Posts Tagged ‘config’

CentOS disable SELinux permanently or one time on grub Linux kernel boot time

Saturday, July 24th, 2021

selinux-artistic-penguin-logo-protect-data

 

1. Office 365 cloud connected computer and a VirtualBox hosted machine with SELINUX preventing it to boot

At my job we're in process of migrating my old Lenovo Laptop Thinkpad model L560 Laptop to Dell Latitude 5510 wiith Intel Core i5 vPro CPU and 256 Gb SSD Hard Drive.  The new laptops are generally fiine though they're not even a middle class computers and generally I prefer thinkpads. The sad thing out of this is our employee decided to migrate to Office 365 (again perhaps another stupid managerial decision out of an excel sheet wtih a balance to save some money … 

As you can imagine Office 365 is not really PCI Standards compliant and not secure since our data is stored in Microsoft cloud and theoretically Microsoft has and owns our data or could wipe loose the data if they want to. The other obvious security downside I've noticed with the new "Secure PCI complaint laptop" is the initial PC login screen which by default offers fingerprint authentication or the even worse  and even less secure face recognition, but obviosly everyhing becomes more and more crazy and people become less and less cautious for security if that would save money or centralize the data … In the name of security we completely waste security that is very dubious paradox I don't really understand but anyways, enough rant back to the main topic of this article is how to and I had to disable selinux?

As part of Migration I've used Microsoft OneDrive to copy old files from the Thinkpad to the Latitude (as on the old machine USB's are forbidden and I cannot copy over wiith a siimple USB driive, as well as II have no right to open the laptop and copy data from the Hard driive, and even if we had this right without breaking up some crazy company policy that will not be possible as the hard drive data on old laptop is encrypted, the funny thing is that the new laptop data comes encrypted and there is no something out of the box as BitDefender or McAffee incryption (once again, obviously our data security is a victim of some managarial decisions) …
 

2. OneDrive copy problems unable to sync some of the copied files to Onedrive


Anyways as the Old Laptop's security is quite paranoid and we're like Fort Nox, only port 80 and port 443 connections to the internet can be initiated to get around this harsh restrictions it was as simple to use a Virtualbox Virtual Machine. So on old laptop I've installed a CentOS 7 image which I used so far and I used one drive to copy my vbox .vdi image on the new laptop work machine.

The first head buml was the .vdi which seems to be prohibited to be copied to OneDrive, so to work around this I had to rename the origianl CentOS7.vdi to CentOS7.vdi-renamed on old laptop and once the data is in one drive copy my Vitualbox VM/ directory from one drive to the Dell Latitude machine and rename the .vdi-named towards .vdi as well as import it from the latest installed VirtualBox on the new machine.
 

3. Disable SELINUX from initial grub boot


So far so good but as usual happens with miigrations I've struck towards another blocker, the VM image once initiated to boot from Virtualbox badly crashed with some complains that selinux cannot be loaded.
Realizing CentOS 7 has the more or less meaningless Selinux, I've took the opportunity to disable SeLinux.

To do so I've booted the Kernel with Selinux disabled from GRUB2 loader prompt before Kernel and OS Userland boots.

 

 

I thought I need to type the information on the source in grub. What I did is very simple, on the Linux GRUB boot screen I've pressed

'e' keyboard letter

that brought the grub boot loader into edit mode.

Then I had to add selinux=0 on the edited selected kernel version, as shown in below screenshot:

selinux-disable-from-grub.png

Next to boot the Linux VM without Selinux enabled one time,  just had to press together

Ctrl+X then add selinux=0 on the edited selected kernel version, that should be added as shown in the screenshot somewhere after the line of
root=/dev/mapper/….

4. Permanently Disable Selinux on CentOS 7


Once I managed to boot Virtual Machine properly with Oracle Virtualbox, to permanently disabled selinux I had to:

 

Once booted into CentOS, to check the status of selinux run:

 

# sestatus
Copy
SELinux status:                 enabled
SELinuxfs mount:                /sys/fs/selinux
SELinux root directory:         /etc/selinux
Loaded policy name:             targeted
Current mode:                   enforcing
Mode from config file:          enforcing
Policy MLS status:              enabled
Policy deny_unknown status:     allowed
Max kernel policy version:      31

 

5. Disable SELinux one time with setenforce command


You can temporarily change the SELinux mode from targeted to permissive with the following command:

 

# setenforce 0


Next o permanently disable SELinux on your CentOS 7 next time the system boots, Open the /etc/selinux/config file and set the SELINUX mod parameter to disabled.

On CentOS 7 you can  edit the kernel parameters in /etc/default/grub (in the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX= key) and set selinux=0 so on next VM / PC boot we boot with a SELINUX disabled for example add   RUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=selinux=0 to the file then you have to regenerate your Grub config like this:
 

# grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2.cfg
# grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2-efi.cfg


Further on to disable SeLinux on OS level edit /etc/selinux
 

Default /etc/selinux/config with selinux enabled should look like so:

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#       enforcing – SELinux security policy is enforced.
#       permissive – SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#       disabled – No SELinux policy is loaded.
SELINUX=enforcing
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values:
#       targeted – Targeted processes are protected,
#       mls – Multi Level Security protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted


To disable SeLinux modify the file to be something like:

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#       enforcing – SELinux security policy is enforced.
#       permissive – SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#       disabled – No SELinux policy is loaded.
SELINUX=disabled
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values:
#       targeted – Targeted processes are protected,
#       mls – Multi Level Security protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted

6. Check SELINUX status is disabled

# sestatus

SELinux status:                 disabled

So in this article shottly was explained shortly the fake security adopted by using Microsoft Cloud environment Offiice 365, my faced OneDrive copy issues (which prevented even my old laptop Virtual Machine to boot properly and the handy trick to rename the file that is unwilling to get copied from old PC towards m$ OneDrive as well as the grub trick to disable Selinux permanently from grub2.

Update reverse sshd config with cronjob to revert if sshd reload issues

Friday, February 12th, 2021

Update-reverse-sshd-config-with-cronjob-to-revert-if-sshd-reload-issues

Say you're doing ssh hardening modifying /etc/ssh/sshd_config for better system security or just changing options in sshd due to some requirements. But you follow the wrong guide and you placed some ssh variable which is working normally on newer SSH versions ssh OpenSSH_8.0p1 / or 7 but the options are applied on older SSH server and due to that restarting sshd via /etc/init.d/… or systemctl restart sshd cuts your access to remote server located in a DC and not attached to Admin LAN port, and does not have a working ILO or IDRAC configured and you have to wait for a couple of hours for some Support to go to the server Room / Rack / line location to have access to a Linux physical tty console and fix it by reverting the last changes you made to sshd and restarting.

Thus logical question comes what can you do to assure yourself you would not cut your network access to remote machine after modifying OpenSSHD and normal SSHD restart?

There is an old trick, I'm using for years now but perhaps if you're just starting with Linux as a novice system administrator or a server support guy you would not know it, it is as simple as setting a cron job for some minutes to periodically overwrite the sshd configuration with a copy of the old working version of sshd before modification.

Here is this nice nify trick which saved me headache of call on technical support line to ValueWeb when I was administering some old Linux servers back in the 2000s

root@server:~# crontab -u root -e

# create /etc/ssh/sshd_config backup file
cp -rpf /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config_$(date +%d-%m-%y)
# add to cronjob to execute every 15 minutes and ovewrite sshd with the working version just in case
*/15 * * * * /bin/cp -rpf /etc/ssh/sshd_config_$(date +%d-%m-%y) /etc/ssh/sshd_config && /bin/systemctl restart sshd
# restart sshd 
cp -rpf /etc/ssh/sshd_config_$(date +%d-%m-%y) /etc/ssh/sshd_config && /bin/systemctl restart sshd


Copy paste above cron definitions and leave them on for some time. Do the /etc/ssh/sshd_config modifications and once you're done restart sshd by lets say

root@server:~#  killall -HUP sshd 


If the ssh connectivity continues to work edit the cron job again and delete all lines and save again.
If you're not feeling confortable with vim as a text editor (in case you're a complete newbie and you don't know) how to get out of vim. Before doing all little steps you can do on the shell with  export EDITOR=nano or export EDITOR=mcedit cmds,this will change the default text editor on the shell. 

Hope this helps someone… Enjoy 🙂

Postfix copy every email to a central mailbox (send a copy of every mail sent via mail server to a given email)

Wednesday, October 28th, 2020

Postfix-logo-always-bcc-email-option-send-all-emails-to-a-single-address-with-postfix.svg

Say you need to do a mail server migration, where you have a local configured Postfix on a number of Linux hosts named:

Linux-host1
Linux-host2
Linux-host3

etc.


all configured to send email via old Email send host (MailServerHostOld.com) in each linux box's postfix configuration's /etc/postfix/main.cf.
Now due to some infrastructure change in the topology of network or anything else, you need to relay Mails sent via another asumably properly configured Linux host relay (MailServerNewHost.com).

Usually such a migrations has always a risk that some of the old sent emails originating from local running scripts on Linux-host1, Linux-Host2 … or some application or anything else set to send via them might not properly deliver emails to some external Internet based Mailboxes via the new relayhost MailServerNewHost.com.

E.g. in /etc/postfix/main.cf Linux-Host* machines, you have below config after the migration:

relayhost = [MailServerNewHost.com]

Lets say that you want to make sure, that you don't end up with lost emails as you can't be sure whether the new email server will deliver correctly to the old repicient emails. What to do then?

To make sure will not end up in undelivered state and get lost forever after a week or so (depending on the mail queue configuration retention period made on Linux sent MTAs and mailrelay MailServerNewHost.com, it is a very good approach to temprorary set all email communication that will be sent via MailServerNewHost.com a BCC emaills (A Blind Carbon Copy) of each sent mail via relay that is set on your local configured Postfix-es on Linux-Host*.

In postfix to achieve that it is very easy all you have to do is set on your MailServerNewHost.com a postfix config variable always_bcc smartly included by postfix Mail Transfer Agent developers for cases exactly like this.

To forward all passed emails via the mail server just place in the end of /etc/postfix/mail.conf after login via ssh on MailServerNewHost.com

always_bcc=All-Emails@your-diresired-redirect-email-address.com


Now all left is to reload the postfix to force the new configuration to get loaded on systemd based hosts as it is usually today do:

# systemctl reload postfix


Finally to make sure all works as expected and mail is sent do from do a testing via local MTAs. 
 

Linux-Host:~# echo -e "Testing body" | mail -s "testing subject" -r "testing@test.com" georgi.stoyanov@remote-user-email-whatever-address.com

Linux-Host:~# echo -e "Testing body" | mail -s "testing subject" -r "testing@test.com" georgi.stoyanov@sample-destination-address.com


As you can see I'm using the -r to simulate a sender address, this is a feature of mailx and is not available on older Linux Os hosts that are bundled with mail only command.
Now go to and open the All-Emails@your-diresired-redirect-email-address.com in Outlook (if it is M$ Office 365 MX Shared mailbox), Thunderbird or whatever email fetching software that supports POP3 or IMAP (in case if you configured the common all email mailbox to be on some other Postfix / Sendmail / Qmail MTA). and check whether you started receiving a lot of emails 🙂

That's all folks enjoy ! 🙂

Linux: Howto Disable logging for all VirtualHosts on Apache and NGINX Webservers one liner

Wednesday, July 1st, 2020

disable-apache-nginx-logging-for-all-virtualhosts
Did you happen to administer Apache Webservers or NGINX webservers whose logs start to grow so rapidly that are flooding the disk too quickly?
Well this happens sometimes and it also happens that sometimes you just want to stop logging especially, to offload disk writting.

There is an easy way to disable logging for requests and errors (access_log and error_log usually residing under /var/log/httpd or /var/log/nginx ) for  all configured Virtual Domains with a short one liner, here is how.

Before you start  Create backup of /etc/apache2/sites-enabled / or /etc/nginx to be able to revert back to original config.

# cp -rpf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/ ~/

# cp -rpf /etc/nginx/ ~/


1. Disable Logging for All  Virtual Domains configured for Apache Webserver

First lets print what the command will do to make sure we don't mess something

# find /home/hipo/sites-enabled/* -exec echo sed -i 's/#*[Cc]ustom[Ll]og/#CustomLog/g' {} \;


You will get some output like

find /home/hipo//sites-enabled/* -exec echo sed -i 's/#*[Cc]ustom[Ll]og/#CustomLog/g' {} \;

find /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/* -exec sed -i 's/#*[Cc]ustom[Ll]og/#CustomLog/g' {} \;
find /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/* -exec sed -i 's/#*[Ee]rror[Ll]og/#ErrorLog/g' {} \;

2. Disable Logging for All configured Virtual Domains for NGINX Webserver
 

find /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/* -exec sed -i 's/#*access_log/#access_log/g' {} \;
find /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/* -exec sed -i 's/#*error_log/#error_log/g' {} \;

f course above substituations that will comment out with '#' occurances from file configs of only default set access_log and error_log / access.log, error.log 
for machines where there is no certain convention on file naming and there are multiple domains in custom produced named log files this won't work.

This one liner was inspired from a friend's daily Martin Petrov. Martin blogged initially about this nice tip for those reading Cyrillic check out mpetrov.net, so. Thanks Marto ! 🙂

Nginx increase security by putting websites into Linux jails howto

Monday, August 27th, 2018

linux-jail-nginx-webserver-increase-security-by-putting-it-and-its-data-into-jail-environment

If you're sysadmining a large numbers of shared hosted websites which use Nginx Webserver to interpret PHP scripts and serve HTML, Javascript, CSS … whatever data.

You realize the high amount of risk that comes with a possible successful security breach / hack into a server by a malicious cracker. Compromising Nginx Webserver by an intruder automatically would mean that not only all users web data will get compromised, but the attacker would get an immediate access to other data such as Email or SQL (if the server is running multiple services).

Nowadays it is not so common thing to have a multiple shared websites on the same server together with other services, but historically there are many legacy servers / webservers left which host some 50 or 100+ websites.

Of course the best thing to do is to isolate each and every website into a separate Virtual Container however as this is a lot of work and small and mid-sized companies refuse to spend money on mostly anything this might be not an option for you.

Considering that this might be your case and you're running Nginx either as a Load Balancing, Reverse Proxy server etc. , even though Nginx is considered to be among the most secure webservers out there, there is absolutely no gurantee it would not get hacked and the server wouldn't get rooted by a script kiddie freak that just got in darknet some 0day exploit.

To minimize the impact of a possible Webserver hack it is a good idea to place all websites into Linux Jails.

linux-jail-simple-explained-diagram-chroot-jail

For those who hear about Linux Jail for a first time,
chroot() jail is a way to isolate a process / processes and its forked children from the rest of the *nix system. It should / could be used only for UNIX processes that aren't running as root (administrator user), because of the fact the superuser could break out (escape) the jail pretty easily.

Jailing processes is a concept that is pretty old that was first time introduced in UNIX version 7 back in the distant year 1979, and it was first implemented into BSD Operating System ver. 4.2 by Bill Joy (a notorious computer scientist and co-founder of Sun Microsystems). Its original use for the creation of so called HoneyPot – a computer security mechanism set to detect, deflect, or, in some manner, counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems that appears completely legimit service or part of website whose only goal is to track, isolate, and monitor intruders, a very similar to police string operations (baiting) of the suspect. It is pretty much like а bait set to collect the fish (which in this  case is the possible cracker).

linux-chroot-jail-environment-explained-jailing-hackers-and-intruders-unix

BSD Jails nowadays became very popular as iPhones environment where applications are deployed are inside a customly created chroot jail, the principle is exactly the same as in Linux.

But anyways enough talk, let's create a new jail and deploy set of system binaries for our Nginx installation, here is the things you will need:

1. You need to have set a directory where a copy of /bin/ls /bin/bash /bin/,  /bin/cat … /usr/bin binaries /lib and other base system Linux system binaries copy will reside.

 

server:~# mkdir -p /usr/local/chroot/nginx

 


2. You need to create the isolated environment backbone structure /etc/ , /dev, /var/, /usr/, /lib64/ (in case if deploying on 64 bit architecture Operating System).

 

server:~# export DIR_N=/usr/local/chroot/nginx;
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/etc
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/dev
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/var
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/usr
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/usr/local/nginx
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/tmp
server:~# chmod 1777 $DIR_N/tmp
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/var/tmp
server:~# chmod 1777 $DIR_N/var/tmp
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/lib64
server:~# mkdir -p $DIR_N/usr/local/

 

3. Create required device files for the new chroot environment

 

server:~# /bin/mknod -m 0666 $D/dev/null c 1 3
server:~# /bin/mknod -m 0666 $D/dev/random c 1 8
server:~# /bin/mknod -m 0444 $D/dev/urandom c 1 9

 

mknod COMMAND is used instead of the usual /bin/touch command to create block or character special files.

Once create the permissions of /usr/local/chroot/nginx/{dev/null, dev/random, dev/urandom} have to be look like so:

 

server:~# ls -l /usr/local/chroot/nginx/dev/{null,random,urandom}
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 3 Aug 17 09:13 /dev/null
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 8 Aug 17 09:13 /dev/random
crw-rw-rw- 1 root root 1, 9 Aug 17 09:13 /dev/urandom

 

4. Install nginx files into the chroot directory (copy all files of current nginx installation into the jail)
 

If your NGINX webserver installation was installed from source to keep it latest
and is installed in lets say, directory location /usr/local/nginx you have to copy /usr/local/nginx to /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx, i.e:

 

server:~# /bin/cp -varf /usr/local/nginx/* /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx

 


5. Copy necessery Linux system libraries to newly created jail
 

NGINX webserver is compiled to depend on various libraries from Linux system root e.g. /lib/* and /lib64/* therefore in order to the server work inside the chroot-ed environment you need to transfer this libraries to the jail folder /usr/local/chroot/nginx

If you are curious to find out which libraries exactly is nginx binary dependent on run:

server:~# ldd /usr/local/nginx/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

        linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffe3e952000)
        libpthread.so.0 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007f2b4762c000)
        libcrypt.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libcrypt.so.1 (0x00007f2b473f4000)
        libpcre.so.3 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpcre.so.3 (0x00007f2b47181000)
        libcrypto.so.0.9.8 => /usr/local/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8 (0x00007f2b46ddf000)
        libz.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libz.so.1 (0x00007f2b46bc5000)
        libc.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (0x00007f2b46826000)
        /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007f2b47849000)
        libdl.so.2 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2 (0x00007f2b46622000)


The best way is to copy only the libraries in the list from ldd command for best security, like so:

 

server: ~# cp -rpf /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libthread.so.0 /usr/local/chroot/nginx/lib/*
server: ~# cp -rpf library chroot_location

etc.

 

However if you're in a hurry (not a recommended practice) and you don't care for maximum security anyways (you don't worry the jail could be exploited from some of the many lib files not used by nginx and you don't  about HDD space), you can also copy whole /lib into the jail, like so:

 

server: ~# cp -rpf /lib/ /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx/lib

 

NOTE! Once again copy whole /lib directory is a very bad practice but for a time pushing activities sometimes you can do it …


6. Copy /etc/ some base files and ld.so.conf.d , prelink.conf.d directories to jail environment
 

 

server:~# cp -rfv /etc/{group,prelink.cache,services,adjtime,shells,gshadow,shadow,hosts.deny,localtime,nsswitch.conf,nscd.conf,prelink.conf,protocols,hosts,passwd,ld.so.cache,ld.so.conf,resolv.conf,host.conf}  \
/usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/nginx/etc

 

server:~# cp -avr /etc/{ld.so.conf.d,prelink.conf.d} /usr/local/chroot/nginx/nginx/etc


7. Copy HTML, CSS, Javascript websites data from the root directory to the chrooted nginx environment

 

server:~# nice -n 10 cp -rpf /usr/local/websites/ /usr/local/chroot/nginx/usr/local/


This could be really long if the websites are multiple gigabytes and million of files, but anyways the nice command should reduce a little bit the load on the server it is best practice to set some kind of temporary server maintenance page to show on the websites index in order to prevent the accessing server clients to not have interrupts (that's especially the case on older 7200 / 7400 RPM non-SSD HDDs.)
 

 

8. Stop old Nginx server outside of Chroot environment and start the new one inside the jail


a) Stop old nginx server

Either stop the old nginx using it start / stop / restart script inside /etc/init.d/nginx (if you have such installed) or directly kill the running webserver with:

 

server:~# killall -9 nginx

 

b) Test the chrooted nginx installation is correct and ready to run inside the chroot environment

 

server:~# /usr/sbin/chroot /usr/local/chroot/nginx /usr/local/nginx/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
server:~# /usr/sbin/chroot /usr/local/chroot/nginx /usr/local/nginx/nginx/sbin/nginx

 

c) Restart the chrooted nginx webserver – when necessery later

 

server:~# /usr/sbin/chroot /nginx /usr/local/chroot/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload

 

d) Edit the chrooted nginx conf

If you need to edit nginx configuration, be aware that the chrooted NGINX will read its configuration from /usr/local/chroot/nginx/nginx/etc/conf/nginx.conf (i'm saying that if you by mistake forget and try to edit the old config that is usually under /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

 

 

How to enable Gravis UltraSound in DOSBox for enhanced music experience in DOS programs and Games

Tuesday, October 31st, 2017

DOSBox

Gravis UltraSound Classic

 

Gravis UltraSound

Gravis UltraSound or GUS is a sound card for the IBM PC compatible systems.
It was lunched in 1992 and is notable for it's ability to use real-world sound recordings (wavetable) of a musical instruments rather than artificial computer-generated waveforms.
As one of my friends used to say back then: "it sounds like a CD".

To enable GUS in DOSBox all you need to do is:

1. Download the archive with the GUS files from https://alex.www.pc-freak.net/files/GUS/ULTRASND.zip. Extract the archive (there is already a directory in it so you don't have to create one) preferably where you keep your DOSBox stuff (like Games).

2. Find your DOSBox config file. Depending on the version or host OS, the dosbox conf file is located either inside the user profile folder or inside the same folder as dosbox.exe. In Windows 7 the config file is located at

"C:\Users\Fred\AppData\Local\VirtualStore\Program Files (x86)\dosbox.conf"

where "Fred" is your username.

In GNU/Linux it's in "/home/Fred/.dosbox/dosbox.conf" where "Fred" is your username.

The name of the conf file may also have dosbox version (for example –

"dosbox-0.74.conf").

Open it with a text editor like notepad (Windows) or equvalent for GNU/Linux (vi, Kate, gedit…). Locate "[gus]" section (without the quotes) and edit it so it looks like this:

[gus]
#      gus: Enable the Gravis Ultrasound emulation.
#  gusrate: Sample rate of Ultrasound emulation.
#           Possible values: 44100, 48000, 32000, 22050, 16000, 11025, 8000, 49716.
#  gusbase: The IO base address of the Gravis Ultrasound.
#           Possible values: 240, 220, 260, 280, 2a0, 2c0, 2e0, 300.
#   gusirq: The IRQ number of the Gravis Ultrasound.
#           Possible values: 5, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12.
#   gusdma: The DMA channel of the Gravis Ultrasound.
#           Possible values: 3, 0, 1, 5, 6, 7.
# ultradir: Path to Ultrasound directory. In this directory
#           there should be a MIDI directory that contains
#           the patch files for GUS playback. Patch sets used
#           with Timidity should work fine.

gus=true
gusrate=44100
gusbase=240
gusirq=5
gusdma=3
ultradir=C:\ULTRASND

Then save the dosbox conf file.

3. Start DOSBox and mount "ULTRASND" directory to "C:".

You can do that with

mount c (directory to ULTRASND)

For example if you have extracted the archive in "C:\Games" it has created "C:\Games\ULTRASND" and the command you will have to write in DOSBox is

mount c c:\Games

(example: if your game is in "C:\Games\Heroes2" and your GUS directory is "C:\Games\ULTRSND" (if you have extracted the archive "C:\Games\") then you "mount c c:\Games" and you are set)

or for GNU/Linux if you have extracted the archive in "/home/Fred/Games" it has created "/home/Fred/Games/ULTRASND" and the command you will have to write in DOSBox is

mount c /home/Fred/Games (where "Fred" is your user name).

(example: if your game is in "/home/Fred/Games/Heroes2" and your GUS directory is "/home/Fred/Games/ULTRSND" (if you have extracted the archive" /home/Fred/Games/") in  then you "mount c /home/Fred/Games" and you are set)

You can make this automatic so you don't have to write it everytime by adding this command in the end (bottom) part of your dosbox conf file and save it.

You're practicly ready. All you need to do now is set Gravis UltraSound in your game or application setup (for example with the file "setup.exe") with IO: 240, IRQ 5 and DMA 3. If you prefer you previous sound card you can do that by selecting it again from the setup without disabling GUS from the dosbox conf file.

Happy listening!

Gravis Ultrasound

 

Article written by Alex

Fix dosbox – setting: cycles=auto. If the game runs too fast try a fixed cycles amount in DOSBox’s options. Exit to error: DRC64:Unhandled memory reference

Thursday, October 12th, 2017

fix-dosbox-error-setting-cycles-auto-game-runs-too-fast-exit-err-drc64-unhandled-memory-reference

I've recently installed Debian GNU / Linux 9.1 Stretch and on Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak and as an old school true gamer addict decided to play some games to recall the good old memories from the past of the glorious DOS games times, when all was simple people was real and there was no terrible people dividers such as Facebook  / GooglePlus, no skype fuzzy craziness and no people watching all time at their mobile smart phones like zoombies .

Well anyways, so I wanted to play my favourite DOS games Terminal Velocity, StarGunner, Raptor, Heroes of Might and Magic 2, Doom II, Duke 3d etc. etc. the list goes on and on – BTW What's your favourite old school DOS Game??

So I issues in Terminal:

$ dosbox TV.EXE

DOSBox version 0.74
Copyright 2002-2010 DOSBox Team, published under GNU GPL.

CONFIG:Loading primary settings from config file /home/zetathon/.dosbox/dosbox-0.74.conf
MIXER:Got different values from SDL: freq 44100, blocksize 512
ALSA:Can't subscribe to MIDI port (65:0) nor (17:0)
MIDI:Opened device:none
DOSBox switched to max cycles, because of the setting: cycles=auto. If    the game runs too fast try a fixed cycles amount in DOSBox's options.
Exit to error: DRC64:Unhandled memory reference

 

So what is the solution to  Exit to error: DRC64:Unhandled memory reference
error and why it happens?

Well, as the error clearly states the whole problem
comes from a default dosbox dos emulator configuration, that's the
setting:
 

cycles=auto


Perhaps the CPU beat of a Core I7 CPUs is too strong for some of the old games which are expecting a slower PC with less memory that's why the exception

Exit to Error: DRC64:Unhandled memory reference
is spit out by Dosemu.

So how to solve DRC64:Unhandled memory reference dosemu error?

By default DOSBOX places its configuration at  Linux / BSD / *nix-es at home folder /dosbox – e.g. ~/.dosbox/ the naming of dosbox.conf might differ according to dosbox version and the respective Linux / BSD distro, on Debian and Ubuntu Linux usually the naming includes a version number.

On Debian 9 Strecth Linux dosbox config is at ~/.dosbox/dosbox-0.74.conf

Edit the file
 

$ vim ~/.dosbox/dosbox-0.74.conf


and change inside the value for:

 

 

 

core=auto

to

core=normal

Then give dosbox with the erroring game another try, it worked for me
for me and everything seemed to run fine.

I've only run a handful of games but so far it seems to be working well.

If it does work but performance is degraded and tooks a huch hit on Gameplay you better try to substitute
 

core=normal

to
 

core=simple


AND HOORAY IT WORKS AGAIN! THE GAME RUN SUCCESSFULLY JOY TO THE WORLD! 🙂

Make Apache webserver fix spelling mistyped URL errors and serve files case insensitive with mod_speling

Wednesday, July 16th, 2014

make_apache_fix_mistyped_spelling_urls_errors_and_serve_files_case_insensitive_mod_speling_logo
On most if not all modern GNU / Linux distributions, Apache webserver comes preinstalled with mod_speling.

What mod_speling does is it tries to find and serve files and directories for non-existing  (404 return code) urls with a similar name to passed URL. Other thing mod_speling does is it serves files case-insensitive, even though the UNIX / Linux filesystems are built to understand files case-sensitive.

mod_speling is a very useful module especially when files are being pushed (synchronized) to Apache visible from web document folder from operating systems like Windows whose filesystem doesn't store files case sensitive.

Let me give you a small example on M$ Windows a create file NewFile.html, NEWFILE.HTML, NeWfIlE.Html etc. are one and the same file newfile.html and not 3 different files like it is usually on UNIX / Linux filesystems.

If you happen to migrate old static Websites from Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) to UNIX / Linux based hosting. Often Html coders which create websites on Windows platform doesn't respect in website hyperlinks case-sensitive, because anyways Windows FS is case-insetive, thus moving the website to Linux host with Apache the website/s will end up with many 404 error pages, whose fixing for big static websites will be a real pain in the ass.

Also there might be need for mod_speling module enabled, for PHP / Python / Perl websites developed on MS Windows platform and tested on Windows host and then officially to be deployed on Linux.

Note that mod_speling name as a funny thing as actually the module is also converting mis-pelled / mis-typed Apache URLs:

If for example, someone tried to link to your website from a forum mistyping the URL address with mod_speling the mistyped URL could still be handled to open the real existing URL:

Lets say you have URL:
 

http://your-domain.com/files/what-Ever-fle.php


and the actual URL is:

http://your-domain.com/files/what-Ever-file.php

 

mod_speling will make Apache scan in /files/ for any files with similar name to what-Ever-fle.php and will open any similar matched file name, preventing you from the normal 404 error and therefore often serving exactly what it has to. Of course such a behavior could be unwanted in same cases for CMSes, which depend on 404 error code for proper operating, so be very sure when configuring mod_speling that this is exactly what you need.

mod_speling can be also useful sometimes for Search Engine Optimization – SEO, as it will show less 404 pages to Crawler search engine bots.

1. Enable mod_speling module on Debian GNU / Linux and Ubuntu

Enabling mod_speling in Apache in Debian / Ubuntu etc. debian based Linuxes is done with either creating symlink from /etc/apache2/mods-available/speling.load to /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/speling.load :
 

ln -sf /etc/apache2/mods-available/speling.load /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/speling.load

Or by using a2enmodDebian apache module enabling script:
 

a2ensite sitename


To enable mod_speling mis-speling resolve feature config directive is:

 

CheckSpelling on


To disable case sensitivity – as I said earlier helpful for migrations from Microsoft Windows hosts to Linux, use directive:

CheckCaseOnly on


To enable both use:

<IfModule mod_speling.c>
    CheckCaseOnly on
    CheckSpelling on
</IfModule>

Enabling mod_speling case-insensitivity and fixing mistypes in URL could be done from .htaccess, for any <Directory> (vhost) with enabled .htaccess with

AllowOverride All

To enable it for default set host in new Apache install place it in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf and /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default

Then as usual to make the configuration changes take affect, restart Apache:
 

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart


2. Enablig mod_speling on CentOS, RHEL and Fedora Linux

 

Most of RPM based Linux distributions have already mod_speling by default in Apache, so there will be no need to explicitly enable the module within HTTPD.

To check whether mod_speling is already enabled in httpd issue:
 

/usr/sbin/httpd -M |grep -i mod_speling


If you don't get no output from command this means the module is not enabled. This is the case with CentOS Linux 6.5 for example …

To enable mod_speling on Apache level add in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

LoadModule speling_module modules/mod_speling.so

and restart webserver
 

/etc/init.d/httpd restart


If you get instead
 

/usr/sbin/httpd -M |grep -i mod_speling
speling_module (shared)

 

Then it is already loaded in HTTPD to enable the module for default domain add to /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf – within (<Directory "/var/www/html">),

<IfModule mod_speling.c>
    CheckCaseOnly on
    CheckSpelling on
</IfModule>

Or if you want to make it active for specific directories within /var/www/html/whatever-dir use either new <Directory ..> directive within Apache config, or enable .htaccess processing with AllowOverride All and place them in .htaccess . For complete mod_speling reference check on Apache's official website

Fix MySQL connection error – Host ” is blocked because of many connection errors; unblock with ‘mysqladmin flush-hosts’

Wednesday, July 2nd, 2014

fix-mysql-too-many-connection-errors-explained

If you get a MySQL error like:

Host '' is blocked because of many connection errors; unblock with 'mysqladmin flush-hosts'

This most likely means your PHP / Java whatever programming language application connecting to MySQL is failing to authenticate with the application created (existing) or that the application is trying too many connections to MySQL in a rate where MySQL server can't serve all the requests.

Some common errors for Too many Connection errors are:
 

  • Networking Problem
  • Server itself could be down
  • Authentication Problems
  • Maximum Connection Errors allowed.

The value of the max_connection_errors system variable determines how many successive interrupted connection requests are permitted to myqsl server.
 

Well anyways if you get the:

Host '' is blocked because of many connection errors; unblock with 'mysqladmin flush-hosts'

You can consider this a sure sign application connections to MySQLis logging a lot of error connections, for some reason.
This error could also appear on very busy websites where high amount of separete connections are used – I've seen the error occur on PHP websites whether mysql_pconnect(); is selected in favour of the prooved working mysql_connect();

The first thing to do before changing / increasing default set of max connection errors is to check how many max connection errors are set within MySQL?

For that connect with MySQL CLI and issue:
 

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '%error%';


+——————–+————————————————————-+
| Variable_name      | Value                                                           |
+——————–+————————————————————-+
| error_count        | 0                                                                     |
| log_error          | /var/log/mysql//mysqld.log                                |
| max_connect_errors | 10000                                                      |
| max_error_count    | 64                                                               |
| slave_skip_errors  | OFF                                                             |
+——————–+————————————————————-+


A very useful mysql cli command in debugging max connection errors reached problem is

mysql> SHOW PROCESSLIST;

 

To solve the error, try to tune in /etc/my.cnf, /etc/mysql/my.cnf or wherever my.cnf is located:

[mysqld]
max_connect_errors
variable

and

wait_timeout var. Some reasonable variable size would be:

max_connect_errors = 100000
wait_timeout = 60

If such (anyways) high values is still not high enough you can raise mysql config connection timeout

 

to

max_connect_errors = 100000000

Also if you want to try raise max_connect_errors var without making it permanenty (i.e. remember var setting after MySQL service restart), set it from MySQL cli with:

SET GLOBAL max_connect_errors


If you want to keep the set default max_connection_errors and fix it temporary, you can try to follow the error

Host '' is blocked because of many connection errors; unblock with 'mysqladmin flush-hosts'

suggestion and issue in root console:

mysqladmin flush-hosts

Same could also be done from MySQL Cli with cmd:
 

FLUSH HOSTS;

Allowing MySQL users access from all hosts – Fixing mysql ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root’@’remote-admin.com’ (using password: YES)

Friday, June 20th, 2014

mysql_allow_access-from-remote-any-host-fix-access-error-after-sql-migration

I recently migrated MySQL database server from host A to host B (remotesystemadministration.com), because I wanted to have the mysql database server on a separate machine (have separation of server running services and have a dedicated mysql server).

MySQL server host (running on localhost previously was set from my mysql config my.cnf to listen and serve connections on localhost with

bind-address = 127.0.0.1

). MySQL is used by a Tomcat running Java application on localhost and my task was to set the Tomcat to use the MySQL database remotely to MySQL host B (new remote hostname where MySQL is moved is  remotesystemadminsitration.com and is running on IP 83.228.93.76).

Migration from MySQL Db server 1 (host A) to MySQL Db server 2 (host B) is done by binary copying the mysql database directory which in this case is (as it is a Debian server installed MySQL), the standard directory where mysql stores its database data is /var/lib/mysql ( datadir = /var/lib/mysql in /etc/mysql/my.cnf)

Binary copying of data from MySQL db (host A) to MySQL Db (host B) is done with rsync

After migrating and trying to login on migrated mysql  database on remotesystemadministration.net with mysql cli client:

remotesysadmin:~$ mysql -u root -p

I got following error:
 

ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'remotesystemadministration.com' (using password: YES)


To fix the issue I had to login remotely from old migration server mysql (host A) cli:

mysql:~$ mysql -u root -p -h remotesystemadministration.com

and  run SQL commands:

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'remotesystemadministration.com' WITH GRANT OPTION;
GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'root'@'remotesystemadministration.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'secret-mysql-pass';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)


Another way to solve the problem is to add the root user to be able to connect from any host (Enable MySQL root access from all host), to do so issue:

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Note: In newer version of MySQL, flush privileges could be omitted.

Another approach if you want to substitute access from localhost for all users and enable all users to be able to authenticate to mysql remotely is to execute SQL Query:

UPDATE USER SET host='%' WHERE host='localhost';

Allowing all users to be able to connect from anywhere on the internet is a very bad security practice anyways, if you already have a tight firewall setup and you can only access the server via specific remote IP addresses allowing MySQL access from all hosts / ips should be ok.