:87.0.4280.88-1 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: liberation-fonts for package: google-chrome-stable-87.0.4280.88-1.x86_64
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.wwfx.net
 * epel: mirrors.uni-ruse.bg
 * extras: mirror.wwfx.net
 * updates: mirror.wwfx.net
–> Processing Dependency: libvulkan.so.1()(64bit) for package: google-chrome-stable-87.0.4280.88-1.x86_64
–> Running transaction check
—> Package liberation-fonts.noarch 1:1.07.2-16.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: liberation-narrow-fonts = 1:1.07.2-16.el7 for package: 1:liberation-fonts-1.07.2-16.el7.noarch
—> Package vulkan.x86_64 0:1.1.97.0-1.el7 will be installed
–> Processing Dependency: vulkan-filesystem = 1.1.97.0-1.el7 for package: vulkan-1.1.97.0-1.el7.x86_64
–> Running transaction check
—> Package liberation-narrow-fonts.noarch 1:1.07.2-16.el7 will be installed
—> Package vulkan-filesystem.noarch 0:1.1.97.0-1.el7 will be installed
–> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

============================================================================================================================================
 Package                             Arch               Version                      Repository                                        Size
============================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 google-chrome-stable                x86_64             87.0.4280.88-1               /google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64             227 M
Installing for dependencies:
 liberation-fonts                    noarch             1:1.07.2-16.el7              base                                              13 k
 liberation-narrow-fonts             noarch             1:1.07.2-16.el7              base                                             202 k
 vulkan                              x86_64             1.1.97.0-1.el7               base                                             3.6 M
 vulkan-filesystem                   noarch             1.1.97.0-1.el7               base                                             6.3 k

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+4 Dependent packages)

Total size: 231 M
Total download size: 3.8 M
Installed size: 249 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/4): liberation-fonts-1.07.2-16.el7.noarch.rpm                                                                     |  13 kB  00:00:00     
(2/4): liberation-narrow-fonts-1.07.2-16.el7.noarch.rpm                                                              | 202 kB  00:00:00     
(3/4): vulkan-filesystem-1.1.97.0-1.el7.noarch.rpm                                                                   | 6.3 kB  00:00:00     
(4/4): vulkan-1.1.97.0-1.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                              | 3.6 MB  00:00:01     
——————————————————————————————————————————————–
Total                                                                                                       1.9 MB/s | 3.8 MB  00:00:02     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
  Installing : vulkan-filesystem-1.1.97.0-1.el7.noarch                                                                                  1/5
  Installing : vulkan-1.1.97.0-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                             2/5
  Installing : 1:liberation-narrow-fonts-1.07.2-16.el7.noarch                                                                           3/5
  Installing : 1:liberation-fonts-1.07.2-16.el7.noarch                                                                                  4/5
  Installing : google-chrome-stable-87.0.4280.88-1.x86_64                                                                               5/5
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl start atd.service
  Verifying  : vulkan-1.1.97.0-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                             1/5
  Verifying  : 1:liberation-narrow-fonts-1.07.2-16.el7.noarch                                                                           2/5
  Verifying  : 1:liberation-fonts-1.07.2-16.el7.noarch                                                                                  3/5
  Verifying  : google-chrome-stable-87.0.4280.88-1.x86_64                                                                               4/5
  Verifying  : vulkan-filesystem-1.1.97.0-1.el7.noarch                                                                                  5/5

Installed:
  google-chrome-stable.x86_64 0:87.0.4280.88-1                                                                                              

Dependency Installed:
  liberation-fonts.noarch 1:1.07.2-16.el7         liberation-narrow-fonts.noarch 1:1.07.2-16.el7       vulkan.x86_64 0:1.1.97.0-1.el7      
  vulkan-filesystem.noarch 0:1.1.97.0-1.el7      

Complete!
 

Once Chrome is installed you can either run it from gnome-terminal
 

[test@localhost ~]$ gnome-terminal &


Google-chrome-screenshot-on-centos-linux

Or find it in the list of CentOS programs:

Applications → Internet → Google Chrome

google-chrome-programs-list-internet-cetnos

Last step to do is to make Google Chrome easily updatable to keep up VM level on high security and let it get updated every time when apply security updates with yum check-update && yum upgrade
for that its necessery to create new custom repo file
/etc/yum.repos.d/google-chrome.repo

[root@localhost mozilla_test0]# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/google-chrome.repo
[google-chrome]
name=google-chrome
baseurl=http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/rpm/stable/x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://dl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub

Now letes import the gpg checksum key

[root@localhost mozilla_test0]# rpmkeys –import https://dl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub

That's all folks google-chrome is at your disposal.

How to check Microsoft IIS webserver version

Monday, July 21st, 2014

If you have to tune some weirdly behaviour Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Services) webserver, the first thing to do is to collect information about the system you're dealing with – get version of installed Windows and check what kind of IIS version is running on the Windows server?

To get the version of installed Windows on the system you just logged in, the quickest way I use is:
 

Start -> My Computer (right mouse button) Properties

check-windows-server-version-screenshot-windows-2003-r2

Run regedit from cmd.exe and go and check value of registry value:

 

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MicrosoftInetStp\VersionString


check-iis-webserver-version-with-windows-registry-screenshot

As you can see in screenshot in this particular case it is IIS version 6.0.

An alternative way to check the IIS version in some cases (if IIS version return is not disabled) is to telnet to webserver:

telnet your-webserver 80
 


Once connected Send:

HEAD / HTTP/1.0


Also on some Windows versions it is possible to check IIS webserver version from Internet Information Services Management Cosnole:

To check IIS version from IIS Manager:

Start (button) -> Control Panel -> Administrative Tools -> "Internet Information Services" IIS Manager

From IIS Manager go to:

Help -> About Microsoft Management Console


Here is a list with most common IIS version output you will get depending on the version of Windows server:

 

Windows NT 3.51 1.0
Windows NT 4 2.0-4.0
Windows Server 2000 5.0
Windows XP Professional 5.1
Windows Server 2003 6.0
Windows Vista 7.0
Windows Server 2008 7.0
Windows Server 2008 R2 7.5
Windows 7 7.5
Windows Server 2012 8.0
Windows 8 8.0
Windows Server 2012 R2 8.5
Windows 8.1 8.5

If you have only an upload FTP access to a Folder served by IIS Webserver – i.e. no access to the Win server running IIS, you can also grasp the IIS version with following .ASP code:
 

<%
response.write(Request.ServerVariables("SERVER_SOFTWARE"))
%>


Save the file as anyfile.asp somewhere in IIS docroot and invoke it in browser.