Archive for the ‘Linux’ Category

How to configure haproxy logging to separate file on Redhat Enterprise Linux 8.5 Ootpa

Thursday, February 3rd, 2022

haproxy-rsyslog-architecture-logging-picture

Configuring proper logging for haproxy is always a pain in the ass in Linux, because of rsyslogd various config syntax among versions, because of bugs in OS etc. 
Today we have been given 2 Redhat 8.5 Linux servers where we had a task to start configuring haproxies, to have an idea on what is going on of course we had to enable proper haproxy logging in separate log file under separate local, for the test one can use haproxy's 

log /dev/log local6

config, this is a general way to configure logging which I've described earlier in the article How to enable haproxy logging to a separate log /var/log/haproxy.log / prevent duplicate messages to appear in /var/log/messages
However this time I wanted to not use /dev/log as this device is also used by systemd / journald and theoretically could be used by other services and there might be multiple services logging to the same places possibly leading to some issue, thus I wanted to send and process the haproxy messages directly from rsyslog on RHEL 8.5.

Create a custom file that is loaded with the rest of configuration from /etc/rsyslog.conf with a line like:
 

# Include all config files in /etc/rsyslog.d/
include(file="/etc/rsyslog.d/*.conf" mode="optional")


Create 49_haproxy.conf with below content

[root@haproxy: ~]# vim /etc/rsyslog.d/49_haproxy.conf

$ModLoad imudp
$UDPServerAddress 127.0.0.1
$UDPServerRun 514
#2022/02/02: HAProxy logs to local6, save the messages
local6.*                                                /var/log/haproxy.log
if ($programname == 'haproxy') then -/var/log/haproxy.log
& stop

touch /var/log/haproxy.log
chown haproxy:haproxy /var/log/haproxy.log

In /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg under global section to print in verbose mode messages (i.e. check, the haproxy is receiving properly sent traffic) do configure something like:

 

global
  log          127.0.0.1 local6 debug


Eventually you might want to remove the debug word out of the config, if you don't want to log too much verbosily once everything is properly tested and configured

[root@haproxy: ~]# curl -v -c -k 10.10.192.135:16010
* Rebuilt URL to: 10.10.192.135:15010/
*   Trying 10.10.192.135…
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to 10.10.192.135 (10.10.192.135) port 15010 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: 10.10.192.135:15010
> User-Agent: curl/7.61.1
> Accept: */*

* Empty reply from server
* Connection #0 to host 10.10.192.135 left intact
curl: (52) Empty reply from server

 

In /var/log/haproxy.log you should get some messages like:
 

Feb  3 14:16:44 localhost.localdomain haproxy[25029]: proxy IN_Traffic_Bak has no server available!
Feb  3 14:16:44 localhost.localdomain haproxy[25029]: proxy IN_Traffic_Bak has no server available!
Feb  3 15:59:50 localhost.localdomain haproxy[25029]: [03/Feb/2022:15:59:50.162] 10.44.192.135:1348 -:- IN_Traffic/<NOSRV>:- -1/-1/0 0 SC 1/1/0/0/0 0/0
Feb  3 15:59:50 localhost.localdomain haproxy[25029]: [03/Feb/2022:15:59:50.162] 10.44.192.135:1348 -:- IN_Traffic/<NOSRV>:- -1/-1/0 0 SC 1/1/0/0/0 0/0
Feb  3 15:59:50 localhost.localdomain haproxy[25029]: [03/Feb/2022:15:59:50.162] 10.44.192.135:1348 -:- IN_Traffic/<NOSRV>:- -1/-1/0 0 SC 1/1/0/0/0 0/0

 

How to disable appArmor automatically installed and loaded after Linux Debian 10 to 11 Upgrade. Disable Apparmour on Deb based Linux

Friday, January 28th, 2022

check-apparmor-status-linux-howto-disable-Apparmor_on-debian-ubuntu-mint-and-other-deb-based-linux-distributions

I've upgraded recently all my machines from Debian Buster Linux 10 to Debian 11 Bullseye (if you wonder what Bullseye is) this is one of the heroes of Disneys Toy Stories which are used for a naming of General Debian Distributions.
After the upgrade most of the things worked expected, expect from some stuff like MariaDB (MySQL) and other weirdly behaving services. After some time of investigation being unable to find out what was causing the random issues observed on the machines. I finally got the strange daemon improper functioning and crashing was caused by AppArmor.

AppArmor ("Application Armor") is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict programs' capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. AppArmor supplements the traditional Unix discretionary access control (DAC) model by providing mandatory access control (MAC). It has been partially included in the mainline Linux kernel since version 2.6.36 and its development has been supported by Canonical since 2009.

The general idea of apparmor is wonderful as it could really strengthen system security, however it should be setup on install time and not setup on update time. For one more time I got convinced myself that upgrading from version to version to keep up to date with security is a hard task and often the results are too much unexpected and a better way to upgrade from General version to version any modern Linux / Unix distribution (and their forked mobile equivalents Android etc.) is to just make a copy of the most important configuration, setup the services on a freshly new installed machine be it virtual or a physical Server and rebuild the whole system from scratch, test and then run the system in production, substituting the old server general version with the new machine. 

The rest is leading to so much odd issues like this time with AppArmors causing distractions on the servers hosted applications.

But enough rent if you're unlucky and unwise enough to try to Upgrade Debian / Ubuntu 20, 21 / Mint 18, 19 etc. or whatever Deb distro from older general release to a newer One. Perhaps the best first thing to do onwards is stop and remove AppArmor (those who are hardcore enthusiasts could try to enable the failing services due to apparmor), by disabling the respective apparmor hardening profile but i did not have time to waste on stupid stuff and experiment so I preferred to completely stop it. 

To identify the upgrade oddities has to deal with apparmors service enabled security protections you should be able to find respective records inside /var/log/messages as well as in /var/log/audit/audit.log

 

# dmesg

[   64.210463] audit: type=1400 audit(1548120161.662:21): apparmor="DENIED" operation="sendmsg" info="Failed name lookup – disconnected path" error=-13 profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="run/systemd/notify" pid=2527 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=113 ouid=0
[  144.364055] audit: type=1400 audit(1548120241.595:22): apparmor="DENIED" operation="sendmsg" info="Failed name lookup – disconnected path" error=-13 profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="run/systemd/notify" pid=2527 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=113 ouid=0
[  144.465883] audit: type=1400 audit(1548120241.699:23): apparmor="DENIED" operation="sendmsg" info="Failed name lookup – disconnected path" error=-13 profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="run/systemd/notify" pid=2527 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=113 ouid=0
[  144.566363] audit: type=1400 audit(1548120241.799:24): apparmor="DENIED" operation="sendmsg" info="Failed name lookup – disconnected path" error=-13 profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="run/systemd/notify" pid=2527 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=113 ouid=0
[  144.666722] audit: type=1400 audit(1548120241.899:25): apparmor="DENIED" operation="sendmsg" info="Failed name lookup – disconnected path" error=-13 profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="run/systemd/notify" pid=2527 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=113 ouid=0
[  144.767069] audit: type=1400 audit(1548120241.999:26): apparmor="DENIED" operation="sendmsg" info="Failed name lookup – disconnected path" error=-13 profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="run/systemd/notify" pid=2527 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=113 ouid=0
[  144.867432] audit: type=1400 audit(1548120242.099:27): apparmor="DENIED" operation="sendmsg" info="Failed name lookup – disconnected path" error=-13 profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="run/systemd/notify" pid=2527 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="w" denied_mask="w" fsuid=113 ouid=0


1. How to check if AppArmor is running on the system

If you have a system with enabled apparmor you should get some output like:

root@haproxy2:~# apparmor_status 
apparmor module is loaded.
5 profiles are loaded.
5 profiles are in enforce mode.
   /usr/sbin/ntpd
   lsb_release
   nvidia_modprobe
   nvidia_modprobe//kmod
   tcpdump
0 profiles are in complain mode.
1 processes have profiles defined.
1 processes are in enforce mode.
   /usr/sbin/ntpd (387) 
0 processes are in complain mode.
0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.


Also if you check the service you will find out that Debian's Major Release upgrade from 10 Buster to 11 BullsEye with.

apt update -y && apt upgrade -y && apt dist-update -y

automatically installed apparmor and started the service, e.g.:

# systemctl status apparmor
● apparmor.service – Load AppArmor profiles
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apparmor.service; enabled; vendor pres>
     Active: active (exited) since Sat 2022-01-22 23:04:58 EET; 5 days ago
       Docs: man:apparmor(7)
             https://gitlab.com/apparmor/apparmor/wikis/home/
    Process: 205 ExecStart=/lib/apparmor/apparmor.systemd reload (code=exited, >
   Main PID: 205 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
        CPU: 43ms

яну 22 23:04:58 haproxy2 apparmor.systemd[205]: Restarting AppArmor
яну 22 23:04:58 haproxy2 apparmor.systemd[205]: Reloading AppArmor profiles
яну 22 23:04:58 haproxy2 systemd[1]: Starting Load AppArmor profiles…
яну 22 23:04:58 haproxy2 systemd[1]: Finished Load AppArmor profiles.

 

# dpkg -l |grep -i apparmor
ii  apparmor                          2.13.6-10                      amd64        user-space parser utility for AppArmor
ii  libapparmor1:amd64                2.13.6-10                      amd64        changehat AppArmor library
ii  libapparmor-perl:amd64               2.13.6-10


In case AppArmor is disabled, you will get something like:

root@pcfrxenweb:~# aa-status 
apparmor module is loaded.
0 profiles are loaded.
0 profiles are in enforce mode.
0 profiles are in complain mode.
0 processes have profiles defined.
0 processes are in enforce mode.
0 processes are in complain mode.
0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined.


2. How to disable AppArmor for particular running services processes

In my case after the upgrade of a system running a MySQL Server suddenly out of nothing after reboot the Database couldn't load up properly and if I try to restart it with the usual

root@pcfrxen: /# systemctl restart mariadb

I started getting errors like:

DBI connect failed : Can't connect to local MySQL server through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (2)

To get an idea of what kind of profile definitions, could be enabled disabled on apparmor enabled system do:
 

root@pcfrxen:/var/log# ls -1 /etc/apparmor.d/
abstractions/
force-complain/
local/
lxc/
lxc-containers
samba/
system_tor
tunables/
usr.bin.freshclam
usr.bin.lxc-start
usr.bin.man
usr.bin.tcpdump
usr.lib.telepathy
usr.sbin.clamd
usr.sbin.cups-browsed
usr.sbin.cupsd
usr.sbin.ejabberdctl
usr.sbin.mariadbd
usr.sbin.mysqld
usr.sbin.named
usr.sbin.ntpd
usr.sbin.privoxy
usr.sbin.squid

Lets say you want to disable any protection AppArmor profile for MySQL you can do it with:

root@pcfrxen:/ #  ln -s /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld /etc/apparmor.d/disable/
root@pcfrxen:/ # apparmor_parser -R /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld 


To make the system know you have disabled a profile you should restart apparmor service:
 

root@pcfrxen:/ # systemctl restart apparmor.service


3. Disable completely AppArmor to save your time weird system behavior and hang bangs

In my opinion the best thing to do anyways, especially if you don't run Containerized applications, that runs only one single application / service at at time is to completely disable apparmor, otherwise you would have to manually check each of the running applications before the upgrade and make sure that apparmor did not bring havoc to some of it.
Hence my way was to simple get rid of apparmor by disable and remove the related package completely out of the system to do so:

root@pcfrxen:/ # systemctl stop apparmor
root@pcfrxen:/ # systemctl disable apparmor
root@pcfrxen:/ # apt-get remove -y apparmor

Once  disabled to make the system completely load out anything loaded related to apparmor loaded into system memory, you should do machine reboot.

root@pcfrxen:/ # shutdown -r now

Hopefully if you run into same issue after removal of apparmor most of the things should be working fine after the upgrade. Anyways I had to go through each and every app everywhere and make sure it is working as expected. The major release upgrade has also automatically enabled me some of the already disable services, thus if you have upgraded like me I would advice you do a close check on every enabled / running service everywhere:

root@pcfrxen:/# systemctl list-unit-files|grep -i enabled

Beware of AppArmor  !!! 🙂

Linux script to periodically log enabled systemctl services, configured network IPs and routings, server established connections and iptables firewall rules

Tuesday, January 25th, 2022

bash-script-command-line-script-logo

For those who are running some kind of server be it virtual or physical, where multiple people or many systemins have access, sometimes it could be quite a mess as someone due to miscommunication or whatever could change something on the configured Network Ethernet interfaces, or configured routing tables, or simply issue an update which might change the set of automatically set to run systemctl services due to update. Such changes on a Linux server Operating system often can remain unnoticed and could cause quite a harm. Even when the change is noticed the logical question occurs what was the previous network route on the server or what kind of network was configured on Ethernet interface ethX etc. 
Problems like the described where, pretty common in many public Private Clouds or VMWare / XEN based Hypervisors that host multiple  Virtual machines, for that reason I've developed a small script which is pretty dumb on the first glimpse but mostly useful as it keeps historical records of such important information.
 

#!/bin/sh
# script to show configured services on system, configured IPs, netstat state and network routes
# Script to be used during CentOS and Redhat Enterprise Linux RPM package updates with yum

output_file=network_ip_routes_services_status;
ddate=$(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S');
iptables=$(which iptables);
if [ ! -d /root/logs/ ]; then
mkdir /root/logs/;
fi

echo "STARTED: $(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S'):" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# systemctl list-unit-files\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
systemctl list-unit-files –type=service | grep enabled | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e '# systemctl | grep ".service" | grep "running"\n' | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
systemctl | grep ".service" | grep "running" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# netstat -tulpn\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
netstat -tulpn | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# netstat -r\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
netstat -r | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# ip a s\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
ip a s | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# /sbin/route -n\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
/sbin/route -n | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# $iptables -L -n\n" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo -e "# $iptables -t nat -L" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
$iptables -L -n | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
$iptables -t nat -L | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log
echo "ENDED $(date '+%Y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S'):" | tee -a /root/logs/$output_file-$(hostname)-$ddate.log

 

Script produces its logs inside  /root/logs/network_ip_routes_services_status*hostname*currentdate*.log, put the script inside /root/ or wherever you like.

To keep an eye how network routing or ip configuration or firewall changed or there was a peak with the established connections towards daemons running on host (lets say requiring a machine upgrade), I've set the script to run as usually via cron job at the end of the predefined cron job tasks, like so:

# crontab -u root -e
# periodic dump and log network routing tables, netstat and systemctl list-unit-files
*/1 01 01,25 * * /root/show_running_services_netstat_ips_route1.sh 2>&1 >/dev/null

You can download a copy of show_running_services_netstat_ips_route1.sh script here.
The script is written without much of efficiency on mind, as you can see the with the multiple tee -a and for critical hosts it might be a good idea to rewrite it to use '>>' OPERAND instead, anyhows as most machines today are pretty powerful it doesn't really matter much.

Of course today such a script is quite archaic, as most big corporations are using much more complex monitoring software such as Zabbix, Prometheus or if some kind of Elastic Search is used Kibana etc. but for a basic needs and even for a double checking and comparing with other more advanced monitoring tools  (in case if monitoring tools  database gets damaged or temporary down until backupped), still I think such an oldschool simple monitoring script can be of use.

A good addition to that if you use a central logging server is to set another cron to periodically synchronize produced /root/logs/* to somewhere, here is how to do it with simple rsync (considering your host is configured to login with a user without password with ssh key authentication).

# HOSTNAME=$(hostname); rsync -axHv –ignore-existing -e 'ssh -p 22' /bashscripts/  -q -i –out-format="%t %f %b" –log-file=/var/log/rsync_sync_jobs.log –info=progress2 root@BACKUP_SERVER_HOST:/$(HOSTNAME)-logs/

Once something strange occurs with the machine, like the machine needs to be rebuild

I would be glad to hear if some of my readers uses some useful script which I can adopt myself. Cheers  🙂

CentOS 8 / Redhat 8 insert additional guests additions to VM to enable Fullscreen, Copy / Paste and Shared Folder from host OS

Monday, January 10th, 2022

virtualbox-guest-additions-install-on-centos-8.3-linux-oracle-logo

My experience with enabling virtualbox additions guest tools on many of the separate Linux distributions throughout time is pretty bad as it always is a pain in the ass to enable fully functional full screen and copy paste for Virtualbox…
 
For those who installed it for a first time vbox guest addition tools for Virtualbox are additional software components added so the Emulated Operating system
could allow better screen resolution and better mouse integration support.

So far I've installed virtualbox additions tools to CentOS 7 and Debian Linux various releases and faced complications there as well.
Few days ago my colleague Georgi Stoyanov have installed CentOS 8.3 with current version of VirtualBox 6.1 (vesrsion from beginning of 2022) and he has also shared had issues with enabling the CentOS 8.3 Linux to work with guestadditions but eventually found a resolution.

Thus he has shared with me the solution and I share it with you, so hopefully someone else could enable Guesttools on his CentOS 8.3 with less digging online.
The error received is:

# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

Trying to install Guest Additions in RHEL 8.3.

VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel
modules. This may take a while.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: To build modules for other installed kernels, run
VirtualBox Guest Additions: /sbin/rcvboxadd quicksetup
VirtualBox Guest Additions: or
VirtualBox Guest Additions: /sbin/rcvboxadd quicksetup all
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the modules for kernel
4.18.0-193.el8.x86_64.

VirtualBox Guest Additions: Look at /var/log/vboxadd-setup.log to find out what
went wrong
ValueError: File context for /opt/VBoxGuestAdditions-6.0.20/other/mount.vboxsf already defined
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Running kernel modules will not be replaced until
the system is restarted
Press Return to close this window…

No idea what to do next. Been trying for sometime.


To enable guestaddtions in CentOS 8.3, e.g. get arount the error you have to:


1. Install all necessery dependncies RPMs required by GuestAddition tools

 

# dnf install tar bzip2 kernel-devel-$(uname -r) kernel-headers perl gcc make elfutils-libelf-devel

# dnf -y install gcc automake make kernel-headers dkms bzip2 libxcrypt-compat kernel-devel perl

2.  Run below semanage and restorecon commands

 

# semanage fcontext -d /opt/VBoxGuestAdditions-/other/mount.vboxsf
# restorecon /opt/VBoxGuestAdditions-/other/mount.vboxsf

 

3.  Insert Virtualbox guest additions ISO and Run it

 

centos-insert-guest-additions-linux-virtualbox-screenshot
 

Devices -> Insert Guest Additions CD Image

 

Click Run button to exec Vbox_GAs_6.0.18 script or run it manually

Run-Guest-Additions-screenshot-virtualbox-centos-8

or mount it manually with mount command and execute the VBoxLinuxAdditions.run to do so:

 

$ cd /run/media/`whoami`/VB*
$ su
# ./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run
Installing additional modules …
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Building the VirtualBox Guest Additions kernel modules.  This may take a while.
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Running kernel modules will not be replaced until the system is restarted
VirtualBox Guest Additions: Starting.

 

4. Reboot the VM
 

# reboot

5. Check and Confirm Virtualbox guest additions are properly installed and running
 

# lsmod | grep vbox

 

6. Enable Copy / Paste from to Virttual Machine e.g. Shared Clipboard / Shared Folder etc.

 

Share-Clipboard-in-Virtualbox-screenshot-centos-8

 

The three options most useful besides the support for FullScreen OS emulation by Virtualbox to enable right after
guesttools is on are:


1. Devices -> Shared Clipboard -> Bidirectional
2. Devices -> Drag and Drop -> Bidirectional
3. Devices -> Shared Folders -> Shared Folder Settings

 

Log rsyslog script incoming tagged string message to separate external file to prevent /var/log/message from string flood

Wednesday, December 22nd, 2021

rsyslog_logo-log-external-tag-scripped-messages-to-external-file-linux-howto

If you're using some external bash script to log messages via rsyslogd to some of the multiple rsyslog understood data tubes (called in rsyslog language facility levels) and you want Rsyslog to move message string to external log file, then you had the same task as me few days ago.

For example you have a bash shell script that is writting a message to rsyslog daemon to some of the predefined facility levels be it:
 

kern,user,cron, auth etc. or some local

and your logged script data ends under the wrong file location /var/log/messages , /var/log/secure , var/log/cron etc. However  you need to log everything coming from that service to a separate file based on the localX (fac. level) the usual way to do it is via some config like, as you would usually do it with rsyslog variables as:
 

local1.info                                            /var/log/custom-log.log

# Don't log private authentication messages!
*.info;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none;local0.none;local1.none        /var/log/messages


Note the local1.none is instructing the rsyslog not to log anything from local1 facility towards /var/log/message. 
But what if this due to some weirdness in configuration of rsyslog on the server or even due to some weird misconfiguration in

/etc/systemd/journald.conf such as:

[Journal]
Storage=persistent
RateLimitInterval=0s
RateLimitBurst=0
SystemMaxUse=128M
SystemMaxFileSize=32M
MaxRetentionSec=1month
MaxFileSec=1week
ForwardToSyslog=yes
SplitFiles=none

Due to that config and especially the FowardToSyslog=yes, the messages sent via the logger tool to local1 still end up inside /var/log/messages, not nice huh ..

The result out of that is anything being sent with a predefined TAGGED string via the whatever.sh script which uses the logger command  (if you never use it check man logger) to enter message into rsyslog with cmd like:
 

# logger -p local1.info -t TAG_STRING

# logger -p local2.warn test
# tail -2 /var/log/messages
Dec 22 18:58:23 pcfreak rsyslogd: — MARK —
Dec 22 19:07:12 pcfreak hipo: test


was nevertheless logged to /var/log/message.
Of course /var/log/message becomes so overfilled with "junk" shell script data not related to real basic Operating system adminsitration, so this prevented any critical or important messages that usually should come under /var/log/message / /var/log/syslog to be lost among the big quantities of other tagged tata reaching the log.

After many attempts to resolve the issue by modifying /etc/rsyslog.conf as well as the messed /etc/systemd/journald.conf (which by the way was generated with this strange values with an OS install time automation ansible stuff). It took me a while until I found the solution on how to tell rsyslog to log the tagged message strings into an external separate file. From my 20 minutes of research online I have seen multitudes of people in different Linux OS versions to experience the same or similar issues due to whatever, thus this triggered me to write this small article on the solution to rsyslog.

The solution turned to be pretty easy but requires some further digging into rsyslog, Redhat's basic configuration on rsyslog documentation is a very nice reading for starters, in my case I've used one of the Propery-based compare-operations variable contains used to select my tagged message string.
 

1. Add msg contains compare-operations to output log file and discard the messages

[root@centos bin]# vi /etc/rsyslog.conf

# config to log everything logged to rsyslog to a separate file
:msg, contains, "tag_string:/"         /var/log/custom-script-log.log
:msg, contains, "tag_string:/"    ~

Substitute quoted tag_string:/ to whatever your tag is and mind that it is better this config is better to be placed somewhere near the beginning of /etc/rsyslog.conf and touch the file /var/log/custom-script-log.log and give it some decent permissions such as 755, i.e.
 

1.1 Discarding a message


The tilda sign –  

as placed to the end of the msg, contains is the actual one to tell the string to be discarded so it did not end in /var/log/messages.

Alternative rsyslog config to do discard the unwanted message once you have it logged is with the
rawmsg variable, like so:

 

# config to log everything logged to rsyslog to a separate file
:msg, contains, "tag_string:/"         /var/log/custom-script-log.log
:rawmsg, isequal, "tag_string:/" stop

Other way to stop logging immediately after log is written to custom file across some older versions of rsyslog is via the &stop

:msg, contains, "tag_string:/"         /var/log/custom-script-log.log
& stop

I don't know about other versions but Unfortunately the &stop does not work on RHEL 7.9 with installed rpm package rsyslog-8.24.0-57.el7_9.1.x86_64.

1.2 More with property based filters basic exclusion of string 

Property based filters can do much more, you can for example, do regular expression based matches of strings coming to rsyslog and forward to somewhere.

To select syslog messages which do not contain any mention of the words fatal and error with any or no text between them (for example, fatal lib error), type:

:msg, !regex, "fatal .* error"

 

2. Create file where tagged data should be logged and set proper permissions
 

[root@centos bin]# touch /var/log/custom-script-log.log
[root@centos bin]# chmod 755 /var/log/custom-script-log.log


3. Test rsyslogd configuration for errors and reload rsyslog

[root@centos ]# rsyslogd -N1
rsyslogd: version 8.24.0-57.el7_9.1, config validation run (level 1), master config /etc/rsyslog.conf
rsyslogd: End of config validation run. Bye.

[root@centos ]# systemctl restart rsyslog
[root@centos ]#  systemctl status rsyslog 
● rsyslog.service – System Logging Service
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/rsyslog.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Wed 2021-12-22 13:40:11 CET; 3h 5min ago
     Docs: man:rsyslogd(8)
           http://www.rsyslog.com/doc/
 Main PID: 108600 (rsyslogd)
   CGroup: /system.slice/rsyslog.service
           └─108600 /usr/sbin/rsyslogd -n

 

4. Property-based compare-operations supported by rsyslog table
 

Compare-operation Description
contains Checks whether the provided string matches any part of the text provided by the property. To perform case-insensitive comparisons, use  contains_i .
isequal Compares the provided string against all of the text provided by the property. These two values must be exactly equal to match.
startswith Checks whether the provided string is found exactly at the beginning of the text provided by the property. To perform case-insensitive comparisons, use  startswith_i .
regex Compares the provided POSIX BRE (Basic Regular Expression) against the text provided by the property.
ereregex Compares the provided POSIX ERE (Extended Regular Expression) regular expression against the text provided by the property.
isempty Checks if the property is empty. The value is discarded. This is especially useful when working with normalized data, where some fields may be populated based on normalization result.

 


5. Rsyslog understanding Facility levels

Here is a list of facility levels that can be used.

Note: The mapping between Facility Number and Keyword is not uniform over different operating systems and different syslog implementations, so among separate Linuxes there might be diference in the naming and numbering.

Facility Number Keyword Facility Description
0 kern kernel messages
1 user user-level messages
2 mail mail system
3 daemon system daemons
4 auth security/authorization messages
5 syslog messages generated internally by syslogd
6 lpr line printer subsystem
7 news network news subsystem
8 uucp UUCP subsystem
9   clock daemon
10 authpriv security/authorization messages
11 ftp FTP daemon
12 NTP subsystem
13 log audit
14 log alert
15 cron clock daemon
16 local0 local use 0 (local0)
17 local1 local use 1 (local1)
18 local2 local use 2 (local2)
19 local3 local use 3 (local3)
20 local4 local use 4 (local4)
21 local5 local use 5 (local5)
22 local6 local use 6 (local6)
23 local7 local use 7 (local7)


6. rsyslog Severity levels (sublevels) accepted by facility level

As defined in RFC 5424, there are eight severity levels as of year 2021:

Code Severity Keyword Description General Description
0 Emergency emerg (panic) System is unusable. A "panic" condition usually affecting multiple apps/servers/sites. At this level it would usually notify all tech staff on call.
1 Alert alert Action must be taken immediately. Should be corrected immediately, therefore notify staff who can fix the problem. An example would be the loss of a primary ISP connection.
2 Critical crit Critical conditions. Should be corrected immediately, but indicates failure in a primary system, an example is a loss of a backup ISP connection.
3 Error err (error) Error conditions. Non-urgent failures, these should be relayed to developers or admins; each item must be resolved within a given time.
4 Warning warning (warn) Warning conditions. Warning messages, not an error, but indication that an error will occur if action is not taken, e.g. file system 85% full – each item must be resolved within a given time.
5 Notice notice Normal but significant condition. Events that are unusual but not error conditions – might be summarized in an email to developers or admins to spot potential problems – no immediate action required.
6 Informational info Informational messages. Normal operational messages – may be harvested for reporting, measuring throughput, etc. – no action required.
7 Debug debug Debug-level messages. Info useful to developers for debugging the application, not useful during operations.


7. Sample well tuned configuration using severity and facility levels and immark, imuxsock, impstats
 

Below is sample config using severity and facility levels
 

# Don't log private authentication messages!
*.info;mail.none;authpriv.none;cron.none;local0.none;local1.none        /var/log/messages


Note the local0.none; local1.none tells rsyslog to not log from that facility level to /var/log/messages.

If you need a complete set of rsyslog configuration fine tuned to have a proper logging with increased queues and included configuration for loggint to remote log aggegator service as well as other measures to prevent the system disk from being filled in case if something goes wild with a logging service leading to a repeatedly messages you might always contact me and I can help 🙂
 Other from that sysadmins might benefit from a sample set of configuration prepared with the Automated rsyslog config builder  or use some fine tuned config  for rsyslog-8.24.0-57.el7_9.1.x86_64 on Redhat 7.9 (Maipo)   rsyslog_config_redhat-2021.tar.gz.

To sum it up rsyslog though looks simple and not an important thing to pre

Set proxy only for apt, apt-get, aptitude package manager on Debian / Ubuntu Linux

Wednesday, December 22nd, 2021

debian-package-manager-run-via-a-proxy

 

Intro

Main console package install apt-get / apt and / aptitude did not use the HTTP Proxy environment variables by default as there is no default proxy set on Debian / Ubuntu / Mint and other deb based distros after OS Install. Under some circunstances for DMZ placed or firewall secured servers, direct access to internet address or even Package repository is only allowed via a proxy and hence the package manager needs to have a proxy host set.
 Setting a global wide proxy on Linux is easily possible by setting http_proxy="http://yourhost.com:8080" and https_proxy or if FTP connection via ftp_proxy somewhere in /etc/profile , /etc/bashrc or via /etc/environment but as using this Shell variables set it global wide for all applications lynx / links / wget / curl, sometimes it is useful to set the Proxy host only for deb package management tools.

Note that if you want to set a proxy host for deb operations this can be done during initial OS install installation, the Apt configuration file would have been automatically updated then. 

Creating  an Apt Proxy Conf File

Apt loads all configuration files under /etc/apt/apt.conf.d. We can create a configuration specifically for our proxy there, keeping it separate from all other configurations.

  1. Create a new configuration file named proxy.conf.

     

     

    # touch /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/proxy.conf
    
  2. Open the proxy.conf file in a text editor.

     

     

    # vi /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/proxy.conf
    
  3. Add the following line to set your HTTP proxy for apt.

     

     

    Acquire::http::Proxy "http://username:password@proxy.server:port/";
    
  4. Add the following line to set your HTTPS proxy.

     

     

    Acquire::https::Proxy "http://username:passw0rd@proxy.server:port/";
    
  5. Save your changes and exit the text editor.
     

Your proxy settings will be applied the next time you run Apt.

Simplifying the Configuration

As mentioned by a user in the comments below, there is an alternative way for defining the proxy settings. While similar, it removes some redundancy.

Just like in the first example, create a new file under the /etc/apt/apt.conf.d directory for example /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/proxies, and then add the lines as.

Acquire {
HTTP::proxy "http://127.0.0.1:8080";
HTTPS::proxy "http://127.0.0.1:8080";
}

 

Zabbix rkhunter monitoring check if rootkits trojans and viruses or suspicious OS activities are detected

Wednesday, December 8th, 2021

monitor-rkhunter-with-zabbix-zabbix-rkhunter-check-logo

If you're using rkhunter to monitor for malicious activities, a binary changes, rootkits, viruses, malware, suspicious stuff and other famous security breach possible or actual issues, perhaps you have configured your machines to report to some Email.
But what if you want to have a scheduled rkhunter running on the machine and you don't want to count too much on email alerting (especially because email alerting) makes possible for emails to be tracked by sysadmin pretty late?

We have been in those situation and in this case me and my dear colleague Georgi Stoyanov developed a small rkhunter Zabbix userparameter check to track and Alert if any traces of "Warning"''s are mateched in the traditional rkhunter log file /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log

To set it up and use it is pretty use you will need to have a recent version of zabbix-agent installed on the machine and connected to a Zabbix server, in my case this is:

[root@centos ~]# rpm -qa |grep -i zabbix-agent
zabbix-agent-4.0.7-1.el7.x86_64

 placed inside /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/userparameter_rkhunter_warning_check.conf

[root@centos /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d ]# cat userparameter_rkhunter_warning_check.conf
# userparameter script to check if any Warning is inside /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log and if found to trigger Zabbix alert
UserParameter=rkhunter.warning, (TODAY=$(date |awk '{ print $1" "$2" "$3 }'); if [ $(cat /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log | awk “/$TODAY/,EOF” | /bin/grep -i ‘\[ Warning \]’ | /usr/bin/wc -l) != ‘0’ ]; then echo 1; else echo 0; fi)
UserParameter=rkhunter.suspected,(/bin/grep -i 'Suspect files: ' /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log|tail -n 1| awk '{ print $4 }')
UserParameter=rkhunter.rootkits,(/bin/grep -i 'Possible rootkits: ' /var/log/rkhunter/rkhunter.log|tail -n 1| awk '{ print $4 }')


2. Prepare Rkhunter Template, Triggers and Items


In Zabbix Server that you access from web control interface, you will have to prepare a new template called lets say Rkhunter with the necessery Triggers and Items


2.1 Create Rkhunter Items
 

On Zabbix Server side, uou will have to configure 3 Items for the 3 configured userparameter above script keys, like so:

rkhunter-items-zabbix-screenshot.png

  • rkhunter.suspected Item configuration


rkhunter-suspected-files

  • rkhunter.warning Zabbix Item config

rkhunter-warning-found-check-zabbix

  • rkhunter.rootkits Zabbix Item config

     

     

    rkhunter-zabbix-possible-rootkits-item1

    2.2 Create Triggers
     

You need to have an overall of 3 triggers like in below shot:

zabbix-rkhunter-all-triggers-screenshot
 

  • rkhunter.rootkits Trigger config

rkhunter-rootkits-trigger-zabbix1

  • rkhunter.suspected Trigger cfg

rkhunter-suspected-trigger-zabbix1

  • rkhunter warning Trigger cfg

rkhunter-warning-trigger1

3. Reload zabbix-agent and test the keys


It is necessery to reload zabbix agent for the new userparameter to start to be sent to remote zabbix server (through a proxy if you have one configured).

[root@centos ~]# systemctl restart zabbix-agent


To make the zabbix-agent send the keys to the server you can use zabbix_sender to have the test tool you will have to have installed (zabbix-sender) on the server.

To trigger a manualTest if you happen to have some problems with the key which shouldn''t be the case you can sent a value to the respectve key with below command:

[root@centos ~ ]# zabbix_sender -vv -c "/etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf" -k "khunter.warning" -o "1"


Check on Zabbix Server the sent value is received, for any oddities as usual check what is inside  /var/log/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.log for any errors or warnings.

How to set up dsmc client Tivoli ( TSM ) release version and process check monitoring with Zabbix

Thursday, December 17th, 2020

zabbix-monitor-dsmc-client-monitor-ibm-tsm-with-zabbix-howto

As a part of Monitoring IBM Spectrum (the new name of IBM TSM) if you don't have the money to buy something like HP Open View monitoring or other kind of paid monitoring system but you use Zabbix open source solution to monitor your Linux server infrastructure and you use Zabbix as a main Services and Servers monitoring platform you will want to monitor at least whether the running Tivoli dsmc backup clients run fine on each of the server (e.g. the dsmc client) runs normally as a backup solution with its common /usr/bin/dsmc process service that connects towards remote IBM TSM server where the actual Data storage is kept.

It might be a kind of weird monitoring to setup to have the tsm version frequently reported to a Zabbix server on a first glimpse, but in reality this is quite useful especially if you want to have a better overview of your multiple servers environment IBM (Spectrum Protect) Storage manager backup solution actual release.
 
So the goal is to have reported dsmc interactive storage manager version as reported from
 

[root@server ~]# dsmc

IBM Spectrum Protect
Command Line Backup-Archive Client Interface
  Client Version 8, Release 1, Level 11.0
  Client date/time: 12/17/2020 15:59:32
(c) Copyright by IBM Corporation and other(s) 1990, 2020. All Rights Reserved.

Node Name: Sub-Hostname.FQDN.COM
Session established with server TSM_SERVER: AIX
  Server Version 8, Release 1, Level 10.000
  Server date/time: 12/17/2020 15:59:34  Last access: 12/17/2020 13:28:01

 

into zabbix and set reports in case if your sysadmins have changed version of a IBM TSM to a newer version. Thus for non sysadmins and less technical persons as Service Delivery Managers (SDMs) it is much easier to track changes of multiple servers Tivoli version to a newer one.

Enough talk let me next show you how to setup the required with a small UserParameter one liner bash shell script.
 

1. Create TSM Userparameter script


With Userparameter key and content as below:

[root@server ~]# vim /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.d/userparameter_TSM.conf

 

UserParameter=dsmc.version,cat /var/tsm/sched.log | grep Clie | tail -n 1 | awk '{print $7 " " $8 " " $9 " " $10 " " $11 " " $12 " " $13}'


The script output of TivSM version will be reported as so:

[root@server ~]# cat /var/tsm/sched.log | grep Clie | tail -n 1 | awk '{print $7 " " $8 " " $9 " " $10 " " $11 " " $12 " " $13}'
Client Version 8, Release 1, Level 11.0


 

If you want to get only a major version report from dsmc:

UserParameter=dsmc.version,cat /var/tsm/sched.log | grep Clie | tail -n 1 | awk '{print $7 " " $8 " " $9}'


The output as a major version you will get is

[root@server ~]# cat /var/tsm/sched.log | grep Clie | tail -n 1 | awk '{print $7 " " $8 " " $9}'
Client Version 8,

 

2. Restart the zabbix agent to load userparam script

To load above configured Userparameter script we need to restart zabbix-agent client

[root@server ~]# systemctl restart zabbix-agent

[root@server ~]#  systemctl status zabbix-agent
● zabbix-agent.service – Zabbix Agent
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/zabbix-agent.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Wed 2020-07-22 16:17:17 CEST; 4 months 26 days ago
 Main PID: 7817 (zabbix_agentd)
   CGroup: /system.slice/zabbix-agent.service
           ├─7817 /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd -c /etc/zabbix/zabbix_agentd.conf
           ├─7818 /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd: collector [idle 1 sec]
           ├─7819 /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd: listener #1 [waiting for connection]
           ├─7820 /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd: listener #2 [waiting for connection]
           ├─7821 /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd: listener #3 [waiting for connection]
           └─7822 /usr/sbin/zabbix_agentd: active checks #1 [idle 1 sec]

 

3. Create template for TSM Service check and TSM Version


You will need to create 1 Trigger and 2 Items for the Service check and for TSM version reporting

tsm-service-version-screenshot-zabbix
As you see necessery names / keys to create are:

Name / Key: TSM – Service State proc.num{dsmcad}

Name / key: TSM version dmsc.version

 

3.1 Create the trigger


Now lets create the trigger that will report the Service State

tsm-service-state-zabbix-screenshot

 

Linux TSM:proc.num[dsmcad].last()}=0

 

3.2 Create the Items


zabbix-dsmc-proc-num-item-setting-screenshot-linux

 

Name: dsmcad
Key: proc.num{dsmcad}

 

tsm-version-item-zabbix-screenshot
 

Update interval: 1d
History Storage period: 90d
Applications: TSM


3.3 Create Zabbix Action

As usual if you want to receive some Email Alerting or lets say send SMS in case of Trigger is matched create the necessery Action with
instructions on how to solve the problem if there is a Standard Operation Procedure ( SOP ) as often called in the corporate world for that.

That's all folks ! 🙂

 

KVM Virtual Machine RHEL 8.3 Linux install on Redhat 8.3 Linux Hypervisor with custom tailored kickstart.cfg

Friday, January 22nd, 2021

kvm_virtualization-logo-redhat-8.3-install-howto-with-kickstart

If you don't have tried it yet Redhat and CentOS and other RPM based Linux operationg systems that use anaconda installer is generating a kickstart file after being installed under /root/{anaconda-ks.cfg,initial-setup- ks.cfg,original-ks.cfg} immediately after the OS installation completes. Using this Kickstart file template you can automate installation of Redhat installation with exactly the same configuration as many times as you like by directly loading your /root/original-ks.cfg file in RHEL installer.

Here is the official description of Kickstart files from Redhat:

"The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that contains the settings for the installed system. This file is always saved as /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You may use this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify copies to specify settings for other systems."


Kickstart files contain answers to all questions normally asked by the text / graphical installation program, such as what time zone you want the system to use, how the drives should be partitioned, or which packages should be installed. Providing a prepared Kickstart file when the installation begins therefore allows you to perform the installation automatically, without need for any intervention from the user. This is especially useful when deploying Redhat based distro (RHEL / CentOS / Fedora …) on a large number of systems at once and in general pretty useful if you're into the field of so called "DevOps" system administration and you need to provision a certain set of OS to a multitude of physical servers or create or recreate easily virtual machines with a certain set of configuration.
 

1. Create /vmprivate storage directory where Virtual machines will reside

First step on the Hypervisor host which will hold the future created virtual machines is to create location where it will be created:

[root@redhat ~]#  lvcreate –size 140G –name vmprivate vg00
[root@redhat ~]#  mkfs.ext4 -j -b 4096 /dev/mapper/vg00-vmprivate
[root@redhat ~]# mount /dev/mapper/vg00-vmprivate /vmprivate

To view what is the situation with Logical Volumes and  VG group names:

[root@redhat ~]# vgdisplay -v|grep -i vmprivate -A7 -B7
  Segments               1
  Allocation             inherit
  Read ahead sectors     auto
  – currently set to     8192
  Block device           253:0

 

  — Logical volume —
  LV Path                /dev/vg00/vmprivate
  LV Name                vmprivate
  VG Name                vg00
  LV UUID                VVUgsf-FXq2-TsMJ-QPLw-7lGb-Dq5m-3J9XJJ
  LV Write Access        read/write
  LV Creation host, time main.hostname.com, 2021-01-20 17:26:11 +0100
  LV Status              available
  # open                 1
  LV Size                150.00 GiB


Note that you'll need to have the size physically available on a SAS / SSD Hard Drive physically connected to Hypervisor Host.

To make the changes Virtual Machines storage location directory permanently mounted add to /etc/fstab

/dev/mapper/vg00-vmprivate  /vmprivate              ext4    defaults,nodev,nosuid 1 2

[root@redhat ~]# echo '/dev/mapper/vg00-vmprivate  /vmprivate              ext4    defaults,nodev,nosuid 1 2' >> /etc/fstab

 

2. Second we need to install the following set of RPM packages on the Hypervisor Hardware host

[root@redhat ~]# yum install qemu-kvm qemu-img libvirt virt-install libvirt-client virt-manager libguestfs-tools virt-install virt-top -y

3. Enable libvirtd on the host

[root@redhat ~]#  lsmod | grep -i kvm
[root@redhat ~]#  systemctl enable libvirtd

4. Configure network bridging br0 interface on Hypervisor


In /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 you need to include:

NM_CONTROLED=NO

Next use nmcli redhat configurator to create the bridge (you can use ip command instead) but since the tool is the redhat way to do it lets do it their way ..

[root@redhat ~]# nmcli connection delete eno3
[root@redhat ~]# nmcli connection add type bridge autoconnect yes con-name br0 ifname br0
[root@redhat ~]# nmcli connection modify br0 ipv4.addresses 10.80.51.16/26 ipv4.method manual
[root@redhat ~]# nmcli connection modify br0 ipv4.gateway 10.80.51.1
[root@redhat ~]# nmcli connection modify br0 ipv4.dns 172.20.88.2
[root@redhat ~]# nmcli connection add type bridge-slave autoconnect yes con-name eno3 ifname eno3 master br0
[root@redhat ~]# nmcli connection up br0

5. Prepare a working kickstart.cfg file for VM


Below is a sample kickstart file I've used to build a working fully functional Virtual Machine with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.3 (Ootpa) .

#version=RHEL8
#install
# Run the Setup Agent on first boot
firstboot --enable
ignoredisk --only-use=vda
# Use network installation
#url --url=http://hostname.com/rhel/8/BaseOS
##url --url=http://171.23.8.65/rhel/8/os/BaseOS
# Use text mode install
text
#graphical
# System language
#lang en_US.UTF-8
keyboard --vckeymap=us --xlayouts='us'
# Keyboard layouts
##keyboard us
lang en_US.UTF-8
# Root password
rootpw $6$gTiUCif4$YdKxeewgwYCLS4uRc/XOeKSitvDJNHFycxWVHi.RYGkgKctTMCAiY2TErua5Yh7flw2lUijooOClQQhlbstZ81 --iscrypted
# network-stuff
# place ip=your_VM_IP, netmask, gateway, nameserver hostname 
network --bootproto=static --ip=10.80.21.19 --netmask=255.255.255.192 --gateway=10.80.21.1 --nameserver=172.30.85.2 --device=eth0 --noipv6 --hostname=FQDN.VMhost.com --onboot=yes
# if you need just localhost initially configured uncomment and comment above
##network В --device=lo --hostname=localhost.localdomain
# System authorization information
authconfig --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512 --enablefingerprint
# skipx
skipx
# Firewall configuration
firewall --disabled
# System timezone
timezone Europe/Berlin
# Clear the Master Boot Record
##zerombr
# Repositories
## Add RPM repositories from KS file if necessery
#repo --name=appstream --baseurl=http://hostname.com/rhel/8/AppStream
#repo --name=baseos --baseurl=http://hostname.com/rhel/8/BaseOS
#repo --name=inst.stage2 --baseurl=http://hostname.com ff=/dev/vg0/vmprivate
##repo --name=rhsm-baseos В  В --baseurl=http://172.54.8.65/rhel/8/rhsm/x86_64/BaseOS/
##repo --name=rhsm-appstream --baseurl=http://172.54.8.65/rhel/8/rhsm/x86_64/AppStream/
##repo --name=os-baseos В  В  В --baseurl=http://172.54.9.65/rhel/8/os/BaseOS/
##repo --name=os-appstream В  --baseurl=http://172.54.8.65/rhel/8/os/AppStream/
#repo --name=inst.stage2 --baseurl=http://172.54.8.65/rhel/8/BaseOS
# Disk partitioning information set proper disk sizing
##bootloader --location=mbr --boot-drive=vda
bootloader --append=" crashkernel=auto tsc=reliable divider=10 plymouth.enable=0 console=ttyS0 " --location=mbr --boot-drive=vda
# partition plan
zerombr
clearpart --all --drives=vda --initlabel
part /boot --size=1024 --fstype=ext4 --asprimary
part swap --size=1024
part pv.01 --size=30000 --grow --ondisk=vda
##part pv.0 --size=80000 --fstype=lvmpv
#part pv.0 --size=61440 --fstype=lvmpv
volgroup s pv.01
logvol / --vgname=s --size=15360 --name=root --fstype=ext4
logvol /var/cache/ --vgname=s --size=5120 --name=cache --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,nosuid"
logvol /var/log --vgname=s --size=7680 --name=log --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,noexec,nosuid"
logvol /tmp --vgname=s --size=5120 --name=tmp --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,nosuid"
logvol /home --vgname=s --size=5120 --name=home --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,nosuid"
logvol /opt --vgname=s --size=2048 --name=opt --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,nosuid"
logvol /var/log/audit --vgname=s --size=3072 --name=audit --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,nosuid"
logvol /var/spool --vgname=s --size=2048 --name=spool --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,nosuid"
logvol /var --vgname=s --size=7680 --name=var --fstype=ext4 --fsoptions="defaults,nodev,nosuid"
# SELinux configuration
selinux --disabled
# Installation logging level
logging --level=debug
# reboot automatically
reboot
###
%packages
@standard
python3
pam_ssh_agent_auth
-nmap-ncat
#-plymouth
#-bpftool
-cockpit
#-cryptsetup
-usbutils
#-kmod-kvdo
#-ledmon
#-libstoragemgmt
#-lvm2
#-mdadm
-rsync
#-smartmontools
-sos
-subscription-manager-cockpit
# Tune Linux vm.dirty_background_bytes (IMAGE-439)
# The following tuning causes dirty data to begin to be background flushed at
# 100 Mbytes, so that it writes earlier and more often to avoid a large build
# up and improving overall throughput.
echo "vm.dirty_background_bytes=100000000" >> /etc/sysctl.conf
# Disable kdump
systemctl disable kdump.service
%end

Important note to make here is the MD5 set root password string in (rootpw) line this string can be generated with openssl or mkpasswd commands :

Method 1: use openssl cmd to generate (md5, sha256, sha512) encrypted pass string

[root@redhat ~]# openssl passwd -6 -salt xyz test
$6$xyz$rjarwc/BNZWcH6B31aAXWo1942.i7rCX5AT/oxALL5gCznYVGKh6nycQVZiHDVbnbu0BsQyPfBgqYveKcCgOE0

Note: passing -1 will generate an MD5 password, -5 a SHA256 encryption and -6 SHA512 encrypted string (logically recommended for better security)

Method 2: (md5, sha256, sha512)

[root@redhat ~]# mkpasswd –method=SHA-512 –stdin

The option –method accepts md5, sha-256 and sha-512
Theoretically there is also a kickstart file generator web interface on Redhat's site here however I never used it myself but instead use above kickstart.cfg
 

6. Install the new VM with virt-install cmd


Roll the new preconfigured VM based on above ks template file use some kind of one liner command line  like below:
 

[root@redhat ~]# virt-install -n RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine –description "CentOS 8.3 Virtual Machine" –os-type=Linux –os-variant=rhel8.3 –ram=8192 –vcpus=8 –location=/vmprivate/rhel-server-8.3-x86_64-dvd.iso –disk path=/vmprivate/RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine.img,bus=virtio,size=70 –graphics none –initrd-inject=/root/kickstart.cfg –extra-args "console=ttyS0 ks=file:/kickstart.cfg"

7. Use a tiny shell script to automate VM creation


For some clarity and better automation in case you plan to repeat VM creation you can prepare a tiny bash shell script:
 

#!/bin/sh
KS_FILE='kickstart.cfg';
VM_NAME='RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine';
VM_DESCR='CentOS 8.3 Virtual Machine';
RAM='8192';
CPUS='8';
# size is in Gigabytes
VM_IMG_SIZE='140';
ISO_LOCATION='/vmprivate/rhel-server-8.3-x86_64-dvd.iso';
VM_IMG_FILE_LOC='/vmprivate/RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine.img';

virt-install -n "$VMNAME" –description "$VM_DESCR" –os-type=Linux –os-variant=rhel8.3 –ram=8192 –vcpus=8 –location="$ISO_LOCATION" –disk path=$VM_IMG_FILE,bus=virtio,size=$IMG_VM_SIZE –graphics none –initrd-inject=/root/$KS_FILE –extra-args "console=ttyS0 ks=file:/$KS_FILE"


A copy of virt-install.sh script can be downloaded here

Wait for the installation to finish it should be visualized and if all installation is smooth you should get a login prompt use the password generated with openssl tool and test to login, then disconnect from the machine by pressing CTRL + ] and try to login via TTY with

[root@redhat ~]# virst list –all
 Id   Name        State
—————————
 2    
RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine   running

[root@redhat ~]#  virsh console RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine


redhat8-login-prompt

One last thing I recommend you check the official documentation on Kickstart2 from CentOS official website

In case if you later need to destroy the VM and the respective created Image file you can do it with:
 

[root@redhat ~]#  virsh destroy RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine
[root@redhat ~]#  virsh undefine RHEL8_3-VirtualMachine

Don't forget to celebreate the success and give this nice article a credit by sharing this nice tutorial with a friend or by placing a link to it from your blog 🙂

 

 

Enjoy !